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  • 1.  
  • 2. Topic: Reading and Writing Skills Subject: English Submitted to: Miss Mudassar Jehan Submitted by: Safa Murtaza -074 Aiman Murtaza-039 Ayesha Liaqat-042 Date: 27-01-2011
  • 3.  
  • 4. Communication is the art of transmitting information, ideas and attitudes from one person to another.
  • 5. reading Writing speaking listening
  • 6. Reading is a process of retrieving the meaning of stored information or ideas.
  • 7.
    • To acquire knowledge
    • Reading helps in mental development
    • Improvement of conversational skills
    • Helps readers to decipher new words
    • Developing vocabulary, language skills
    • If the reader don't know anything about a subject, then it will be difficult for him to grab the information.
  • 8. The way to understand reading:
    • Two ways:
    • 1. calling words – ability to recognize word structures
    • 2. understand words – ability to understand the meaning within the context of the words
    • One does not exist without the
    • other.
  • 9.
    • READING Types
    • Reading according to purpose.
    • According to reading performance.
    • According to Reading Instruction Program.
  • 10. Skimming , Scanning, literature Reading Intensive Reading Reading for General Comprehension , Detailed Reading ,
    • Reading according to purpose .
  • 11. 1. Skimming
    • General understanding of the whole text.
    • Fastest type of reading based on purpose.
    • Also called rapid-survey reading.
  • 12. 2. Scanning
    • Look for specific information in the text.
    • It makes you “skip more than you read”.
    • Also called search reading.
  • 13. Comprehension Skills
    • The ability to use context and prior knowledge to aid reading and to make sense of what one reads and hears .
    • Comprehension is based on:
    • Knowledge that reading makes sense
    • Readers' prior knowledge
    • Information presented in the text
    • The use of context to assist recognition of words and meaning.
  • 14. 3-Five Basic Steps to Reading Comprehension
    • 1. Previewing
    • 2. Reading and Comprehending
    • 3. Skimming
    • 4. Scanning
    • 5. Following Up
  • 15. 4. Intensive or functional reading
    • Also called word for word type of reading.
    • Requires one to read materials related to his/her field of specialization.
    • The object of intensive reading demands a great deal of content-area reading.
  • 16. 5. Extensive
    • Also called light-type of reading.
    • Reading for leisure.
    • You love what you read.
  • 17. 6. Literature reading
    • Not mainly for pleasure.
    • Intends to familiarize readers with different genres of literature pieces:
    • Novels, short stories, biography, etc.
  • 18. B. ACCORDING TO READING PERFORMANCE / RATE OF UNDERSTANDING
  • 19. 1. Speed reading
    • Information tends to stay superficially in one’s mind.
    • Not a good method if your objective is to gain a deeper understanding of the text.
  • 20. 2. Sub-vocalized reading
    • One recognizes the form of the word and internally sounds it in the mind the way one pronounced it as a spoke word.
    • Focuses primarily on the form, stress, intonation, phrasing of the language.
    • This prevents one from quick reading and comprehension of the text.
  • 21. 3. Proofreading
    • To see typographical errors
    • Proofreading vs. editing
  • 22. 4. SPE (structure proposition evaluation)
    • Three stages
    • Recognizing language structures
    • Making inferences
    • Evaluation ideas, reasons, or conclusions
    • Judgment is withheld until the text is fully understood.
  • 23. C. ACCORDING TO READING-INSTRUCTION PROGRAM
  • 24. 1. Read aloud
    • Mostly teachers use this in instruction.
    • Students will learn good expressions, proper pacing, and correct pronunciation.
  • 25. 2. Shared reading
    • It is also called as group reading.
    • Enhance IQ level.
    • It is necessary for students
  • 26. 3. Guided reading
    • Reader is left alone to do silent reading.
    • But the reader is motivated by the teacher by various strategies.
    • Reader is not totally left alone.
  • 27. 4. Fluency reading
    • Main objective:
    • To gain mastery of the
    • Pronunciation,
    • Phrasing,
    • Pausing,
    • Intonation,
    • Stress of the text.
    • Progress: measured by the number of words one can read aloud and comprehensions Qs answered correctly.
  • 28. Fluency Reading
    • Text is read several times
    • e.g. comprehension reading.
    • Importance:
    • Taped reading,
    • Timed reading.
  • 29. 6. Developmental reading
    • Aims to refine one’s reading:
    • Reading readiness in the nursery.
    • Beginning reading.
    • Rapid growth.
    • Refining and widening reading.
  • 30. 7. Selective or key-word reading
    • Characterized by skimming and scanning
  • 31. 8. Remedial reading
    • One submits himself/herself to a reading program that will give him/her special reading sessions under the guidance of a reading specialist.
    • This requires one to reflect on thoughts.
  • 32. Memory and Concentration
    • To really learn well, there are two things you need:
    • The ability to
    • and minimize distractions while you are studying.
    • techniques to help you remember what you have learned.
    concentrate Memory
  • 33. Writing Skills
  • 34. Definition
    • Writing skills are specific abilities which help writers put their thoughts into words in a meaningful form and to mentally interact with the message.
  • 35. What is Writing?
    • Writing may be:
    • Persuasive writing.
    • Author hopes to convince and
    • audience on his/her opinion.
    • Objective writing.
    • Presents facts and information
    • organized in an accessible way.
  • 36. Objective of Writing
    • To acquire generally useful techniques for effective writing.
    • To utilized easy exercise that can help to improve your reading.
    • To become familiar with common working mistakes.
  • 37. Rules of Effective Writing
    • Basic Rules
      • Getting to the point
        • Being Concise
        • Paragraphing
        • Framing Effective Questions
      • Use of Nondiscriminatory Language
      • Punctuation.
      • Grammar
      • Spelling
  • 38. Types of Writing
    • Formal writing
    • Informal writing
  • 39. Formal Writing.
    • It may be:
    • Letter writing
    • Paragraph writing
    • Essay writing
    • Story writing
    • Dialogue writing
    • … etc.
  • 40. TYPES OF LETTER WRITING
    • Formal Letters: Tone is formal such as Business Letters.
    • Semi-Formal Letters: Tone and style is formal and meant for relatives. Invitation Letters.
    • Informal Letters: Tone and style is relaxed. It is written to relatives, friends, etc.
    • Form Letters: Preprinted, Administration form, Application Form, etc.
  • 41. What is Paragraph? A paragraph usually contains a general idea in one sentence, and 4 - 5 supporting sentences which expand this idea by giving explanation.
  • 42. The Parts of a Paragraph
    • Topic Sentence:
    • To introduce the main idea of the paragraph
    • 2. Details:
    • Main body of the paragraph.
    • 3. Concluding Sentence:
    • To wrap-up your ideas.
  • 43. Types of Paragraphs
    • For our purposes, here are the basic types of paragraphs:
      • Narrative
      • Exposition
      • Descriptive
      • Persuasive
  • 44. Narrative
    • Tells a story
    • Uses specific details
    • Is not a mere listing of events. It has characters, setting, conflict, and resolution.
      • Time and place are usually established
  • 45. Exposition
    • Informative/explanatory
    • Can be included incidentally with narrative or descriptive, but can also stand alone.
  • 46. Description
    • Series of detailed observations
    • Usually not used by itself, but rather as a part of a whole
    • The challenge is to make it interesting
      • Imagery
      • Sensory details; five senses
      • Similes, metaphors
  • 47. Persuasive
    • Uses direct approach
      • “ Believe me and do it!”
    • Calls reader to action or to take a stand on an important issue
    • More than just opinion is needed; information, analysis, and context must be given to the reader to let him/her make a decision
  • 48. Writing a Story
    • Helpful hints for story writing.
  • 49. Dilemma Opening Build-up Resolution Ending Story Mountain
  • 50. Humour Making the audience laugh as part of telling a story
  • 51. Crime Regular cop and robber story (often made into films)
  • 52. Real-life fiction Stories in a present day reality
  • 53. Historical fiction Ancient traditional stories, myths and legends Eg: Lord of the Rings
  • 54. Mystery Thrilling tales of the unknown phenomenon Eg: Alien stories, X-Files
  • 55. Science fiction Use a setting involving science and technology Eg: Star Wars, The Matrix
  • 56. Adventure Action-packed stories with dangerous obstacles to overcome.
  • 57. Fantasy Stories with magic and fairytale characters
  • 58. What is Dialogue?
    • When people speak in a piece of writing whether real or imaginary
    • The direct speech is set off by quotation marks
    • Example: “ Hi! ”
  • 59. Why Use Dialogue?
    • Makes writing more interesting.
    • Reveals more information about the characters and situation.
  • 60. Some common problems while writing ...
    • Repetition
      • repeating words or ideas
    • Vagueness and verbosity
      • using over-long sentences
      • using imprecise terms
    • Lack of analysis
      • too much description
      • no clear plan
    • Lack of clarity
      • assumption of knowledge
  • 61.
    • Objective : evidence driven.
    • Accurate : style, referencing, data.
    • Concise: not wordy, balanced, within word limit.
    • Clear : point evident.
    • Consistent: expression, spelling, grammar.
    • Convincing: argument and language.
    • Reader friendly.
  • 62.  
  • 63.