Dolly Ramos G
   In the 1950s, American linguist Robert Lado began to    study errors systematically and developed theories    about er...
   Productive errors are those              Receptive or interpretive errors    which occur in the language             ...
   Researcher and teachers begun to undesrtand that L2 learning    was:     • Creative / constructive process/ intelligen...
CA= compares languages to determine potential errors and    identify what needs to be learned and what does not.A priori o...
Errors are learners attempt to come closer to the                     target languageCorder= four (4) stages of error Ram...
 Certain forms which are acceptable in some situations are not acceptable in others.  • For example, young women in their...
A procedure for analysing second language data which begins with the errors that learners make and attempts to explain th...
Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic                 Put a  comparisons(early stages) Transfer                   atten...
An error can vary in magnitude     It can cover a phoneme, a morpheme, a word, a phrase, a sentence, or                   ...
I  like take taxi but my    Since  the harvest was  friend said so not that     good, was rain a lot  we should be late ...
Mistake: Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily self-corrected.Error: Systematic deviation by...
   omission of some required element   addition of some unnecessary or incorrect    element selectionof an incorrect el...
OMISSION                         ADDITION   pronunciation                   Elements   A part of speech                ...
Selection                    ordering   Pronunciation                               pronunciation   Morphology         ...
 Correcting mistakes the second the are made. Students often appreciate instant correction. Think about the activity fl...
 Missing  word Wrong word        WW Omit Grammar           gr Word order        WO Interference      I Spelling    ...
 Fossilization:The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person’s second language compe...
 How    is feedback provided      1. Orally      2. Written                 Types of feedback    Affective (kinesthetic) ...
A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomesA posterior or weak view: comparison b...
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Error analysis

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Error analysis

  1. 1. Dolly Ramos G
  2. 2.  In the 1950s, American linguist Robert Lado began to study errors systematically and developed theories about errors—contrastive analysis. The best way to investigating L2 is by collecting evidence of learners Lg. Why focus on what is wrong rather than what is right. Three reasons: (Corder 981) 1. More evident/ how much ss have learnt 2. Useful for teachers & researcher 3. Learners can learn/ discover from errors
  3. 3.  Productive errors are those  Receptive or interpretive errors which occur in the language are those which result in the learners utterances. listeners misunderstanding of the speakers intentions. Errors are made by: Children = transitional errors L2 learners= unwanted error Native Adults= Slips
  4. 4.  Researcher and teachers begun to undesrtand that L2 learning was: • Creative / constructive process/ intelligent • Constant hypothesis testing/ make senseThru sources of knowledge (to provide order to ss Lg system) Communicative Target Lg Native Lg Functions Lg in general Life universe
  5. 5. CA= compares languages to determine potential errors and identify what needs to be learned and what does not.A priori or strong view:A posterior or weak view: Sought to predict and sees error primarily as a result of L1interference EA Corder (1981) suggested to Error analysis collection identification description explanation evaluation
  6. 6. Errors are learners attempt to come closer to the target languageCorder= four (4) stages of error Ramdom = vaguely aware of the lg system Emergent = start recognizing (backsliding) Systematic = lg is approximate to Tlg(self correct) Stabilization = less erros. Mastered the Tlg
  7. 7.  Certain forms which are acceptable in some situations are not acceptable in others. • For example, young women in their late teens and beyond do not like to be referred to as girls , in English, preferring the term women instead. pragmatic errors.
  8. 8. A procedure for analysing second language data which begins with the errors that learners make and attempts to explain them. It uses the target language as the point of comparison.
  9. 9. Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic Put a comparisons(early stages) Transfer attention! !Intralingual – based on language being learned (more advance stages) overgeneralization I Buyed a good book yesterdayContext of Lerning: Teacher/classroom/ material (induced errors, false concepts, misleading explanation) Untutored (sociolinguistic)
  10. 10. An error can vary in magnitude It can cover a phoneme, a morpheme, a word, a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph LOCAL GLOBAL ERROR ERROR is one which involves "the  is one which affects "a overall structure of a particular element." sentence" Richards, et al. (1985:123)
  11. 11. I like take taxi but my  Since the harvest was friend said so not that good, was rain a lot we should be late for last year. school.  The harvest was good If I heard from him I last year, because will let you know. plenty of rain.
  12. 12. Mistake: Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily self-corrected.Error: Systematic deviation by learners who have not yet mastered the rules. More difficult to correct. Indication of learner’s attempt to figure out the L2 system Second Language Acquisition 12
  13. 13.  omission of some required element addition of some unnecessary or incorrect element selectionof an incorrect element misordering of elements.
  14. 14. OMISSION ADDITION pronunciation  Elements A part of speech  * I thinks and * The books is *A strange thing happen to here me yesterday  instead of I think and The book is here ,
  15. 15. Selection ordering Pronunciation  pronunciation Morphology • fignisicant instead of Syntax significant Vocabulary  (Morphological) • Hes get upping now She is oldest than me  word order • Hes a dear to me friend,
  16. 16.  Correcting mistakes the second the are made. Students often appreciate instant correction. Think about the activity fluency and accuracy Self-/ peer/ teachers correction You are the monitor, take a notes, use the board when, where and how
  17. 17.  Missing word Wrong word WW Omit Grammar gr Word order WO Interference I Spelling S Punctuation P Tense T
  18. 18.  Fossilization:The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person’s second language competence.Due to: + and – affective and cognitive feedback “cryogenation” and backslideInternal factorsExternal factors
  19. 19.  How is feedback provided 1. Orally 2. Written Types of feedback Affective (kinesthetic) and Cognitive (linguistic)1.Positive= I Like it /I understand2.Negative= I don’t like it / msn not clear (try again)3.Neutral= Waiting/ still processing (try again)
  20. 20. A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomesA posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors.
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