Teaching listening skills and Spoken Communication Skills


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Spoken Communication Skills

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Teaching listening skills and Spoken Communication Skills

  1. 1. Spoken Communication Skills Developing Listening and Speaking Skills
  2. 2. Communication <ul><li>What should be the main goal of an English language cousre? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To focus on developing students’ mastery of the the language form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To focus on developing students’ ability to effectively communicate for study, work or leisure </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Features of using language for communication <ul><li>We communicate because we want to or need to, NOT just to practise the language </li></ul><ul><li>Focus is on what we are communicating NOT on how we are communicating (ideas vs. language) </li></ul><ul><li>The language that is used is VARİED in grammar and vocabulary, NOT made of a single structure or a few structures and NOT normally repeated over and over again </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication in the Classroom <ul><li>If you want to encourage real communication in the classroom you need to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish English as the main classroom language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to use interesting topics and stimulating activities, which take the learners’ minds off the language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Real life events ( weather, the students’ cloths, their health and mood, pictures and realia brought to class) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Events in the world outside ( new films, a circus in town, national sports victory, the students’ families, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Focus on fluency vs. accuracy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support and encourage listeners in their efforts to communicate their ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t try to control what they say </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t interrupt learners everytime they make a language mistake to correct them. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Listening Skills <ul><li>Listening is not a ‘passive” skill but a “receptive” skill. It requires as much attention and mental activity as speaking. </li></ul><ul><li>That of the time an individual is engaged in communication, approximately 9 per cent is devoted to writing, 16 per cent to reading, 30 per cent to speaking, and 45 per cent to listening. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Debates concerning the development of listening skills <ul><li>Debates focusing on the nature of listening input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether or not listening should be made comprehensible for learners through simplification? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Debates focusing on the role of listening in the early ELT curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether teachers should stress the importance of learners haing a “silent period” in the early stages of learning and wait for “readiness” to produce the language </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Debates concerning the development of listening skills <ul><li>Debates on the role of listening for comprehension and development of oracy (the ability to understand and participate in spoken communication) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How can classroom practice rehearse the kinds of listening purposes and situations that learners will experience outside the classroom? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we help learners build confidence in dealing with authentic spoken English? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of classroom procedures will develop listening ability? </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What do we know about the listening process? <ul><li>There are two types of listening processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top-down process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottom-up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We use our knowledge of language and our ability to process acoustic signals to make sense of the sounds that speech presents to us </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Top-down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We infer meaning from contextual clues and from making links between the spoken message and various types of prior knowledge which we hold. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What learners need to be able to do in order to listen effectively <ul><li>Bottom-up processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Retain input while it is being processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize word divisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize key words in utterances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize key transitions in a discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Another interesting development was… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of theproblems was.. / In contrast… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize grammatical relations between key elements in sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the function of word stress in sentences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize the function of intonation in sentences </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. What learners need to be able to do in order to listen effectively <ul><li>Top-down processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use key words to construct the schema of discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer the role of the participants in a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer the topic of a discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer the outcome of an event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer the cause and effect of an event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer unstated details of a situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer the sequence of a series of events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infer comparisons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between facts and opinions </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Listening <ul><li>Participatory Listening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactional (for the purpose of engaging in social rituals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactional (for the purpose exchanging information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>İdentification of specific details </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-Participatory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to live conversations without taking part </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to announcements to extract info. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening to or watching films, plays, radio and songs where purpose is enjoyment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following instructions in orderto carry out a talk efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attending a lecture or following a lesson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liistening someon egive a public address </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What are the implications for the English Language Classroom? <ul><li>Creating reasons for listening (motivate students) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers need to ensure that learners experience a range of listening purposes, especially those that might be immediately relevant to their lives outside the classroom. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What purpose might there be for listening to this particular text? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is thatpurpose similar to the purpose a listener might have in real life? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the task given to the learner encourage that listening purpose? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Which is more authentic? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking learners to listen to a short airport announcement to obtain information about a particular flight, as a passenger ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking learners to listen for the details of four different flights ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills that are practised </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listening for key words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picking out relevant information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retaining significant details </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Designing listening activities for the classroom <ul><li>The standard procedure used for listening activities are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-listening stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While-Listening stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-listening stage </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Pre-Listening stage <ul><li>The purpose of the pre-listening stage is to </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the learners for what they are going to hear by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>activating existing prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>introducing necessary schematic knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introducing the language which students will encounter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contextualize the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide any information to help learners appreciate the setting and the role relationships between particiapnts </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Activity types for the pre-listening stage <ul><li>Predicting content from the title of a talk </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about a picture which relates to the text </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss relevant experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Answering a set of questions about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeing or disagreeing with opinions about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Associate vocabulary about the yopic </li></ul><ul><li>Predict info. about the topic </li></ul><ul><li>Write questions about the topic </li></ul>
  18. 18. While-Listening Stage <ul><li>Purpose of While-listening stage is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TO HELP learners understand the text </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>While learners listen they need to be involved in an authentic purpose for listening and encouraged to attend to the text more intensively </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. While-Listening activities <ul><li>Ticking multiple-choice items </li></ul><ul><li>Filling in a chart </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a table, map or picture </li></ul><ul><li>Matching pictures with the text </li></ul><ul><li>Making notes </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>Complete sentences </li></ul>
  20. 20. Post-Listening Activities <ul><li>The purpose of post-listening activities is to help learbners connect what they have heard with their own ideas and experienxe. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps learners to move easily from listening to another skill. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Post-listening Activities <ul><li>Give opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Relate similar experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Role-play a similar interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Write a brief report </li></ul><ul><li>Write a similar text </li></ul><ul><li>Debate the topic </li></ul>