uty Et ics Natural L wTranscendental ealization Cos ic Order Soci l Welfare
The roots of Hinduism Harappan Civilization: Indus river valley archeological ruins At least 4500 years old The Great Pool
Ancient Images still apart of Hinduism today(from the Harappan civilization) Prefiguring Shiva Lingams
The roots of Hinduism The Aryan Invasion Theory: Outside invaders enter India from the northwest Beginning 4000 years ago Bringing their culture & religion with them A hotly debated theory!
The Vedic Tradition Elements presumed to be of Aryan influence that continue to be a part of Hinduism today: Sanskrit language Vedic texts (composed in Sanskrit) Patriarchal rule Social class distinctions (caste) & the role of the priests (Brahmins) Rituals & the Fire Sacrifice
The Vedas First written around 1500 BCE but composed and transmitted orally long before then “Heard” (shruti) by ancient sages Four parts, developed over time: Samhitas: hymns of praise in worship of deities (Rig Veda is oldest) Brahmanas: directions for priestly performance of rituals Aranyakas: “forest books” written by hermits Upanishads: metaphysical teachings of spiritual masters (Vedanta: the end of the Vedas) (composed 600-400 BCE)
The Fire Sacrifice Burnt offerings made to the gods through Agni (ignite), the god of fire performed by the brahmin (priest), Maintaining the cosmic order through recreation of the original sacrifice made by the gods to create this universe Purusha: the primal being dismembered by the gods out of which all was created (Rig Veda 10.90)
Philosophy of theUpanishads Spiritual instruction, focused on inner experience, as a path to realization and immortality Brahman: The transcendent, all pervading, infinite and everlasting Ultimate Reality Atman: that Reality as it is found within ourselves – our soul is one with the “soul” of the universe
Reincarnation Samsara: continual cycle of birth-life-death-rebirth Into any life form – human or animal Only human rebirth affords the soul the opportunity to advance toward the goal of liberation from this cycle = moksha
Karma Consequences of our actions In this life and beyond – carried over to our future lives The law of cause and effect: Past actions affect our present life Present actions affect our future life Good deeds good karma good experiences Bad deeds bad karma bad experiences Karma keeps samsara going
Yoga - T he Paths toMoksha Moksha: ultimate goal is to eliminate karma so as to be liberated from Samsara – the limitations of space, time and matter Yoga: The path to Union with the divine Four options: Raja Yoga – the path of meditation Jnana Yoga – the path of knowledge Karma Yoga – the path of selfless action Bhakti Yoga – the path of loving devotion to god
Review ActivitiesThe Vedic TraditionUpanishadic MetaphysicsYogaAccess these and other review activities at:http://www.nvcc.edu/home/lshulman/religions/H
IDENTIFY these terms1. The people who invaded India a. Aryans bringing their Vedic sacrificial religion with them b. Atman2. The cycle of birth, life, death and rebirth as well as the realm of c. Brahman space and time wherein this takes place d. Moksha3. Release (liberation) from this cycle4. The true essence of the human e. Samsara self, identified with Brahman5. The impersonal Ultimate Reality in Hindu philosophy
The oldest of Indiansacred texts is: a. Upanishads b. Rig Veda c. Adi Granth d. Bhagavad Gita
Do you know thedifference between... 1. Brahma a. The creator god of the Hindu pantheon 2. Brahman b. The priestly caste of Hindu society 3. Brahmin c. Collection of early sacred texts 4. Brahmana d. The impersonal ultimate reality of Hindu metaphysical philosophy
MATCH the yogas:1. Karma a) The path of knowledge2. Jnana b) The path of devotion3. Raja c) The path of meditation4. Bhakti d) The path of selfless action
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