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Sigmund Freud

Sigmund Freud

Published in Technology , Self Improvement
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  • 1.
    • Principles of Sociology
    • SOC 101 DCCC
    • Michael T. Ryan
  • 2.
    • How does Freud explain socialization and self development?
    • Through a process of psychosexual development with the following stages:
      • 1. The Oral stage from birth to two
          • Oral gratification as the focus for pleasure seeking
          • Parent/child conflict over turn taking and delaying gratification
      • 2. The Anal stage from two to four
          • Anal gratification as the focus for pleasure seeking
          • Parent/child conflict over toilet training
  • 3.
        • 3. Phallic stage four to seven
          • Discovery of genitals and masturbation
          • The Oedipal and Electra complexes
            • The young boy competes with his father for the love of the mother
            • The young girl competes with her mother for the love of the father
            • If resolved successfully the children realize that mom belongs to dad, that dad belongs to mom, and that they will have to get their own dates for New Year’s Eve
            • Personality development is completed: “Child is father to man.”
            • Self as processual and product
  • 4.
        • 4. Latency stage from seven to puberty
          • The child turns away from emotional development to pursue intellectual development
          • No parent/child conflicts to resolve
        • 5. Genital stage from puberty on
          • Adult sexuality becomes the focus for emotional development
          • Parent/adolescent conflicts over friends, lovers, and whom adolescents want to become as adults
  • 5.
    • Freud’s concept of psyche includes three aspects or elements: id/ego/superego
      • The “id” is the natural/biological side of the psyche
        • The id is unconscious
        • The id is primitive, irrational
        • The id operates on the ”pleasure principle”
        • seeking instant gratification of the actor’s needs
          • Especially pleasure seeking and aggressive behavior
  • 6.
    • The ego is a cultural element in the Psyche that is socially constructed through interactions between parent and child
        • The ego is conscious
        • The individual as agent
        • The ego operates on the “reality principle”
          • If the individual wants the benefits of Modern Civilization, she must defer immediate gratification until she “pays her dues,” i.e., work comes before play
        • The ego is a mediator between: the id and superego and between the individual and society
  • 7.
    • The superego is another cultural element that is socially constructed through interactions between parent and child
      • The superego is unconscious
      • “ The operation of culture in the individual”
      • The superego is formed through the internalization of the authority of the parents
        • The child learns and internalizes the norms, values, and behavioral expectations of her parents
        • The superego is an internal control system that makes social interactions relatively smooth
          • aka “conscience”
  • 8.
    • Why is Freud’s work important for sociologists?
      • Sociologists have to make some assumptions about psychic processes and structure
      • Talcott Parsons, eminent functionalist theorist, incorporated Freud’s concepts into his theory of socialization after going through psychoanalysis himself
      • Freud is the first scientist to take up the analysis of human sexuality at a time when sex was a taboo topic
      • Insights into apparently bizarre forms of sex
  • 9.
    • Freud discovered “infantile sexuality”
    • Freud emphasized the importance of intimacy between parent and child for normal self development
      • Parents combine love and authority as agents of socialization
      • Relations with parents predispose child for relations with other authority figures
    • Freud also recognized the conflicts structured into family relations
    • Freud also recognized that emotional ties were ambivalent relations: love and hate
    • Freudian theory can handle deviant as well as conformist behavior
      • E.g., New York Judge who extorted his adulterous lover
    • Although, sociologists reject Freud’s claim that most of our behavior stems from deep level unconscious motives
  • 10.
    • Freud gives us a conception of personality and socialization that incorporates the interaction of nature and nurture
    • Freud also gives us insights into the channeling of pleasure seeking and aggression into socially acceptable activities: work, art, athletics, friendships, etc
      • aka the process of “sublimation”