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repetitio est mater studiorum – repetition is the mother of learningSuperficial, big, important
Chapter 7, Bones, Part 1:The Axial SkeletonSkullSpineSternum      thoraxRibsAuditory ossiclesHyoid BoneGoal: Learn and loc...
Bones of the Skull
Bones of the Skull, cont’d
Bones of the Skull, cont’d                        Cranial Bones, AKA                        calvarium                     ...
Bones of the Calvarium Frontal (forehead)  – Anterior fossa of base of skull  – Frontal Crests        More prominent in ma...
Bones of the Calvarium, cont’dTemporal (4 parts):– Squamous (very thin),– Mastoid (means breast-like) process      Small s...
Bones of the Calvarium floor Sphenoid – Sella turcica houses pituitary   gland Ethmoid (sieve) – Cribriform plate for olfa...
Facial bonesMaxilla (2) – Alveolar margin for teeth – Maxillary sinus – Anterior portion of hard palatePalatine (2) – Post...
Facial bones, cont’d Zygomatic (2) AKA cheek bones  – Zygomatic process of temporal bone Lacrimal (2)  – Lacrimal sac Vome...
Facial bones, cont’d Mandible  – Mandibular condyles    (TMJ)  – Mandibular notch  – Coronoid process  – Ramus  – Angle  –...
Sutures and Fontanels Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood  – Lambdoidal—betw occipital    and parietal  ...
Paranasal SinusesFrontalEthmoidSphenoidMaxillary   Narrow passageways from each   sinus provide communication with   nasal...
Sinusitis -itis = inflammation Bacterial, viral, fungal, allergic Swelling causes poor drainage and pressure differentials...
Hyoid Bone Inferior to the mandible Superior to the larynx Supports many cervical muscles Supports the larynx
The Vertebral Column 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral (fused) 4 Coccygeal (usually) Curvatures: Cervical, Thoracic...
A ―Typical‖ VertebraBody and intervertebral disksSpinous ProcessIntervertebral ForaminaArticular processes/facets         ...
Cervical Vertebrae (C1 – C 7) C1 = Atlas (no body) C1-C2 – site of rotation C2 = Axis (dens) C3 - C6 are similar Note the ...
Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 - T12)Large Spinous ProcessesArticulations for ribs, both superior and inferior
Lumbar Vertebrae (L1 - L5) Body Spinous Process Lamina Articular Facets Transverse Process Pedicle
Intervertebral Articulation
Intervertebral Disk Nucleus Pulposus Annulus Fibrosus     See Fig. 8-9  – Fibrocartilage
Disc Problems                                        Fig 7.14 Most common sites for disc problems:  – C5 - C6  – L4 - L5  ...
Damage to the Intervertebral Discs
Sacrum (5 fused)Coccyx (3-5 fused) Sacroiliac joint Sacral Foramina
Thoracic (Rib) Cage Protection and muscle attachments Ribs – 12 pairs  – 1 - 7 are ―true‖ ribs, with attachment to the ste...
Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d Sternum  – Manubrium       Clavicular Notch  – Body  – Xiphoid
Cliffs of Moher, Co Clare, Ireland
Chapter7 axialskeletonmarieb
Chapter7 axialskeletonmarieb
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Chapter7 axialskeletonmarieb

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Transcript of "Chapter7 axialskeletonmarieb"

  1. 1. repetitio est mater studiorum – repetition is the mother of learningSuperficial, big, important
  2. 2. Chapter 7, Bones, Part 1:The Axial SkeletonSkullSpineSternum thoraxRibsAuditory ossiclesHyoid BoneGoal: Learn and locate the bones and Developed bymarkings of the axial skeleton John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  3. 3. Bones of the Skull
  4. 4. Bones of the Skull, cont’d
  5. 5. Bones of the Skull, cont’d Cranial Bones, AKA calvarium vs. Facial Bones
  6. 6. Bones of the Calvarium Frontal (forehead) – Anterior fossa of base of skull – Frontal Crests More prominent in male – Frontal sinuses Parietal (2) – Sutures Occipital – Foramen Magnum – Occipital Condyles articulate with C1 – Occipital Crest
  7. 7. Bones of the Calvarium, cont’dTemporal (4 parts):– Squamous (very thin),– Mastoid (means breast-like) process Small sinus– Petrous Houses inner ear Acoustic meatus Jugular foramen– Zygomatic process– Styloid Process ―In one of these, the squamosal section of the temporal bone had been crushed, and another showed a jagged hole through the parietal bone.‖ The Bounty Trilogy, 1788
  8. 8. Bones of the Calvarium floor Sphenoid – Sella turcica houses pituitary gland Ethmoid (sieve) – Cribriform plate for olfactory nerve – Crista galli – Part of nasal septum Frontal Temporal – Petrous part Occipital – Foramen magnum
  9. 9. Facial bonesMaxilla (2) – Alveolar margin for teeth – Maxillary sinus – Anterior portion of hard palatePalatine (2) – Posterior aspect of hard palateNasal (2)Inferior Nasal conchae (2) – Will be covered in Respiratory System
  10. 10. Facial bones, cont’d Zygomatic (2) AKA cheek bones – Zygomatic process of temporal bone Lacrimal (2) – Lacrimal sac Vomer – Part of nasal septum
  11. 11. Facial bones, cont’d Mandible – Mandibular condyles (TMJ) – Mandibular notch – Coronoid process – Ramus – Angle – Mental foramen
  12. 12. Sutures and Fontanels Fibrous Articulation, no movement, fused in adulthood – Lambdoidal—betw occipital and parietal – (mid) Saggital --- betw parietals – Coronal– betw frontal and parietals – Squamous – betw parietals and temporals Anterior and Posterior Fontanels – ―Soft spot‖ of Newborn
  13. 13. Paranasal SinusesFrontalEthmoidSphenoidMaxillary Narrow passageways from each sinus provide communication with nasal cavity
  14. 14. Sinusitis -itis = inflammation Bacterial, viral, fungal, allergic Swelling causes poor drainage and pressure differentials – Sinus headache Treatment might include decongestants, e.g., pseudephedrine
  15. 15. Hyoid Bone Inferior to the mandible Superior to the larynx Supports many cervical muscles Supports the larynx
  16. 16. The Vertebral Column 7 Cervical 12 Thoracic 5 Lumbar 5 Sacral (fused) 4 Coccygeal (usually) Curvatures: Cervical, Thoracic, Lumbar, Sacral
  17. 17. A ―Typical‖ VertebraBody and intervertebral disksSpinous ProcessIntervertebral ForaminaArticular processes/facets Superior InferiorVertebral (neural) Arch Pedicles and LaminaeVertebral Canal/foramen
  18. 18. Cervical Vertebrae (C1 – C 7) C1 = Atlas (no body) C1-C2 – site of rotation C2 = Axis (dens) C3 - C6 are similar Note the transverse foramina in each cervical vertebra – Vertebral Artery/Vein C7 has the vertebra prominens C1
  19. 19. Thoracic Vertebrae (T1 - T12)Large Spinous ProcessesArticulations for ribs, both superior and inferior
  20. 20. Lumbar Vertebrae (L1 - L5) Body Spinous Process Lamina Articular Facets Transverse Process Pedicle
  21. 21. Intervertebral Articulation
  22. 22. Intervertebral Disk Nucleus Pulposus Annulus Fibrosus See Fig. 8-9 – Fibrocartilage
  23. 23. Disc Problems Fig 7.14 Most common sites for disc problems: – C5 - C6 – L4 - L5 – L5 - S1 Laminectomy ( surgical removal vertebral arch by shaving laminae to access disc)
  24. 24. Damage to the Intervertebral Discs
  25. 25. Sacrum (5 fused)Coccyx (3-5 fused) Sacroiliac joint Sacral Foramina
  26. 26. Thoracic (Rib) Cage Protection and muscle attachments Ribs – 12 pairs – 1 - 7 are ―true‖ ribs, with attachment to the sternum – 8 - 12 attach indirectly to the sternum, or not at all Costal Cartilages
  27. 27. Thoracic (Rib) Cage, cont’d Sternum – Manubrium Clavicular Notch – Body – Xiphoid
  28. 28. Cliffs of Moher, Co Clare, Ireland
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