Chapter4 tissuesmariebpart2

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Chapter4 tissuesmariebpart2

  1. 1. Chapter 4, Tissues, Part 2•Histology = The study of tissues•Tissue = A collection of cells that perform relatedfunctions, and are similar in structure•The Four Primary Tissue Types: •Epithelial •Connective •Muscular •Nervous Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  2. 2. Connective Tissue: Supports, protects, binds tissues Structural characteristics:  Specialized cells, few in number  Extracellular matrix  fibers (collagen)  Ground substance (fluid- like) •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  3. 3. Functions of C.T. Structural framework for body Transport of fluids and dissolved materials Support and protection for organs Energy storage (fat) Defense •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  4. 4. Classification of Connective Tissue•Loose (areolar) •Irregular •Hyaline •Compact •Adipose •Regular •Elastic •Spongy •Reticular •Elastic •Fibrocartilage This is similar to Table 4.2
  5. 5. Connective Tissue Proper
  6. 6. Loose Connective tissue - viscous EC matrix, fibers not aligned 1. loose (areolar) C.T. 2. adipose 3. reticular
  7. 7. 1. Areolar (AKA loose) Most widespread  Beneath most epithelia  Think dermis!!! Types of Fibers: • Collagen • Elastic • Reticular
  8. 8. 1. Loose (areolar)•Ground Substance •Similar to plasma •Leaked from capillaries •AKA ECF, interstitial fluid•Defense: •Macrophages •Plasma Cells •Mast Cells •Other WBC
  9. 9. 2. Fat AKA adipose  Cells are swollen with fat Prominent in hypodermis Intercellular matrix is obscured Storage of energy
  10. 10. 3. Reticular  Resembles areolar CT, but  Reticular fibers only  “reticulum” = network  Bone marrow, spleen
  11. 11. Dense Connective Tissue
  12. 12. 1. Dense Irregular C.T. Collagen fibers in many directions Resist multi-directional tension Joint capsules
  13. 13. 2. Dense Regular C.T. Very parallel fibers of collagen Tendons
  14. 14. 3. Elastic C.T. Elastic fibers > collagen Arterial walls
  15. 15. Supporting C.T. Cartilage  Hyaline Check Chapt 6, p 125  Elastic  Ear, larynx  Fibrocartilage  Intervertebral discs Bone (Chapter 6)  Mineral matrix
  16. 16. Hyaline Cartilage I.C. Matrix appears homogeneous Chondroblasts and chondrocytes in lacunae Articular cartilage Tracheal rings
  17. 17. Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage More elastic fibers  IV disk Ear  Symphysis pubis  Meniscus
  18. 18. Bone (chap 6) The E.C. matrix is mineral, not fibrous
  19. 19. Fluid C.T. Blood (Ch 17) Lymph (Ch 20)
  20. 20. Membranes = Combination ofEpithelia & C.T. (p 88)Mucous membranes,  Lining of cavities that communicate with exterior Serous membranes,  Lining of sealed, internal cavities Know special names of Cutaneous membranes, serous membranes  Skin depending on location Synovial membranes, Also know difference  Joints between “parietal” and “visceral”
  21. 21. Mucous vs. Serous Membrane AKA mucosa
  22. 22. Cutaneous (skin) & Synovial Membranes
  23. 23. Muscle Tissue Three types:Skeletal Cardiac Smooth (not striated) •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  24. 24. Skeletal Muscle (chap 10)•Voluntary•Heavily striated•Multinucleate •periphery of the cell
  25. 25. Cardiac Muscle (chap 19)•Heart (Only)•Involuntary•Striated, but poorly•Intercalated disks•Heavily branched•Single centralnucleus
  26. 26. Smooth Muscle (chap 23) Involuntary Esp. digestive system No striations Very slow Single central nucleus
  27. 27. Nervous Tissue (ch 12)  Neurons  Transmit electrical impulses  Neuroglia  Supportive cells of the nervous system •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  28. 28. Classic Motor Neuron
  29. 29. Neuroglia Support Immune Transmission Nutrition Protection Motor All the other nuclei are Neuron neuroglia!
  30. 30. Muir Pass, Sierra Nevada

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