What is an attitude?A learned predisposition to respond to anobject or a class of objects in a consistentlyfavorable or unfavorable way.Attitudes are relatively enduring.Attitudes are situation-related.
Functions of AttitudesUtilitarian functionEgo-defensive functionKnowledge functionValue-expressive function
How do we form attitudes?Three different paths to attitude formation: Attitudes are created by first creating beliefs. Consumer beliefs are the knowledge that a consumer has about objects, their attributes, and the benefits provided by the objects. Consumer beliefs are created by processing information--cognitive learning.
Forming Attitudes, continuedAttitudes are created directly. Behavioral learning Mere exposureAttitudes are created by first creating behaviors. Consumers respond to strong situational or environmental forces, and after engaging in the behavior, form attitudes about the experience.
Structural Model of AttitudeTricomponent Attitude Model
Tricomponent ModelCognitive component The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.Affective component The emotions or feelings associate with a particular product or brand.Conative component The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.
Measurement Models of AttitudeMultiattribute model Fishbein and Azjen Measures attitude score using consumers’ beliefs and evaluations about attributes of the attitude object. Several different contexts in which attitude scores are measured. Attitude-toward-the-object model Attitude-toward-the-behavior model
Multiattribute Model Aj = ∑BijIiWhere: i = attribute or product characteristic j= brandSuch that: A = the consumer’s attitude score for brand j I = the importance weight given to attribute i by the consumer B = the consumer’s belief as to the extent to which a
Understanding the Multiattribute ModelAll relevant product attributes, based onconsumers’ perceptions, need to be includedin the model to provide dimensionality.Even though there may be several relevantattributes, they are not generally equallyimportant. The importance weight of theformula allows adjustment of the importanceof each attribute individually.
Understanding the Multiattribute Model...Beliefs represent the extent to which eachproduct offers satisfaction for the attribute inquestion.Compensatory model.
Advantages of Multiattribute ModelClearly shows what is important to consumersabout a given product.Shows how well brands do relative to eachother.Shows how well a specific brand does withrespect to attributes perceived as important toconsumers.
Weakness of Multiattribute ModelNot a perfect predictor of consumer behaviorLots of variables determine behavior inaddition to attitude: Involvement Friends Family Financial resources Availability of product
Theory of Reasoned Action Extends multiattribute model; tries tocompensate for the inability of themultiattribute model to predict behavior.Assumes that consumers consciously considerthe consequences of alternative behaviorsunder consideration and choose the one thatleads to the most desirable consequences.The outcomes of this reasoned choice processis an intention to engage in a selectedbehavior--behavioral intention.
Theory of Reasoned Action B~BI = Aact(w1) + SN(w2)Where:B = a specific behaviorBI = consumer’s intention to engage in that behavior Aact = consumer’s attitude toward engaging in that behaviorSN = subjective norm regarding whether other people want the consumer to engage in that behaviorw1 & w2 = weights that reflect the relative influence of
Simplified Version Beliefs that Beliefs that specific Motivationthe behavior Evaluation referents think to comply leads to of the I should or with the certain outcomes should not specific outcomes perform the referents behavior Attitude toward Subjective Norm the behavior Intention Behavior
Comparing A vs. AactCar (A) Buying a New Car this Year (Aact)Moderately priced (+) Gives me a mode of transportation (+)Ordinary (-) Will put me in financial difficulty (-)Well-built (+) Will lead to high upkeep costs (-)Dependable (+) Will cost more now than later (-)Easily serviced (+) Will lead to high insurance rates (-)
Attitude-toward-the-Ad ModelVery specific to understanding the impact ofadvertising on consumer attitudes about aparticular product or brand.Exposure to advertising affects attitude-toward-the ad and attitude-toward-the brand.
Attitude-toward-the-Ad ModelVery specific to understanding the impact ofadvertising on consumer attitudes about aparticular product or brand.Exposure to advertising directly affectsbeliefs about the ad and brand, and feelingsabout the ad.Exposure to advertising indirectly affectsattitude toward the brand and attitude towardthe ad.
Exposure to ad Judgments about Feelings fromthe ad (cognition) the ad (affect) Beliefs about Attitude toward the brand the ad Attitude toward the brand
How Can Marketers Change Attitudes?Alter components of multiattribute model Increase belief ratings for the brand Increase the importance of a key attribute Decrease the importance of a weak attribute Add an entirely new attribute Decrease belief ratings for competitive brands
Changing attitudes….Change beliefs and attitudes throughpersuasionElaboration likelihood model of persuasion(ELM)
Motivation Ability to toElaborate Elaborate Amount of High Elaboration Low Central Peripheral Route to Route toPersuasion Persuasion Message PeripheralArguments CuesDetermine Determinepersuasion persuasion
Belief and High-involvement Cognitive Behavior attitude processing responses change Central change route Communication Attention and(source,message, comprehension channel) Peripheral route Low-involvement Belief Behavior Attitude processing change change change
Changing attitudes...Changing attitudes directly though behaviorCognitive Dissonance Theories Balance Theory Social Judgment TheoryAttribution Theory
Balance TheoryConsumers strive for consistency betweeninterconnected attitudes.Marketers can influence attitudes by creatingimbalance within the target of persuasion--motivates consumer to change one or more ofthe interconnected attitudes to restore balance.
Social Judgment TheoryConsumers use attitudes as a frame ofreference to judge new information.If high involvement: Narrow latitude of acceptance Wide latitude of rejection Assimilation effect Contrast effectIf low involvement: Wide latitude of acceptance Wide latitude of noncommitment
Attribution TheoryConsumers make inferences about behaviors,assign causality--blame or credit--to events onthe basis of their or others’ behaviors.In the process of assigning causality, formattitudes.Marketing implications: Offer high quality products Advertising should emphasize quality. Moderate-sized incentives.