Data analysis Literature review Data gathered: Methods – instruments Interviews-Questionnaires-surveys Observations - Audio/video tapes Journals-diaries-logs Data Analysis - systematic and begins as soon as data is available.
Data Collection&Analysis It is the process of systematically arranging your methods to increase your understanding of them and allows you to present what you have learn or discovered. It involves organizing, breaking it down to manageable units Synthesizing , searching for patterns and deciding what you will tell
Suggestionsforongoing data analysis Forceyourselftomakedecisionsconcerningthetype of study Forceyourselftomakedecisionsthatnarrowyourstduydown CD widely narrow it based : feasible interesting The more data = easier to think deeply and = productive analysis Whattype of study
Developanaliticalquestions Plan Data analysis Qs give focus Assess Qs after the first session EX: What happens when media specialist attempted to get teachers to behave differently towards media What happens when outside specialist attempt to change teachers’ behavior Regularly check field notes Ask yourself What you know What you don’t know let
Writemanyobserver’scomments DC im light of whatyoufind in theprevioussession Fn contain OC that reflects researchers feelings and thoughts Novice do not speculate Because let descriptive details dominate Reoccurrence events, situations, incidents= speculate about meaning Critical thinking about what you see and hear What is it that I don’t know yet? Arrange what and who to observe
Beginexporingtheliterature Write memos toyourselfaboutwhatyou are learning If you have been in the field already FORCE yourself to read over the DC Write what emerges for it How the data relates to the theory It will help to enhance the analysis How does your perspective differ from others What has been put aside What agrees The DANGER (BYAS) the lit should stimulate rather than substituting your thinking
Itissynthesizinghundreds of pages of int, Fn, doctodevelopgroundedtheory. Groundedtheory Priori theory Glasser & Strauss: Identifying Naming categorizing describing Theory-based Guidedbytheory Guidedbyotheranalysis
What is Grounded Theory Method? A qualitative research method. Co-originators sociologists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss (1967). An inductive approach to generating substantive theory that is ‘grounded’ in the data.
Method The basic idea of the grounded theory approach is to read (and re-read) the data and "discover" or label codes and their interrelationships
CodingIt is breaking the data down to units Open coding Axial coding Selective coding
Open Coding identifying, naming, categorizing and describing phenomena found in the data Each line, sentence, or paragraph is read in search of the answer to the repeated question "what is this about? What is being referenced here?"
Academic/ familiarizing CLARIFICATION OF CONCEPTS AND FAMILIARIZATION WITH THE METALANGUAGE Enrike Q5=Did the sessions provide you with tools to solve challenges in the classroom? A=Uhm yes, I might say yes, because when I was in the calss I tried to apply some of that knowledge acquiered at the workshops and yeah I saw the changes in my teaching abilities. they are very much applicable to my practice and I think they are very rewarding for me as apersonal I have got a lot of knowledge in those workshops. Diego=The assessment and evaluation and according to the type of group, the group profile we can custimaze it , according to the type of students so you really made me like think about it and improve some little problems I had and know the difference between assessment and evaluation. Migule A= it offeres the possibility to learn about theory but also to exchange with other teacher experience and anectode and everything that help us about teaching butalso about have to a good professional in different ways. White= logsYellow = interviewsBlue = VideoTeachers’ Logs Applicability Awareness/ growth Collaborativelearning
Axial Coding Axial coding is the process of relating codes to each other, via a combination of inductive and deductive thinking (create categories)
Selective Coding Selective coding is the process of choosing one category to be the core category, and relating all other categories to that category The essential idea is to develop a single storyline around which all everything else is draped
Findings and discusion What is found – theories
INTERPRETATION GRAMMAR It refers to the order of the words within a sentence. Teachers mentioned that students needed to improve in accuracy
SAMPLE K EQ2 Students had some mistakes during the activities in written exercises C EQ3 Ss present problems when working with Passive/clauses/P. perfect C EQ2 They had terrible bases. No grammar, nothing
INTERTREPATION The data suggest that teachers are still focusing on grammar and the importance of accuracy when teaching or using a skill. Teachers never mentioned that due to the fact that learners showed problems with grammar that they were not able to convey feeling or thoughts. However, this comes to show us that teachers are still not aware that the Institution implements the communicative approach.
INTERPRETATION SKILL This term refers to the four element used in a language such as listening, speaking , Reading and writing. (Subcategory of competence).
SAMPLE J EQ2 The listening skill is difficult to obtain
M EQ2 We didn't have time to practice listening because it is time consuming and it demands a lot of effort for ss and teacher
INTERPRETATION These teachers mentioned that listening was one of the most difficult skills to help learners improve. Besides, teachers seem to find it challenging to integrate the skills. In this case we can detect that teachers have lack of creativity or do not know or have the appropriate tools to design these type of activities. On the other hand, teachers tend to separate the skills according to the aim of the class instead of designing an activity in which they can integrate the four language skills for one lesson.
Interpretation Attitude: Ss motivation to attend and participate in English class is very low SAMPLE J EQ2: Ss usually arrive late to class they really do not care about it CB IQ1: Sss have expressed that they are there because they need to graduate CO IQ1: Ss are only interested in the grade they don’t want to learn INTERPRETATION The sample above show the lac of interest and commitment from learners to talk part of the class, perhaps this can be due to teachers lack of control of the class or their lack of sufficient knowledge to develop class that activate or engage or foster learners interest
RESEARCHES IMPRESSIONS FROM THE EMPOWERMENT Incomplete format Some questions were not answered or too general The questions might be too broad completed Formats Go back and get more information Include some other questions in the empowerment What teachers do before they sit down to fill out the empowerment. Do they have notes? Do they use the syllabus? Do they go over the final grades? What is that they do? How teachers feel about completing the empowerment.
25 Some Internet References www.groundedtheory.com http://gtm.vlsm.org/