In the 1950s, American linguist Robert Lado began to study errors systematically and developed theories about errors—contrastive analysis. The best way to investigating L2 is by collecting evidence of learners Lg. Why focus on what is wrong rather than what is right. Three reasons: (Corder 981) 1. More evident/ how much ss have learnt 2. Useful for teachers & researcher 3. Learners can learn/ discover from errors
Productive errors are those Receptive or interpretive errors which occur in the language are those which result in the learners utterances. listeners misunderstanding of the speakers intentions. Errors are made by: Children = transitional errors L2 learners= unwanted error Native Adults= Slips
Researcher and teachers begun to undesrtand that L2 learning was: • Creative / constructive process/ intelligent • Constant hypothesis testing/ make senseThru sources of knowledge (to provide order to ss Lg system) Communicative Target Lg Native Lg Functions Lg in general Life universe
CA= compares languages to determine potential errors and identify what needs to be learned and what does not.A priori or strong view:A posterior or weak view: Sought to predict and sees error primarily as a result of L1interference EA Corder (1981) suggested to Error analysis collection identification description explanation evaluation
Errors are learners attempt to come closer to the target languageCorder= four (4) stages of error Ramdom = vaguely aware of the lg system Emergent = start recognizing (backsliding) Systematic = lg is approximate to Tlg(self correct) Stabilization = less erros. Mastered the Tlg
Certain forms which are acceptable in some situations are not acceptable in others. • For example, young women in their late teens and beyond do not like to be referred to as girls , in English, preferring the term women instead. pragmatic errors.
A procedure for analysing second language data which begins with the errors that learners make and attempts to explain them. It uses the target language as the point of comparison.
Interlingual – based on cross-linguistic Put a comparisons(early stages) Transfer attention! !Intralingual – based on language being learned (more advance stages) overgeneralization I Buyed a good book yesterdayContext of Lerning: Teacher/classroom/ material (induced errors, false concepts, misleading explanation) Untutored (sociolinguistic)
An error can vary in magnitude It can cover a phoneme, a morpheme, a word, a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph LOCAL GLOBAL ERROR ERROR is one which involves "the is one which affects "a overall structure of a particular element." sentence" Richards, et al. (1985:123)
I like take taxi but my Since the harvest was friend said so not that good, was rain a lot we should be late for last year. school. The harvest was good If I heard from him I last year, because will let you know. plenty of rain.
Mistake: Random performance slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. Readily self-corrected.Error: Systematic deviation by learners who have not yet mastered the rules. More difficult to correct. Indication of learner’s attempt to figure out the L2 system Second Language Acquisition 12
omission of some required element addition of some unnecessary or incorrect element selectionof an incorrect element misordering of elements.
OMISSION ADDITION pronunciation Elements A part of speech * I thinks and * The books is *A strange thing happen to here me yesterday instead of I think and The book is here ,
Selection ordering Pronunciation pronunciation Morphology • fignisicant instead of Syntax significant Vocabulary (Morphological) • Hes get upping now She is oldest than me word order • Hes a dear to me friend,
Correcting mistakes the second the are made. Students often appreciate instant correction. Think about the activity fluency and accuracy Self-/ peer/ teachers correction You are the monitor, take a notes, use the board when, where and how
Missing word Wrong word WW Omit Grammar gr Word order WO Interference I Spelling S Punctuation P Tense T
Fossilization:The relatively permanent incorporation of incorrect linguistic forms into a person’s second language competence.Due to: + and – affective and cognitive feedback “cryogenation” and backslideInternal factorsExternal factors
How is feedback provided 1. Orally 2. Written Types of feedback Affective (kinesthetic) and Cognitive (linguistic)1.Positive= I Like it /I understand2.Negative= I don’t like it / msn not clear (try again)3.Neutral= Waiting/ still processing (try again)
A priori or strong view: comparison between languages will predict learning outcomesA posterior or weak view: comparison between languages will help explain learning outcomes, especially errors.