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Chapter4 tissuesmariebpart2

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  • 1. Chapter 4, Tissues, Part 2•Histology = The study of tissues•Tissue = A collection of cells that perform relatedfunctions, and are similar in structure•The Four Primary Tissue Types: •Epithelial •Connective •Muscular •Nervous Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  • 2. Connective Tissue: Supports, protects, binds tissues Structural characteristics:  Specialized cells, few in number  Extracellular matrix  fibers (collagen)  Ground substance (fluid- like) •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  • 3. Functions of C.T. Structural framework for body Transport of fluids and dissolved materials Support and protection for organs Energy storage (fat) Defense •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  • 4. Classification of Connective Tissue•Loose (areolar) •Irregular •Hyaline •Compact •Adipose •Regular •Elastic •Spongy •Reticular •Elastic •Fibrocartilage This is similar to Table 4.2
  • 5. Connective Tissue Proper
  • 6. Loose Connective tissue - viscous EC matrix, fibers not aligned 1. loose (areolar) C.T. 2. adipose 3. reticular
  • 7. 1. Areolar (AKA loose) Most widespread  Beneath most epithelia  Think dermis!!! Types of Fibers: • Collagen • Elastic • Reticular
  • 8. 1. Loose (areolar)•Ground Substance •Similar to plasma •Leaked from capillaries •AKA ECF, interstitial fluid•Defense: •Macrophages •Plasma Cells •Mast Cells •Other WBC
  • 9. 2. Fat AKA adipose  Cells are swollen with fat Prominent in hypodermis Intercellular matrix is obscured Storage of energy
  • 10. 3. Reticular  Resembles areolar CT, but  Reticular fibers only  “reticulum” = network  Bone marrow, spleen
  • 11. Dense Connective Tissue
  • 12. 1. Dense Irregular C.T. Collagen fibers in many directions Resist multi-directional tension Joint capsules
  • 13. 2. Dense Regular C.T. Very parallel fibers of collagen Tendons
  • 14. 3. Elastic C.T. Elastic fibers > collagen Arterial walls
  • 15. Supporting C.T. Cartilage  Hyaline Check Chapt 6, p 125  Elastic  Ear, larynx  Fibrocartilage  Intervertebral discs Bone (Chapter 6)  Mineral matrix
  • 16. Hyaline Cartilage I.C. Matrix appears homogeneous Chondroblasts and chondrocytes in lacunae Articular cartilage Tracheal rings
  • 17. Elastic cartilage Fibrocartilage More elastic fibers  IV disk Ear  Symphysis pubis  Meniscus
  • 18. Bone (chap 6) The E.C. matrix is mineral, not fibrous
  • 19. Fluid C.T. Blood (Ch 17) Lymph (Ch 20)
  • 20. Membranes = Combination ofEpithelia & C.T. (p 88)Mucous membranes,  Lining of cavities that communicate with exterior Serous membranes,  Lining of sealed, internal cavities Know special names of Cutaneous membranes, serous membranes  Skin depending on location Synovial membranes, Also know difference  Joints between “parietal” and “visceral”
  • 21. Mucous vs. Serous Membrane AKA mucosa
  • 22. Cutaneous (skin) & Synovial Membranes
  • 23. Muscle Tissue Three types:Skeletal Cardiac Smooth (not striated) •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  • 24. Skeletal Muscle (chap 10)•Voluntary•Heavily striated•Multinucleate •periphery of the cell
  • 25. Cardiac Muscle (chap 19)•Heart (Only)•Involuntary•Striated, but poorly•Intercalated disks•Heavily branched•Single centralnucleus
  • 26. Smooth Muscle (chap 23) Involuntary Esp. digestive system No striations Very slow Single central nucleus
  • 27. Nervous Tissue (ch 12)  Neurons  Transmit electrical impulses  Neuroglia  Supportive cells of the nervous system •The Four Primary Tissue Types Epithelial Connective Muscular Nervous
  • 28. Classic Motor Neuron
  • 29. Neuroglia Support Immune Transmission Nutrition Protection Motor All the other nuclei are Neuron neuroglia!
  • 30. Muir Pass, Sierra Nevada