New eng assignment


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New eng assignment

  1. 2. Topic: Reading and Writing Skills Subject: English Submitted to: Miss Mudassar Jehan Submitted by: Safa Murtaza -074 Aiman Murtaza-039 Ayesha Liaqat-042 Date: 27-01-2011
  2. 4. Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.
  3. 5. reading Writing speaking listening
  4. 6. Reading is a process of retrieving the meaning of stored information or ideas.
  5. 7. <ul><li>To acquire knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Reading helps in mental development </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of conversational skills </li></ul><ul><li>Helps readers to decipher new words </li></ul><ul><li>Developing vocabulary, language skills </li></ul><ul><li>If the reader don't know anything about a subject, then it will be difficult for him to grab the information. </li></ul>
  6. 8. The way to understand reading: <ul><li>Two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>1. calling words – ability to recognize word structures </li></ul><ul><li>2. understand words – ability to understand the meaning within the context of the words </li></ul><ul><li>One does not exist without the </li></ul><ul><li>other. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>READING Types </li></ul><ul><li>Reading according to purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>According to reading performance. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Reading Instruction Program. </li></ul>
  8. 10. Skimming , Scanning, literature Reading Intensive Reading Reading for General Comprehension , Detailed Reading , <ul><li>Reading according to purpose . </li></ul>
  9. 11. 1. Skimming <ul><li>General understanding of the whole text. </li></ul><ul><li>Fastest type of reading based on purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called rapid-survey reading. </li></ul>
  10. 12. 2. Scanning <ul><li>Look for specific information in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>It makes you “skip more than you read”. </li></ul><ul><li>Also called search reading. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Comprehension Skills <ul><li>The ability to use context and prior knowledge to aid reading and to make sense of what one reads and hears . </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension is based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge that reading makes sense </li></ul><ul><li>Readers' prior knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Information presented in the text </li></ul><ul><li>The use of context to assist recognition of words and meaning. </li></ul>
  12. 14. 3-Five Basic Steps to Reading Comprehension <ul><li>1. Previewing </li></ul><ul><li>2. Reading and Comprehending </li></ul><ul><li>3. Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>4. Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>5. Following Up </li></ul>
  13. 15. 4. Intensive or functional reading <ul><li>Also called word for word type of reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires one to read materials related to his/her field of specialization. </li></ul><ul><li>The object of intensive reading demands a great deal of content-area reading. </li></ul>
  14. 16. 5. Extensive <ul><li>Also called light-type of reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Reading for leisure. </li></ul><ul><li>You love what you read. </li></ul>
  15. 17. 6. Literature reading <ul><li>Not mainly for pleasure. </li></ul><ul><li>Intends to familiarize readers with different genres of literature pieces: </li></ul><ul><li>Novels, short stories, biography, etc. </li></ul>
  17. 19. 1. Speed reading <ul><li>Information tends to stay superficially in one’s mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a good method if your objective is to gain a deeper understanding of the text. </li></ul>
  18. 20. 2. Sub-vocalized reading <ul><li>One recognizes the form of the word and internally sounds it in the mind the way one pronounced it as a spoke word. </li></ul><ul><li>Focuses primarily on the form, stress, intonation, phrasing of the language. </li></ul><ul><li>This prevents one from quick reading and comprehension of the text. </li></ul>
  19. 21. 3. Proofreading <ul><li>To see typographical errors </li></ul><ul><li>Proofreading vs. editing </li></ul>
  20. 22. 4. SPE (structure proposition evaluation) <ul><li>Three stages </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizing language structures </li></ul><ul><li>Making inferences </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation ideas, reasons, or conclusions </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment is withheld until the text is fully understood. </li></ul>
  22. 24. 1. Read aloud <ul><li>Mostly teachers use this in instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Students will learn good expressions, proper pacing, and correct pronunciation. </li></ul>
  23. 25. 2. Shared reading <ul><li>It is also called as group reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance IQ level. </li></ul><ul><li>It is necessary for students </li></ul>
  24. 26. 3. Guided reading <ul><li>Reader is left alone to do silent reading. </li></ul><ul><li>But the reader is motivated by the teacher by various strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader is not totally left alone. </li></ul>
  25. 27. 4. Fluency reading <ul><li>Main objective: </li></ul><ul><li>To gain mastery of the </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation, </li></ul><ul><li>Phrasing, </li></ul><ul><li>Pausing, </li></ul><ul><li>Intonation, </li></ul><ul><li>Stress of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress: measured by the number of words one can read aloud and comprehensions Qs answered correctly. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Fluency Reading <ul><li>Text is read several times </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. comprehension reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance: </li></ul><ul><li>Taped reading, </li></ul><ul><li>Timed reading. </li></ul>
  27. 29. 6. Developmental reading <ul><li>Aims to refine one’s reading: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading readiness in the nursery. </li></ul><ul><li>Beginning reading. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Refining and widening reading. </li></ul>
  28. 30. 7. Selective or key-word reading <ul><li>Characterized by skimming and scanning </li></ul>
  29. 31. 8. Remedial reading <ul><li>One submits himself/herself to a reading program that will give him/her special reading sessions under the guidance of a reading specialist. </li></ul><ul><li>This requires one to reflect on thoughts. </li></ul>
  30. 32. Memory and Concentration <ul><li>To really learn well, there are two things you need: </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to </li></ul><ul><li>and minimize distractions while you are studying. </li></ul><ul><li>techniques to help you remember what you have learned. </li></ul>concentrate Memory
  31. 33. Writing Skills
  32. 34. Definition <ul><li>Writing skills are specific abilities which help writers put their thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the message. </li></ul>
  33. 35. What is Writing? <ul><li>Writing may be: </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasive writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Author hopes to convince and </li></ul><ul><li>audience on his/her opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Presents facts and information </li></ul><ul><li>organized in an accessible way. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Objective of Writing <ul><li>To acquire generally useful techniques for effective writing. </li></ul><ul><li>To utilized easy exercise that can help to improve your reading. </li></ul><ul><li>To become familiar with common working mistakes. </li></ul>
  35. 37. Rules of Effective Writing <ul><li>Basic Rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Getting to the point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being Concise </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraphing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Framing Effective Questions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of Nondiscriminatory Language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Punctuation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spelling </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Types of Writing <ul><li>Formal writing </li></ul><ul><li>Informal writing </li></ul>
  37. 39. Formal Writing. <ul><li>It may be: </li></ul><ul><li>Letter writing </li></ul><ul><li>Paragraph writing </li></ul><ul><li>Essay writing </li></ul><ul><li>Story writing </li></ul><ul><li>Dialogue writing </li></ul><ul><li>… etc. </li></ul>
  38. 40. TYPES OF LETTER WRITING <ul><li>Formal Letters: Tone is formal such as Business Letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-Formal Letters: Tone and style is formal and meant for relatives. Invitation Letters. </li></ul><ul><li>Informal Letters: Tone and style is relaxed. It is written to relatives, friends, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Form Letters: Preprinted, Administration form, Application Form, etc. </li></ul>
  39. 41. What is Paragraph? A paragraph usually contains a general idea in one sentence, and 4 - 5 supporting sentences which expand this idea by giving explanation.
  40. 42. The Parts of a Paragraph <ul><li>Topic Sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce the main idea of the paragraph </li></ul><ul><li>2. Details: </li></ul><ul><li>Main body of the paragraph. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Concluding Sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>To wrap-up your ideas. </li></ul>
  41. 43. Types of Paragraphs <ul><li>For our purposes, here are the basic types of paragraphs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Persuasive </li></ul></ul>
  42. 44. Narrative <ul><li>Tells a story </li></ul><ul><li>Uses specific details </li></ul><ul><li>Is not a mere listing of events. It has characters, setting, conflict, and resolution. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time and place are usually established </li></ul></ul>
  43. 45. Exposition <ul><li>Informative/explanatory </li></ul><ul><li>Can be included incidentally with narrative or descriptive, but can also stand alone. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Description <ul><li>Series of detailed observations </li></ul><ul><li>Usually not used by itself, but rather as a part of a whole </li></ul><ul><li>The challenge is to make it interesting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory details; five senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similes, metaphors </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Persuasive <ul><li>Uses direct approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Believe me and do it!” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calls reader to action or to take a stand on an important issue </li></ul><ul><li>More than just opinion is needed; information, analysis, and context must be given to the reader to let him/her make a decision </li></ul>
  46. 48. Writing a Story <ul><li>Helpful hints for story writing. </li></ul>
  47. 49. Dilemma Opening Build-up Resolution Ending Story Mountain
  48. 50. Humour Making the audience laugh as part of telling a story
  49. 51. Crime Regular cop and robber story (often made into films)
  50. 52. Real-life fiction Stories in a present day reality
  51. 53. Historical fiction Ancient traditional stories, myths and legends Eg: Lord of the Rings
  52. 54. Mystery Thrilling tales of the unknown phenomenon Eg: Alien stories, X-Files
  53. 55. Science fiction Use a setting involving science and technology Eg: Star Wars, The Matrix
  54. 56. Adventure Action-packed stories with dangerous obstacles to overcome.
  55. 57. Fantasy Stories with magic and fairytale characters
  56. 58. What is Dialogue? <ul><li>When people speak in a piece of writing whether real or imaginary </li></ul><ul><li>The direct speech is set off by quotation marks </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “ Hi! ” </li></ul>
  57. 59. Why Use Dialogue? <ul><li>Makes writing more interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals more information about the characters and situation. </li></ul>
  58. 60. Some common problems while writing ... <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repeating words or ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vagueness and verbosity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>using over-long sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using imprecise terms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>too much description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no clear plan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumption of knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>Objective : evidence driven. </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate : style, referencing, data. </li></ul><ul><li>Concise: not wordy, balanced, within word limit. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear : point evident. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent: expression, spelling, grammar. </li></ul><ul><li>Convincing: argument and language. </li></ul><ul><li>Reader friendly. </li></ul>