Sri purandara dasa

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A brief introduction on India's Great Musician Sri Purandara Dasa

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Sri purandara dasa

  1. 1. Sri Purandara Daasaru A.D. 1485 – 1564 “Purandara gurum vande Dasa-sreshtham dayanidhim”(Salutations to you, Purandaraguru, Greatest of the saints and the most kind) V.Prabhakar Rao Singapore Dec 2007
  2. 2. Shri Gurubyo Namaha:Let me commence my compilation with a namaskara to Shri Raghavendra GuruRajaru, …….. who has been described as “Charanara Sanjeeva”, “Kann ThodesivaKaruneeya”, “Karadhara Baruva Guru”, “Kamadhenu”, “Kalpakavriksha” ……. byvarious Daasas and devotees, over the past nearly four centuries.
  3. 3. Haridasa lineageThe Haridasa lineage sprang 800 years ago. It tookbirth with the inspiration of Sri Madhwacharya,blossomed during the period of his disciple SriNaraharitheertharu, during which time it took thepoetic form. Two centuries later through therelentless efforts of Sri Sripadarajaru and hisprincipal disciple Sri Vyasarajaru, it reached thecommon man in the form of lyrics set to music. Themovement gained momentum during the period of SriPurandara Dasaru, Sri Kanaka Dasaru & Sri VadhirajaSwamy. The tradition was carried on in the same richfashion by Vijaya Dasaru, Gopala Dasaru, JagannathaDasaru and others.Ref: “Purandara Dasaru” by Dr.AralumalligeParthasarathyAmong all the exponents of Karnataka Harikatha heritage, Sri Purandara Dasaru is revered as the foremost figure
  4. 4. Early life of Purandara DasaThe legend of a miserly Srinivasa Nayak repeatedly refusingGod who was testing him in the form of a poor brahminseeking monetary help for his son’s upanayanamand his sudden awakening to the fact that it was indeed theLord himself who was with him all the time, thanks to thenoble deed of his wife ……… is well known. It was at thismoment of awakening that Srinivasa Nayak shed all hisearthly attachments and went searching for Lord.His wife’s guidance led him to Guru Vyasaraja who showedhis destiny as a Haridasa, spreading Bhakthiamong the common folk. It was Guru Vyasaraja whotransformed him into Purandara Dasa. The supreme nature of Sri Purandara Dasa’s service to Lord and humanity was highlighted by his Guru Vyasarajaru singing his disciple’s praise in his composition “Dasarendhere Purandara Dasaraiyya” (a rare occasion where the Guru sings the praise of his disciple! Shows the greatness of both!!)
  5. 5. His Guru’s guidance and blessingsShri Vyasarajaru, his Guru (and also the Raja Guruof King Shri Krishna Deva Raya of the VijayanagaraEmpire) ordained him to use his knowledge ofmusic and literature, to carry to common massesthe essence of Vedas and Upanishads, in the formof easy verses and poetry expressed in simple dayto day language. He blessed him to compose suchimmortal songs of Bhakthi, Gnana, Vairagya thatthey will purify the minds of people and that hewould be responsible for the dawn of a new era inbhakthi.Ref: “Purandara Dasaru” by Dr.AralumalligeParthasarathy Guru Vyasarajaru is said to have blessed Purandara Dasa with theankita “Purandara Vittala” which will be found near the end of all his compositions
  6. 6. His Guru’s guidance and blessingsAbout this great Saint Sri Vyasa Rajaru:According to the legend he was reincarnation ofBhaktha Prahalada and was born again as the“Kaliyuga Kamadhenu” Sri Raghavendra Swamy.Sri Vyasarajaru was the Guru of both theprominent Dasas viz., Sri Purandara Dasa and SriKanaka DasaSri Vyasarajaru was the composer of the divinedevotional song that millions of hindu familieshave sung, over centuries, to invite Krishna intotheir household ….. “Krishna Nee Begane Baaro”.He was a great devotee of Anjaneya and wasinstrumental in establishing over 700 Anjaneyatemples around South India.
  7. 7. His philosophyPurity of heart, devotion to God and compassion towardsall living beings form the core of Purandaradasasphilosophy. A householders life was no impediment tospiritual progress, as his own life was an example.Ref: Wikipedia.orgEssentially Purandara Dasa carried his Guru’s teachings (based on Sri Madhwacharya’s philosophy) to ordinary folks through his “devarunamas”
  8. 8. Sri Purandara Dasaru has beenaffirmed by Saints and Scholarsas an avathara of Sage Narada
  9. 9. A legend – Vittala’s Leela An interesting episode reflecting Vittala’s Leela to show his affection for Purandara Dasa has been heard by generation after generation. This leela of Panduranga Vittala makes the King’s guards suspect Purandara Dasa in the case of a missing royal jewel. And he is tied to a pillar in the Panduranga Mandir and lashed as a punishment for this alleged misdeed. And each time he receives a lash a cry of pain emanates from the sanctum sanctorium, revealing the close bond between Purandara Dasa and the Lord Himself. Even today this pillar has been named after Purandara Dasa and is worshipped by all devotees visiting this famous temple. Ref: “Purandara Dasaru” by Dr.Aralumallige Parthasarathy“Purandara Vittalane sarva Jagathu” – Sri Purandara Dasaru in the devarunama “en Savi en savi Harinama …..”
  10. 10. “Pithamaha of Carnatic Music”* He is credited with having consolidated and structured theteaching of Carnatic music. He systematised the teachingmethod by framing a series of graded lessons such asswaravalis, janta swaras, alankaras, lakshana geetas,prabandhas, ugabhogas, thattu varise, geetham and sooladis.* He introduced the Mayamalavagaula as the basic scale formusic instruction. These are followed by teachers and studentsof Carnatic music even today.* Another of his important contributions was the fusion ofbhava, raga and laya in his compositions.* Purandaradasas era was probably the beginning of Carnaticmusics movement towards krithi based classical music (one ofits distinguishing characteristics compared to Hindustani).Ref: Wikipedia.orgFor all these reasons and the enormous influence that he had on Carnatic music, musicologists call him the "Sangeeta Pitamaha" or the grandfather of Carnatic music.
  11. 11. His compositions Purandaradasa was a prolific composer who is been said to have composed around 4,75,000 songs. However, only around 1000 compositions have been found to date. Most of his compositions are written in simple Kannada, but he has also written in Sanskrit. He set most of his compositions in popular tunes/ragas of his time so that even a common man could learn and sing them. His compositions are also popular as padas and devarunamas. His songs touch almost every aspect of spiritual life such as devotion, morality, ethics, good behaviour and compassion to all living beings. Ref: Wikipedia.orgPurandaradasas devarunamas occupy an honoured place in the
  12. 12. A legend An old Kannada movie on “Sri Purandara Dasa” showed an episode of a meeting between a divinely elderly Annamacharya and a young Purandara Dasa, in the sannidhanam of Tirupathi Lord. I do not know whether written records have authenticated this meeting or not. But in the movie this episode by itself was very touching. Sri Annamayya singing a Purandara Dasa composition to Lord Venkateshwara, Purandara Dasa standing right there in the crowd, both not knowing each other, Sri VyasarajaTallapaka Annamacharya introducing them to each other, Sri Purandara falling at the feet of Sri Annamayya and Sri Annamayya blessing Sri Purandara that his name & compositions will last as long as Sun & Moon last …… it was very touching indeed! Two extraordinary divine musicians
  13. 13. Sri Purandara Dasaru’sDasarapadhagalu/Devarunamagalu
  14. 14. To write about his dasapadas is a mind boggling task, leaving you gaping in awe, wondering where to start and where to end! Let me make a humble attempt. Every beginner student of carnatic music knows the “Pillari Geethe” songs “Lambodara Lakumikara”, “Keraya neeranu kerege chelli”, “Padumanabha paranthama” …….. all compositions of Purandara Dasa. Sri Purandara Dasa’s songs such as ….. “Venkatachala Nilayam”, “Jagadodhdharana”, “Gajavadana beduve”, “Sakala graha bala neene”, “Kaliyugadali harinamava”, “Ramanama payasakke krishna nama sakkare”,“Bhagyada Lakshmi Baaramma” …. are all household songs sung over centuries by South Indian families, on every auspicious occasion. Sri Purandara Dasaru has sung many songs in praise of Lord Hari, Gods & Goddesses, on Guru Parampara (on Srimad Madhwacharya & Sri Vyasarajaru), songs preaching to the society on ways of leading one’s life in an ethical andpious way (“Hari smarane maado niranthara”) and many of his songs are by way of appeal to Lord to shower His Grace (“Dasanna maadiko enna”) on him.
  15. 15. A few of my favouriteDasarapadhagalu/Devarunamagalu
  16. 16. “Dasanna Madiko Enna”Raga: Naadanaamakriye Thala: Aadhidaasana maaDiko enna swaamisaasira naamada venkaTa-ramaNa |pa|durbhudhdhi-gaLanella biDiso ninnakaruNa-kavachvenna thoDisocharanasaeve enage koDiso abhayakara-pushpavanenna shiradalli muDiso |1| Please watch from the DVD, thedhriDha-bhakthi ninnalli beDi naa divinely M.S. Subbalakshmi singingaDigeraguvenayya anudina paaDi this song in her final concert (1997).kaDegaNNilekenna noaDi biDuve The ethereal expression on her facekoDu ninna dhyaanava manashuchi maaDi |2| when she expresses the words “Dasanna Madiko enna” simplymare-hokkavara kaava birudu enna takes you to a supreme level ofmareyade rakshaNe maaDayya poredu ecstasy. You can sense her being indurithagaLellava tharidu siri the exalted company of Purandarapurandhara viThala ennanu poredu |3| Dasa in front of Lord Venkatramana!Ack: www.saahitya-puta.org
  17. 17. “Hoova Tharuvara Manege”Raga: Kambhodhi Thala: Jambehoova tharuvara manege hulla tharuvaavva lakumiramana ivagilla garuvaondu dala sritulasi bindu gangodakavaindira ramanagarpitavennalu It was a very fulfilling experienceonde manadali sindhushayana mukunda ene listening to Shri Vidyabhushanaruendendu vaasipana mandiradolage singing this song in his uniquely rich voice with a crystal clear diction,paripariya pushpagala paramatmagarpisi during his recent concert inparipurnanendu poojeyanu maade Singapore. And I thank God for theparama aasaktiyali poojeyanu maadidare opportunity me & my family had,sari bhaaga koduva thannaramaneyolage listening to him explaining the real meaning of this song, in a discussionpandavara maneyolage kuduregala thaa tholedu in the Singapore airport before hepundarikaksha hullanu thinisida went on to board his flight. These areandajavahana sri purandara vitalanu the inspiring moments worth waitingthondarige thondanagi sancharisuthihanu a lifetime for!Ack: “Sri Purandara Dasa Sankeethanagalu” – Sri Rama Vittala Trust, ChennaiAck: www.belluramki.wordpress.com
  18. 18. “Kaliyugadhali Harinamava Nenadere” Raga: Behag or Senchuruti Thala: Aadhi Kaliyugadhali Harinamava nenedere Kulakotigalu udhdharisuvadhudhu Sulabhadha mukthige sulabhnendhenisuva Jalaruhanabhana nene manave In this song Purandara Dasa brings out the power of “Harinama”, in his Snanavanariyenu …………………………. unique direct manner. He says one ………………………………………………….. does not have to worry about not …………………………………………………… knowing any of the rituals, practices Ganavinodana nene manave such as meditation, tapas, archana, puja etc. His universal advice is to Archisalariyenu ……………………………. just remember Harinama, and it will ……………………………………………………. do the miracles! ……………………………………………………. Iccheyindha nee nene manave I recall the Namasankeerthana exponent Shri Udayalur Kalyanarama Japavondhariyenu …………………………. Bhagavathar’s highly musical bhajan ………………………………………………… on Purandara Dasa, in our residence ……………………………………………….. a few years ago and his energetic Upayadhindhali nene manave rendering of this particular dasarapada.Ack: “Sri Purandara Dasa Sankeethanagalu” – Sri Rama Vittala Trust, Chennai
  19. 19. “Krishna Enabaradhey” Raga: Saurashtra Thala: Chaapu Krishna ena baradhey Krishna endharey kashtavondhashtilla Krishna enabaradhey Narajanma bhandaga naalige iruvaga Krishna enabaradhey Malagidhu …………………………. ………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………… Krishna enabaradhey Merethappi maathanaduvaga ……………. … ……………………………………………………. ……………………………………………………. This is another song where Purandara Krishna enabaradhey Dasa appeals to people “can’t you chant the name Krishna as you are Gandhava poosi …………………………. going about your normal daily ………………………………………………… routines?” It is as simple as that but ……………………………………………….. can do wonders for you …. is the Krishna enabaradhey implied message.Ack: “Sri Purandara Dasa Sankeethanagalu” – Sri Rama Vittala Trust, Chennai
  20. 20. “En Savi En Savi”En savi …Aha … En savi en savi Harinama How sweet is HarinamaManasu thripthiya kalu prema Learn it with love till your heart is full of itJanariga thiliyadhu idhan mahima People do not know the power of this nameGanna mahima vishnu sasinama (En savi) The power and Grace of the thousand names of VishnuAmrithadha ruchiyunda valmiki It is the same name that was chanted bySmarisidha narahari namma kanaka Valmiki and bhaktha PundareekaPremadhindha haribhaktha pundareeka The whole world is full of the same Rama namaRam ram ram ram sarva jagathu (En savi) Prahalada succeeded on the power ofPrahlada golidha harinamadhindha HarinamaAllallallalla dhruva rajendra Same with DhruvaPalgunaga palisidhu henchendhu Arjuna was victorious thanks to his faith in HariRam ram ram ram sarva jagathu (En savi) The whole world is full of Rama namaHari hari hari smarane maadabeku Keep chanting Hari nama & keep reciting HaraHara hara hara endhu ennabeku The four Vedhas are based on the same thingVedhagalu saarauthive idhu naaku Purandara Vittala is the entire worldPurandara Vitalane sarva jagathu (En savi)Yet another popularly sung dasapada of Sri Purandara Dasa, exalting the sweetness & Grace of Harinama
  21. 21. “Ragi Thandheera” Raga: Naadanamakriye Thala: Chaapu rAgi thandira bhikshake rAgi thandira yogyarAgi bhogyarAgi bhagyavantharAgi nEvu ||rAgi|| This is a very impressionable “needhi annadAnava mAduvarAgi bodhana” song. In this song Purandara anna chatrava nittavarAgi Dasa explains how one should live. But in a anya varthegaLa bittavarAgi very charming way he has played with the anudina bhajaneya mAduvarAgi ||rAgi|| word “Ragi”. He starts off the song with the common day to day meaning of the word mAtha pitharu sEvithrAgi and wakes you up with a jolt with a very pAthaka kAryava bittavarAgi different use of that word as he delves into the song proper. And just watch how many kyathiyali migilAdavarAgi times that word is used in this song by nEthi mArgadali kyAtharAgi ||rAgi|| Purandara Dasa. It is class poetry, in simple words but carrying profound shriramaNana sadA smarisuvarAgi education for living. Next time when you guruvige bAguvanthavarAgi come across a singer well versed with kare kare samsara nEguvarAgi Dasapadas ask him/her to sing this song. It will be an experience! purandara viTalana sEvitharAgi ||rAgi||Ack: www.saahitya-puta.org Ack: www.Youtube.com
  22. 22. “Bhagyada Lakshmi Baramma”Raga: Madhyamavathi Thala: AadhiBhaagyada Lakshmi baaramma nammammaa shriSowbhaagyada Lakshmi baarammaa.Gejje kalgaLa dhwaniya thoruthaHejjeya mele hejjeya nikkuthaSajjana saadhu poojeya veLegeMajjigeyoLagina beNNeyantheKanaka vrushtiya kareyutha baareManakaamaneyaa siddhiya thoreDinakara koti thejadi hoLeyuvaJanakaraayana kumaari begaaShanke illada bhaagyava koDalookaN~kaNa kaiya thiruvutha baarekumkumaaN~kite paN~kaja lochaneveN~kaTaramaNana binkada raaNeeAtthitthagalade bhakthara maneyoLuNithya mahotsava nithya sumangala The auspicious song which everySathyadi thorutha saadhu sajjanaraaChitthadi hoLeyuva putthaLi gombe southern housewife has sung sometime or other while doingSakkare thuppada kaluve harisiShukra vaarada poojeya veLege “Aarathi” to the deities at the end ofAkkareyuLLa aLagiri rangana a puja!Chokka Purandhara viThalana raaNeeAck: www.saahitya-puta.org
  23. 23. Even if I just want to showcase a few of the devarunamas which never fail to inspire me,there are so many and so many that touch your heart. I am fascinated by each one of themand do not know which to highlight and which to leave.There is the lovely song in Sahana Raga “Kandu kandu nee enna kai biduvare krishna” thatsimply moves you to tears with his fervent appeal to Lord. There is the song “SundaraMuruthy Mukya Prana” in which Purandara Dasa virtually helps us to visualise Anjaneyadancing “janaku janaku endhu kunidhu kunidhu bandha” with the happiness of listening to“Rama nama dwani”.And then the song “Eesa beku idhdhu jeyisa beku” that infuses confidence into anyonegetting depressed with the trials and tribulations of day to day life.There are so many more devarunamas that have inspired me & others at various times. Butin order not to enlarge this reading material any further, permit me to bring this work to aconclusion by drawing your attention to a tribute paid to Sri Purandara Dasa by Sri VijayaDasa who lived during the period 1682-1755, more than 100 years after Sri Purandara Dasa.His composition “Guru Purandara Dasare” is in the next slide.
  24. 24. Sri Vijaya Dasaru (1682 – 1755)guru purandaradAsare nimma charaNakamalava nambide||garuvarahitana mADi ennanu poreva bhAravu nimmade||ondu ariyada mandamati nAnindu nimmanu vandipe|indireshana tandu tOrisi tande mADelo satkRupe||purandaragaDadolage nindu niruta dravyava galiside|paramapuruShanu vipranandadi karava nIDi yAchise||parama nirguNavanavanaritu harige sUreya nIDuta|aritu manadOlu haridu bhavagala taruni sahitA horaTane||mArajanakana sannidhAnadi sAragAnava mADuva|nAradare I rUpadindali chArudarushana tOrida|| Ack: www.aarshavani.org
  25. 25. My humble dedication of this write-up to two of the most important women in my life ………my mother and my wife.It is my mother’s frequent and voracious full throated singing of many of thesedevarunamas, during my childhood and boyhood days, which was instrumental in thesesongs mixing with my blood in such an intense manner. Those days I might not have beeneven aware these were all Purandara Dasaru’s padas. But they just started popping up oncemy serious spiritual journey commenced.And my dear wife for the way she has taken to these devarunamas and shares my own joy inlistening to them. My thanks to her for her companionship in this journey as well as fordoing a painstaking proof reading of this work.It is also a matter of happiness that my daughter, the other most significant lady in my life,has also gradually started swimming in this ocean, that is aptly named by Sri PurandaraDasa’s Guru Sri Vyasa Raja Theertharu as ……. “Purandaropanishad”.This piece is also dedicated to our good friends in Singapore who keep giving us a lot of joywith their singing of many of these dasapadas.
  26. 26. “Dharma brings happiness”

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