STRESS MANAGEMENT by Dr. Ram MohanPresentation Transcript
STRESS MANAGEMENT BYDr. S. RAM MOHAN, I.R.A.S.Additional Member - Finance Railway Board
THIS IS THE AGE OF THE HALF READ PAGEAND THE QUICK HASH AND THE MAD DASHTHE BRIGHT NIGHT WITH THE NERVES TIGHTTHE PLANE HOP WITH THE BRIEF STOPTHE LAMP TAN IN A SHORT SPAN THE BIG SHOT IN A GOOD SPOT AND THE BRAIN STRAIN AND THE HEART PAIN AND THE CAT NAPS TILL THE SPRING SNAPS AND THE FUN’S DONE
“The Vedanta is an integrated philosophy of a two-fold, dharma namely pravrthi or outward-directed actionand nivrthi or inward-directed meditation which togetherform the means for the maintenance of the world on anevent keel; for they are verily the means of theabhudaya (social welfare), and nisreyasa, (spiritualgrowth) and fulfillment of all beings." - Swami Vivekananda
Mental Activities• “Man the Unknown” – Dr. Alexis Carrel [The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912]• Intelligence alone is not capable of engendering science.• Intuition, Clairvoyance (Sixth Sense), Telepathy• Reading of Thoughts [scientific, Aesthetic and religious]
DICTIONARY : STRESSPHYSICAL, CHEMICAL OR EMOTIONALFACTOR TO WHICH AN INDIVIDUAL FAILS TOMAKE A SATISFACTORY ADAPTATION ANDWHICH CAUSES PHYSIOLOGICAL TENSION
STRESS MEANS DIFFERENT THING TODIFFERENT PEOPLEENGINEER: FORCE/UNIT AREA
METEROLOGIST: PRESSURE CONDITIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE
BIOLOGISTS CONSTRAINED CONDITIONS OF CELLULAR EXISTENCE
ACTOR/SPEAKER INTENSITY OF UTTERANCE GIVEN TO A SYLLABLE OR WORD
WHEN THE EMOTIONS OF ANGER,FEAR, JOY OR SORROW ARE NTOSTIRRED, THE MIND MAY BE SAIDTO BE IN THE STATE OFEQUANIMITY. WHEN THESEFEELINGS HAVE BEEN STIRRED,AND THEY ACT IN THEIR DUEDEGREE THERE ENSURES WHATMAY BE CALLED ‘THE STATE OFHARMONY’ CONFUCIUS
DR. HAN’S SEYLE DEFINES IN THEBOOK “THE STRESS OF LIFE” THEGOAL IS NOT TO AVOID STRESS.BUT IN ORDER TO EXPRESSYOURSELF FULLY YOU MUST FINDOUT YOUR OPTIMUM STRESS LEVELAND THEN USE YOUR ADAPTATIONENERGY AT A RATE AND IN ADIRETION ADJUSTED TO THEINNATE STRUCTURE OF YOUR MINDAND BODY
ANATOMY OF STRESS•Dormant desire for self expression•Stress is a non-specific response. It’s a subjectivephenomenon•Stress is a motivator-source for individual achievements•Stress should not move from psyche plane to somatic plane•How to improve the mind using the mind itself
STRESS OCCURS WHEN:• changes take place in the physiological or psychologicalequilibrium•Survival is threatened the threat may be real or imaginary•Self image is threatened, the threat may be real orimaginary
•When there is an unresolved conflict in the conscious orsubconscious mind•Desired goal becomes elusive or unattainable•Personal loss is encountered, loss may be real orimaginary .Like recent shooy out in U.S.A. by an IndianInvestor •Dead lines are encountered.
STRESS MANAGEMENTStress is the impact of physical and mental activities.Brain activities.0-3 activities per second - Deep Sleep3-7 activities per second - REM7-14 activities per second -unfocused day dream14- 28 activities per second - focusedStress -switch upUnwind - Destressing
GOOD ASPECTS OF STRESS:-We need stress - gives extra mileage and adrenalineflow.-Too much stress Due to: complexity of present life and increasing ambitionsNOT fight it sit and take itShould be a physical response
Internal StressesImportant: Time Management Emotion Management E.g. beating stupid child
External Stresses:* E.g Bereavement, house shift,divorce etc.* Medical causes
Neurotheology• In the new field of “neurotheology,” scientists seek the biological basis of spirituality. Is God all in our heads?• Last year the American Psychological Association published “Varieties of Anomalous Experience,” covering enigmas from near-death experiences to mystical ones. (Transpersonal Psychology) and PEAR Group.• Neurotheology is stalking bigger game than simply affirming that spiritual feelings leave neural footprints, too.
The Secret Life of the Brain Richard Restak, 2001
Some results• Attention: Linked to concentration, the frontal lobe lights up during meditation• Religious emotions: The middle temporal lobe is linked to emotional aspects of religious experience, such as joy and awe• Sacred images: The lower temporal lobe is involved in the process by which images, such as candles or crosses, facilitate prayer and meditation• Response to religious words: At the juncture of three lobes, this region governs response to language• Cosmic unity: When the parietal lobes quiet down, a person can feel at one with the universe
Mantras and Brain
Ideation• Key identity of a ‘Knowledge Worker’• Ideas are all around – You have to pluck the right one from thin air and use [Neurotheology or Spiritual Intelligence]• Malcolm Gladwell - Blink : The Power of Thinking Without Thinking• Blink is about the first two seconds of looking--the decisive glance that knows in an instant.
SATTVIC quality leads to success and stress – free condition“Liberated from attachment not uttering “I”, endowed with the power tosustain and enthuse, unaffected in fulfillment or failure such a performeris said to be sattivic.Sense of well-being not dependant on situations is total freedom. SriRamana says such a freedom is in the nature of one-self.•Atma and Anatma – The non-variable and the variable . Various role.•Inner leisure comes when you know that you are not the role but theactor. [Vidyaranya]•With this knowledge you can take more challenges like anaccomplished actor.•‘Self talk’ and ‘Self Enquiry’•Leader•You are ‘valuable’ and you are Brahman – Not dependant on ‘others’assessment of ‘Self worth’
•Increase SQ (Spiritual Quotient), SQ is the element in everybody’spersonality that gives you to others as trustworthy or flawless•Remain always optimistic Rainbow in a gutter•SQ comes from a basic level of contentment and absence of greed•Optimist leads to optimal solution Win-Win for all•Find ‘quality’ time amidst work Learn to ‘pause’ during work ‘Pranayama’ or ‘Meditation’ ‘Unclosing’ your mind •Listen (Sravana) •Sahana vavatu Sahanau Bhunakthu
•Synergy in Work place and giving credit to others•Develop compassion Karuna, Mudita, Upeksha• Power of positive thinking•96 nadis when you think positively positively the nadis open up•Control the negative thoughts like a warrier cutting the every soliders asthey come of gate [Sri Ramana)]•Watch you mind always•When you notice negative thoughts develop a positive affirmation [ PRATIPAKSHA BHAVANA]•Do not psychologically analyse the origin of negative thoughts. Try toget an insight into the nature of the Self [Sri Ramana]•Have PATIENCE Reality is the supremely positive presence of God within you.
• Patanjali : five states of thought power (Chitta) 1. Very disturbed state(vikshipta) 2. Disturbed state (Kshipta) 3. Dormant (Moodha) 4. Concentrated (Ekagrata) 5. Thoughtless State (Nirodha) •Preponderence of rajas and thought power in Kshipta state _Arising of desires, their fulfillment gives ‘temporary pleasure’ – non fulfillment gives tension. •Growth of dormant (Moodha) states of thought power arises – slothful and ignorant •Sattic predominates –thought power in the state of concentration (eka grata) tends to •Thoughtless (Nirodha) – gives rise to serenity – eternal peace – Bliss •Three balls in the hand of juggler (Satva, Rajas, Tamas)
•Preponderance of rajas gives rise to tensions and conflicts,competition, desire for grabbing barrier in conflict settlement, non-effective information system, and undestined Prestige Issues.•Preponderance of Tamas – terrorism and conflict out of expressionof anger decresing tolerance non-co-operation, negativerelationships, fear of future, inactivity, work accumulation•Preponderance of Sattivic- combines the sense of socialresponsibility, morale amiability and ‘open-window’ approach.•For stress- free working the three gunas are to be in equilibrium.•Avoidance of tension and attainment of peace by attaining sattivicthrough practice of yoga.•Mundaka Upanishad – Acquire_ peace by purifying the inner sensesthough piety and knowledge by continuous meditation.•Practice of Yoga rules out latent tendencies of negativity and givesbirth to happiness.
•Anger Management - They are blessed ,who ,by their wisdom,can control their anger even as water subdues a conflagration.A man who loses his temper loses his power of judgment aswell. He is insensible to right and wrong. He does not know atthat time what he is doing or speaking. Even as a serpent castsoff the slough by its effort, should a man cast off his anger by hisforbearance. Then alone can he be called a man. Gems from the Ramayana, Sundarakanda.•Dharma : Action that sustains quality of life – Corner shore ofsociety.
Yama• Dharma Niyama• Yama: Means the quality of transactions at the interpersonal level• Niyama – Inner Measure of ones interpersonal relatedness• Three elements7. Concpet of a boundary within which one acts8. Implication of one’s action to others9. Quality of one’s action i.e, its implication to the Self• Key words from Gita NAHI KASCHITKSHANAMAPI JATU THISHTATYAKARMAKRITI (B.G. 3-5)Action is central to creativity (Rajas) Inaction is the characteristics of Tamas.
1. Prescribed Duty NIYATAM KURU KARMATVAM (B.G. 3.7)Perform your assigned duty with core-competence, non performance leads to breakdown of rhythm on the Society.6. Job Content KARMANOHYAPI BUDDHAVYAM VIKRAMANAH AKARH ANASEHA (B.G. 4.17) Job-content is key to task accomplishment – knowledge of the chain reaction of your job – Emphasis on holistic knowledge in an undertaking. Job content and allocation and the need for co- ordination action.
1. Correct Practice ABHYASENA TO KAUNTEYA VAIRAGYENA CA GRHYATE Constant endeavour and firm determination for task accomplishment.6. Perfection and fulfillment SVE SVE KARMAINYA BHIRATHAH SAMSIDDHIM LABHATE NARAH Pursue your job suited to your core-competence deligently.11. High Ambition KANKSHANTAH KARMANAM SIDDHM SIDDHIR DHAVAT KARMAJA (B.G. 4.12)
Higher the ambition, subtle the result – not enough to stop but have dedicated pursuit2. Duty and Obligation KARTAVYANITI ME PARTHA NISCHITAM MATA MUTTAMAM (B.G. 18-6) Lack of discipline _ChaosAwareness of obligation and duties.9. Total Excellence NA KARMANA NAPRAJAYA DHANENE TYAGENEIKE AMRITATVA MANASU: AMRITA: Pinnacle of Perfection or Excellence in performance Thyaga refers to total commitment and dedicated knowledge based application and result oriented motivation.
"YADEVA VIDAYA KAROTI SRADDHAYA, UPANISHADA,TADEVA, VIRYAVITTARAM BHAVATI (Chandogya 1.1.10) Yadeva Karoti: whatever is done Vidyaya: through know-how Sraddhaya: through faith and composition Atma, sraddha in my capacity (to rise to the occasion) Upanishada; through deep-thinking and contemplation. Action done with these three energies behind then alonebecome not only efficient (viryavat) but more and moreperfectly efficient (Viryavattaram) Knowledge to be infused with the energy of humanmotivation. Buddhi yogam, Enlightened person. Persons are individuals who transcend their merelyorganic individuality in conscious participation (Julian Huxley) Change from individual to person.
• Yoga: Three definition• -SAMATVAM YOGA UCYATE• YOGA IS EQUANIMITY• - YOGA: KARMASU KAUSALAM• Yoga is efficiency in action• - Duhkha samyoga yogam• Vedanta is the scheme of human possibilities - mind enthroned over matte psycho social evolution
• -YAT BHAVAM TAT BHAVATI• Story of Zen Master and disciple• JBS Haldane• - Two observations of profound significance. Einsteins Discovery that time and space are aspects of the same kind of relationship• - Distinction between two particles of the same kind is not absolute
21. Dont do that: Dont think in negative way Negative expression trap you into stress mode Phrase and think in an open way Instead of dont do X why not do V? gets positive response further.
• TATTVAM ASI - Unity of Life.• Vedanta says enormous energies are dormant in every one of us, every being and non-being entity in the world.• Infinite Energy of Pure Consciousness -• -Cit Sakti-• YA DEVI SARVA BHUTESU SAKTI RUPENA SAMSTITHA
• HRD comes not out of this – as you consider everybody as worth aseach is sacred – each job is sacred.•Personality - Persona means ‘mask’• Removal ‘ Persona’ before Personality Development• “Be as you are” – through Self Enquiry•Personal Management – Become free from internalizing situations•Prioritizing Major – Minor•Accomplishment through professional approach – Man walking with atorch light•Concentrate in the next 10 feet.•Do not come under the tyranny of ‘raga’ and ‘dvesha•Analogy fo rocket Desire is a capacity (Sakthi) you can have desire as long asyou can have them and they don’t have you!•The result of every action is a prasadam from God
• Synergy in Heritage Text:• The Spirit of cooperative endeavour is delineated in the 10th Mandala of Rig Veda in the Purusha Suktam. It - a great cooperative endeavour undertaken with profound devotion by the entire community. Here a symbolic yagna was performed, out of which the created beings and natural beings took their form.• Thus the purpose of - attaining totally their individual minds with the total mind of cosmic consciousness.• This represent what Zalemik later termed as spontaneous cooperation".• This is achieved by reducing the proportion of pravrithi and increasing nivrithi.• Thus the process of realizing unity in the midst of differences and ekatmanubhuti is achieved. Basis for synergy or Stephen - coveys "win-win" attitude.
• Espoused - Theory in Indian Heritage• Blind adherence to theories or rituals leads to considerable loss. A dynamic change in consciousness is essential.• This is exemplified in Srimad Bhagavatam. When young cow-herds sent by Krishna to get food approached the Brahmins performing "Angirasa Yagna" for accession to heaven, they were refused food by the Brahmins. But the wives of the Brahmins, intuitively realizing the Divinity of Krishna, came rushing to him with offerings. Eventually the Brahmins, realizing that their had lost due to this dyed-in-the wool adherence to rituals, cursed themselves - their three-fold birth, learning, vow of continence, pedigree etc., which made them impervious the touch of Divinity.
• The solution is found in Bhagavat Gitas work ethics approach "work well done is Verily Yoga (BG II 50)." Let not results of your actions become your motive. You shall not also be attached to inaction. The theme unfolds with grater clarity in the subsequent chapter. A clear cut differentiation is made between the action to be done (Karma) the work to be avoided (Vikarma) and finally the absence of both i.e. inactivity (akarma) from a holistic perspective Krishna declares that he alone can accomplish everything who distinguishes between in activity and activity in inactivity.
• Taitreeya Upanishad says "your present package of Praja, Karma, and Dharma cannot bring in success. Only by Tyaga, unlimited success can be attained".• The Taitrhreeya Upanishad thus puts to an end that theory that abundance of resources like work-force (praja) skills (Karma) and finance (dhana) would assure success by themselves. It is imperative to introduce necessary process-changes by giving up irrelevant actions.• Sri Bhashyam of Ramanuja distinguishes "Karma; as routine activities (sthula) and akarma as sukshma or latent power. Thus the physical and intellectual activities have their respective roles.
• The coordination of the managerial activities is depicted int he Katopanishads Charioteer Matrix.• Atma - the Charioteer• Sareera - The Chariot• Buddhi - Driver• Manas - rein holder• Indryas - horses.
• Antahkarana and Problem solving:• Normally the decision making process is done through the three tiers of manas - Buddhi - Ahankara interface dealing with ordinary, complicated and complex situations. The better type of managers develop their antahkarana - intuitive capacities - transcending the Jnannendriyas.• Emerson calls it as the "inner gleam" which is the right instrument to advise on complex decisions.• The "vrithi and samskara" act at conscious and sub- conscious levelstto influence the final decision. Ina person who has developed an in inner gleam and inner knowledge, antahkarana helps him to arrive at the right decisions. The inner gleam is developed through following the right path Buddha describes them as Right Faith, Right Aspiration, Right Speech, Right Conduct, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness and Right Contemplation (Noble Eightfold Path)
•Stress through argument Vedanta does not tell you not to avoid argument. Teaching of Vedanta is through discussions – Analysis through discussions. Start “This is how I perceive” • Vedanta shifts the focus of your attention from your mind to yourself _ introversion •You are beyond thought •Look at yourself as a possession of Iccha, Jnana and Kriya sakthi, free from their tyrannies – focus on self which is more than walking, thinking and doing. •Vedanta does not change natural factors but changes your vision. •TARATI SOKAM ATMAVIT One who knows the Self crosses sorrow NA CET AVEDIT MAHAT VINA_STIH If you do not recognize Brahman here the loss is infinite (Keno V5) Anyone who knows the Supreme Brahman become Brahman indeed Brahman vid Brhmaiva Bhavati (Mundaka IV II ) •Be prayerful
• Distinguish between events/occasions and on our own Self Janakas’ reaction to his Capital on fire • his ability to distinguish •Delegation of powers •Trust on the subordinates • Reaction to a rat coming to us. We assume that rat has assumed our size! • When emotions take over, we fail to see things as they are • Reacting too quickly • When we are worried, when event of greater magnitude occurs, we fought the earlier problem. In yoga, we try to create it ourselves and being in that condition -Mahat • Yogic , wisdom – Hanuman’s response to Surasa, Simhika and Lankadevi
•When you come down from Mahat – a Universal Consciousness to I-sense a lower consciousness you suffer.•We think we are not the only one to attend to our problems -> Stress•See things in totality•When you rise to higher level of consciousness, you can see things witha perspective - like seeing ground from tall building. Sri Ramana or Sri Ramakrishna – Yoga teaches this•Dying Man and Tailor•Respond, not react•Sit back and enjoy the whole show•Surrender takes away philosophy from Devotional text•Trust slows stress Father walking with Children
•Wisdom comes out of contemplation. We need not get into the situation again likethe foolish tiger.•Counsel of the Swan in Shanti Parva of Mahabharata•Do not be a heart-wounder in speech or deed•If anybody tries to wound you maintain peace•Higher value is forgiveness,•Of Vedas, the end is truth. Of truth the end is self-control , of self-control the end isliberation.•Resent the impulses of anger, ambition, hunger and lust. Then you become a sage•Attend to the great saints•Wait for your tunes, stainless•Do not condemn the Universe or fault-find•Futile are the offerings of an angry man•Truth is the ladder to peace•You become as the company you keep
FINALLY, RELAX AND BE ASYOU ARE!"I AM THAT I AM“"KINGDOM OF GOD IS WITHINYOU“"YOGAH KARMASU KOUSALAM"
PART I ASSESSMENT Step (1): Prepare Activity Chart1. Perception: How much you are in control H - M - L (on control)1. Activity: Is it possible to control more.2. Note VH - H - M - L eventsDetailed scoring for each item
3. Meyer Freedman: Are youtype A or B stressful laid back Achievement calm, Oriented unambitiousAchieve a balance between extremesMadhyamika of Buddhism
4. Emotion Log• What you are doing•How you feel about it•What you are thinking•How are you balancing
8. LIFE-LOTTERY Getting a clear picture of what is that you want to do, canbe the first step in clearing away many stresses. Prepare a chart- What you are good at What you have done long ago but have not done ever since What you think will be good at Yes No New
9. More than tangible • What you like your emotional life to be? • Similarly for spiritual life • What you believe in • What you want to know more about • Spiritual support available to you in any form
19. Good talk Break your activity into small chunks Positive social Interaction, not back biting
20. Pat on the back If there is more to do then put yourself on the back Take yourself a guided tour of benefits
21. Dont do that: Dont think in negative way Negative expression trap you into stress mode Phrase and think in an open way Instead of dont do X why not do V? gets positive response further.
22. Medicinal Reading (not for peaks) but especially forchronic stress find two slots everyday for reading Fantasise-- read fiction Travel fiction, comfortable chair t.v. games
23. Sulkers: Ignore sulkers. Be positive when they dont sulk If you dont succeed in that, tell them you are ready to help Traditional components of sulking There is nothing wrong with me! etc.,
24. Ref: Life Lottery Time Management: • On a regular basis, check your personal objectives •What are your major achievements? Weekly assess your current targets Keep your targets highly visible they help you to deflect your stress by concentrating your efforts on these key elements when other people see them, they understand why it is important to you and will modify their behavior dont fret too much if a target is missed. But do something about it.
25. LISTEN WELL Mindful listening use non verbal clues to show you are listening like eye contact, lean forward etc dont fidget Allow gaps of silence Dont rush to fill in it use open question ( as : those that evoke yes or no response)
26. Commuter hell Try another route Train: Read, car: Try tapes gain value from time
27. Play As we grow old, we use to play - Laughter play totally lose yourself in play competitive sport itself is stress multiplayer game is also stressing preferably individualistic games
28. Relax in parts: Tense and relax your muscles from head to toe: Slow breathing concentration on that particular part-- savasanam
29. Agree: With at least part of the others statements Distress Reduce level of anger in confrontation
30. Dont take your work home Better organise your time need be, work in the office31. Café life “What is this life full of care we have no time to stand and stare" - W.H.DavisLeisure • go to Café especially pavement one • Watch the world pass by
32. Take holiday Total change of place and inputs At least a week off Dont take your laptop/mobile with you total break
33. Spiritual path
34. Bureaucrat bounce ball • do nothing with the output • do it your own way • get someone else to do it • work the system • Raise awareness at the top levels of the systems inadequacy • suggest less bureaucrat alternatives.
35. Because Im worth it: Self-esteem Make sure you get sometime to do something you want achieve a balance between outward / inward
36. e-mail it away write yourself a note reminder or tell somebody to do it
Deliberately keep your thoughts blank37. Go for a walk work through them Capture your surrounding in depth and in an overview Let things happen in their own pace38. Sharing Chores job rotation and swap jobs
39. Sleep unwind first pindown what nags you warm bath and drink
40. I did it! Note down your achievements moments of success
41. Broken record (with others): Repeat the request several times Nod, Agree, I see still -- with your request42. Coherent discussion Laser Before a meeting, consider how to structure a discussion separate off different approaches review what you want to achieve
43. Music Right type
44. Fallout shelters Control and self image imagine you are building yourself a stress proof bunkers It contains • family photos • your favorite paintings • photo of scene • A pair of slippers • easy chair • system
45. PET solution give it sometime
46. Happy balance between material a non-material life. At theend of life, look back. Look at your activities - can you achieve abetter balance? get possible directions.
47. Nemesis: Think Is there anybody who has major effect on you 2.Terminate the relationship if negative, avoid stress or 3.Look to circumvent 4.confrontation
48. Natural Release: Run amidst nature
49. Information overload quick sort your mail avoid email use filter cut down on newspapers return all reports more than a page 20% of documents carry 80% information Be ruthless Push to pull information Balance
50. Honesty: pause before doing dishonest act. it is not the same as "saying what you think"
51. Different values: Study of Demography Magazine 1987-1999 - 28000 individuals people who attended religious service once in a week live 7 years longer Service: to count upon availability of local support network.52. Stimulants: At stress-times, cut down stimulants, if possible, remove caffeine entirely.
53. NO NEWS IS GOO D NEWS; cancel your daily papers omit watching more than one TV bulletin no news day internet news summary is enough
54. THE TIMESCALES GAME How this problem will be in different time scale? how it was in the past? how it would in the future? Not significant, then ignore it.
55. Setbacks: Like riding a bicycle, do it after a set back, launch another initiative as soon as possible double the response react quietly thought of impending action will cut a lot of impact
56. BOOMERANG COMPLIMENTS Try being nice. It will soon become a habit. cyclic response - you relax- others react positively makes you more relaxed
57. Children: convert anger to amusement
58. Meditation find a focus - take a symbol dont think of association or properties, but focus on the entire object Let it fill your mind kitchen time could be a meditative time
59. Pareto (Vilfredo, Italy) 80% 20% Not for sloppiness Greatness is not net picking
60. Bully-off: variations61. Pampering: Indulge in self-pampering when things get on top of you. Go for environment under an expression that it wont give you stress.
62. Coping with changeChange continuumCOMFORT STRESSZONE ZONE
Methods to cope with change: Write your anchors on the map with a circle around them It could be family, friends, God learn to love change Note what is good about them.
63. Integral Exercise: Integrate exercise into daily life, walk to work bring the exercise where you are e.g, climbing staircases.64. Going to: Take half-a-day to be with yourself
65. Phone control: Voice mail. Answering but do reply later.
66. Let the sunshine in
67. Low Power dressing: tight-formal dress stress look informal relax
68. Go with the flow Look for stress point in communication structure, feed back from staff