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Spoken communication skills

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Spoken communication skills

Spoken communication skills

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  • 1. SpokenCommunication Skills Developing Listening and Speaking Skills
  • 2. Communication What should be the main goal of an English language cousre?  To focus on developing students’ mastery of the the language form  OR  To focus on developing students’ ability to effectively communicate for study, work or leisure
  • 3. Features of using language for communication We communicate because we want to or need to, NOT just to practise the language Focus is on what we are communicating NOT on how we are communicating (ideas vs. language) The language that is used is VARİED in grammar and vocabulary, NOT made of a single structure or a few structures and NOT normally repeated over and over again
  • 4. Communication in the Classroom If you want to encourage real communication in the classroom you need to  Establish English as the main classroom language  Try to use interesting topics and stimulating activities, which take the learners’ minds off the language  Real life events ( weather, the students’ cloths, their health and mood, pictures and realia brought to class)  Events in the world outside ( new films, a circus in town, national sports victory, the students’ families, etc.)
  • 5.  Focus on fluency vs. accuracy  Support and encourage listeners in their efforts to communicate their ideas  Don’t try to control what they say  Don’t interrupt learners everytime they make a language mistake to correct them.
  • 6. Listening Skills Listening is not a ‘passive” skill but a “receptive” skill. It requires as much attention and mental activity as speaking. That of the time an individual is engaged in communication, approximately 9 per cent is devoted to writing, 16 per cent to reading, 30 per cent to speaking, and 45 per cent to listening.
  • 7. Debates concerning the development of listening skills Debates focusing on the nature of listening input  Whether or not listening should be made comprehensible for learners through simplification? Debates focusing on the role of listening in the early ELT curriculum  Whether teachers should stress the importance of learners haing a “silent period” in the early stages of learning and wait for “readiness” to produce the language
  • 8. Debates concerning the development of listening skills Debates on the role of listening for comprehension and development of oracy (the ability to understand and participate in spoken communication)  How can classroom practice rehearse the kinds of listening purposes and situations that learners will experience outside the classroom?  How can we help learners build confidence in dealing with authentic spoken English?  What kind of classroom procedures will develop listening ability?
  • 9. What do we know about the listening process? There are two types of listening processes  Bottom-up process  Top-down process Bottom-up:  We use our knowledge of language and our ability to process acoustic signals to make sense of the sounds that speech presents to us Top-down  We infer meaning from contextual clues and from making links between the spoken message and various types of prior knowledge which we hold.
  • 10. What learners need to be able todo in order to listen effectively Bottom-up processes  Retain input while it is being processed  Recognize word divisions  Recognize key words in utterances  Recognize key transitions in a discourse  Another interesting development was…  One of theproblems was.. / In contrast…  Recognize grammatical relations between key elements in sentences  Recognize the function of word stress in sentences  Recognize the function of intonation in sentences
  • 11. What learners need to be able todo in order to listen effectively Top-down processes  Use key words to construct the schema of discourse  Infer the role of the participants in a situation  Infer the topic of a discourse  Infer the outcome of an event  Infer the cause and effect of an event  Infer unstated details of a situation  Infer the sequence of a series of events  Infer comparisons  Distinguish between facts and opinions
  • 12. Types of Listening Participatory Listening  Interactional (for the purpose of engaging in social rituals)  Transactional (for the purpose exchanging information)  İdentification of specific details Non-Participatory  Listening to live conversations without taking part  Listening to announcements to extract info.  Listening to or watching films, plays, radio and songs where purpose is enjoyment  Following instructions in orderto carry out a talk efficiently  Attending a lecture or following a lesson  Liistening someon egive a public address
  • 13. What are the implications for the English Language Classroom? Creating reasons for listening (motivate students)  Teachers need to ensure that learners experience a range of listening purposes, especially those that might be immediately relevant to their lives outside the classroom.  What purpose might there be for listening to this particular text?  Is thatpurpose similar to the purpose a listener might have in real life?  Does the task given to the learner encourage that listening purpose?
  • 14.  Which is more authentic?  Asking learners to listen to a short airport announcement to obtain information about a particular flight, as a passenger ?  OR  Asking learners to listen for the details of four different flights ?  Skills that are practised  Listening for key words  Picking out relevant information  Retaining significant details
  • 15. Designing listening activities for the classroom The standard procedure used for listening activities are  Pre-listening stage  While-Listening stage  Post-listening stage
  • 16. Pre-Listening stage The purpose of the pre-listening stage is to Prepare the learners for what they are going to hear by  activating existing prior knowledge  introducing necessary schematic knowledge  Introducing the language which students will encounter Objectives  Contextualize the text  Provide any information to help learners appreciate the setting and the role relationships between particiapnts
  • 17. Activity types for the pre-listening stage Predicting content from the title of a talk Talking about a picture which relates to the text Discuss relevant experiences Discussing the topic Answering a set of questions about the topic Agreeing or disagreeing with opinions about the topic Associate vocabulary about the yopic Predict info. about the topic Write questions about the topic
  • 18. While-Listening Stage Purpose of While-listening stage is  TO HELP learners understand the text  While learners listen they need to be involved in an authentic purpose for listening and encouraged to attend to the text more intensively
  • 19. While-Listening activities Ticking multiple-choice items Filling in a chart Complete a table, map or picture Matching pictures with the text Making notes Answer questions Complete sentences
  • 20. Post-Listening Activities The purpose of post-listening activities is to help learbners connect what they have heard with their own ideas and experienxe. Helps learners to move easily from listening to another skill.
  • 21. Post-listening Activities Give opinions Relate similar experiences Role-play a similar interaction Write a brief report Write a similar text Debate the topic