Error analysis
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  • 1. Dolly Ramos G
  • 2.  In the 1950s, American linguist Robert Lado began to study errors systematically and developed theories about errors—contrastive analysis. The best way to investigating L2 is by collecting evidence of learners Lg. Why focus on what is wrong rather than what is right. Three reasons: (Corder 981) 1. More evident/ how much ss have learnt 2. Useful for teachers & researcher 3. Learners can learn/ discover from errors
  • 3.  Productive errors are those  Receptive or interpretive errors which occur in the language are those which result in the learners utterances. listeners misunderstanding of the speakers intentions. Errors are made by: Children = transitional errors L2 learners= unwanted error Native Adults= Slips
  • 4.  Researcher and teachers begun to undesrtand that L2 learning was: • Creative / constructive process/ intelligent • Constant hypothesis testing/ make senseThru sources of knowledge (to provide order to ss Lg system) Communicative Target Lg Native Lg Functions Lg in general Life universe
  • 5. CA= compares languages to determine potential errors and identify what needs to be learned and what does not.A priori or strong view:A posterior or weak view: Sought to predict and sees error primarily as a result of L1interference EA Corder (1981) suggested to Error analysis collection identification description explanation evaluation
  • 6. Errors are learners attempt to come closer to the target languageCorder= four (4) stages of error Ramdom = vaguely aware of the lg system Emergent = start recognizing (backsliding) Systematic = lg is approximate to Tlg(self correct) Stabilization = less erros. Mastered the Tlg
  • 7.  Certain forms which are acceptable in some situations are not acceptable in others. • For example, young women in their late teens and beyond do not like to be referred to as girls , in English, preferring the term women instead. pragmatic errors.
  • 8. A procedure for analysing second language data which begins with the errors that learners make and attempts to explain them. It uses the target language as the point of comparison.
  • 9. Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic Put a comparisons(early stages) Transfer attention! !Intralingual – based on language being learned (more advance stages) overgeneralization I Buyed a good book yesterdayContext of Lerning: Teacher/classroom/ material (induced errors, false concepts, misleading explanation) Untutored (sociolinguistic)
  • 10. An error can vary in magnitude It can cover a phoneme, a morpheme, a word, a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph LOCAL GLOBAL ERROR ERROR is one which involves "the  is one which affects "a overall structure of a particular element." sentence" Richards, et al. (1985:123)
  • 11. I like take taxi but my  Since the harvest was friend said so not that good, was rain a lot we should be late for last year. school.  The harvest was good If I heard from him I last year, because will let you know. plenty of rain.
  • 12. Mistake: Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily self-corrected.Error: Systematic deviation by learners who have not yet mastered the rules. More difficult to correct. Indication of learner’s attempt to figure out the L2 system Second Language Acquisition 12
  • 13.  omission of some required element addition of some unnecessary or incorrect element selectionof an incorrect element misordering of elements.
  • 14. OMISSION ADDITION pronunciation  Elements A part of speech  * I thinks and * The books is *A strange thing happen to here me yesterday  instead of I think and The book is here ,
  • 15. Selection ordering Pronunciation  pronunciation Morphology • fignisicant instead of Syntax significant Vocabulary  (Morphological) • Hes get upping now She is oldest than me  word order • Hes a dear to me friend,
  • 16.  Correcting mistakes the second the are made. Students often appreciate instant correction. Think about the activity fluency and accuracy Self-/ peer/ teachers correction You are the monitor, take a notes, use the board when, where and how
  • 17.  Missing word Wrong word WW Omit Grammar gr Word order WO Interference I Spelling S Punctuation P Tense T
  • 18.  Fossilization:The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person’s second language competence.Due to: + and – affective and cognitive feedback “cryogenation” and backslideInternal factorsExternal factors
  • 19.  How is feedback provided 1. Orally 2. Written Types of feedback Affective (kinesthetic) and Cognitive (linguistic)1.Positive= I Like it /I understand2.Negative= I don’t like it / msn not clear (try again)3.Neutral= Waiting/ still processing (try again)
  • 20. A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomesA posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors.