Mexican Ruins:Aztecs and Mayan People Por: Sra. Fleener Español II
Aztec History► Mainly lived in central México, around what is today México City.► Well known for hunting and gathering► Started in the north and migrated to the south.► Precise people but not as precise as the Mayan people.► The symbol of the snake on top of the cactus on México’s flag came from this civilization.► http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/out-of-egypt-aztec-ru (Video)
Aztec Calendar► Two calendars in one► Tonalpohualli (day count) calendar = 260 days► Xiuhpohualli calendar = 365 days - 18 months with 20 daysClick here to see what each day means in English. http:// www.ancientscripts.com/aztec.html
Teotihuacan► Near México City► Means “city of the gods” in Nahuatl► Pyramids► Pyrmamid of the Moon and Pyramid of the Sun► 50 pesos to enter► Daily tours 8-6 pm
Tlateloco► Sister city to Tenochtilan► Huge markets were well known here► People sold food, clothing, furniture, animal hides, etc.► Major drought between 1454-57 which led to a mass sacrifice of about 37 adults and 6 children.► Last battle ground of the Aztec and Spanish war.► 40,000 Aztec people died.
Tenochitlan► Near México City► Built on top of a lake and was a major battle ground during the Aztec/ Spanish war.► Temples were dedicated to Aztec gods and goddesses► Over 40 buildings can be found here► Sun Pyramid is the best known building in the city► Founded in 1325 and was destroyed in 1521
Mayan History► Loved science especially astronomy► Most ruins on Yucatan Peninsula and parts of Guatemala and Belize► Palenque, Chichen Itza and Tulum most common ruins► Famous for ball game called “Ulama”► Used nearby cenotes for execution
Mayan Calendar► Ancient times they thought there were 360 days in a year.► Had 18 days per month and there were 20 months.► Five extra days were left and these came at the end of the calendar cycle.► These extra days were considered to be unlucky.► What about 2012? – “the end of the world” according to the mayan “long count calendar” which marks the end of a 5100 year era.
Tulum Ruins Only Mayan ruin near water Located about 30 miles south of Playa del Carmen (Yucatan Peninsula) small city inhabited by about 600 people who lived in platform dwellings along a street and who supervised the trade traffic. Considered to be a walled city, most of the inhabitants probably lived outside the walls, leaving the interior for the residences of governors and priests and ceremonial structures.
Tulum Ruins Cont.► The main god honored at Tulum is the "diving god," or "Descending God," seen on several buildings as an upside-down figure above doorways.► The largest and most important building at Tulum is El Castillo (The Castle). Located closest to the sea, it probably served as a landmark for sailors.
Tulum Continued► The Temple of the Frescoes, directly in front of the Castillo, was used as an observatory for tracking the movements of the sun. It contains interesting 13th-century frescoes, though visitors are no longer permitted to enter.► On the white-sand beach below El Castillo, where the Maya once came to land, tourists can swim and sunbathe. Many combine a visit to the ruins with a swim in the Caribbean.► Some of the best coral reefs in the world here
Palenque Ruins► Located in the jungle► Lived here since 300 BC► Known for pottery► Water center for the mayan people► 35% of this ancient city has been excavated► Temple of the inscriptions – described King Pakal’s family tree
Chichen Itza► Largest Mayan city of the Yucatan Peninsula► Settled by farmers in the 4th century► Also a center of worship► Ruler was Kukulkan► “New Zone” – Toltec Influence► “Old Zone” – Puuc influence► http://video.nationalgeographic.com/video (Video)
El Castillo (Kukulcan Pyramid) El Castillo (Kukulkan pyramid) The architecture has a reference to the Mayan calendar. The four stairways leading up to the central platform each have 91 steps, making a total of 364; added to the central platform this equals the 365 days of the solar year. On either side of each stairway are nine terraces, which makes 18 on each face of the pyramid, equaling the number of months in the Maya solar calendar. On the facing of these terraces are 52 panels, representing the 52-year cycle when both the solar and religious calendars would become realigned. http://www.sacred-destinations.com/mexico/chichen-itza
Temple of the Warriors The Templo de los Guerreros (Temple of the Warriors), named for the carvings of warriors marching along its walls. Its also called the Group of the Thousand Columns for the rows of broken pillars that are there. If the sun is in the right spot the shadows of the pillars form a straight line. A figure of Chac-Mool sits at the top of the temple, surrounded by impressive columns carved in relief to look like enormous feathered serpents.
Ball Court at Chichen Itza Home to at least nine ball courts, which hosted the famous Mayan ball game. The largest one, the Juego de Pelota (Main Ball Court) is northwest of El Castillo. It is the largest and best-preserved ball court in the Mayan world. Both walls are carved with scenes showing Maya figures dressed as ball players and decked out in heavy protective padding. There is also a headless player kneeling with blood shooting from his neck, while another player holding the head looks on.http://www.sacred-destinations.com/mexico/chichen-itza
Cenotes► Used for sacrificing and ceremonial purposes.► Major source of water for the residence of Chichen Itza► Men, women, and children were thrown alive into these cenotes as a sacrifice to the gods in times of drought.► Many archeologist have found copper, gold, masks, cups and even bones► Most artifacts date back to 13th and 16th century AD
El Caracol Observatory El Caracol (The "Snail" or Observatory) was constructed over several centuries the additions and modifications reflect the Mayas careful observation of planet movements and increasingly exact measurements. Through slits in the tower walls, Mayan astronomers observed the cardinal directions, the approach of the spring and autumn equinoxes, as well as the summer solstice. Primarily used to track the planet Venus. The Spanish name, which means "snail," was inspired by a spiral staircase inside.