Jantar MantarMagic or Science?
Yantra - Tantra - MantraYantra              Machine, Instrument, ToolMantra              FormulaTantra              Techni...
Founders of Science in   Ancient India     Dr Nawal K Prinja
The Great RishisRishi means ‘SEER’: The discovererHindu Rishis were– philosophers– mathematicians– scientistsThey made fun...
The PuzzleBooks are written by       Aryans - not a race. Itcivilised people           means ‘noble people’Civilisations e...
Sage Atharvan: Discoverer of Fire  Rishi of Atharva Veda  4000 BC or even earlier“The sage Atharvan extracted theagni(fire...
Medhatithi : Designer of Bricks  Bricks (ishtaka) made to construct Yajna Kunds  Formulae for laying down of bricks-Yajur ...
Dirghatama: The First          AstronomerRealised the importance of having an eraTime determined by astronomical phenomeno...
Dimensions of Yuga“With the consonants they fill the nights, with the  vowels the days” - Aitareya Aranyaka   Verse Type  ...
One God - 3 Metaphorical Forms     Kala Purusha (Time) - Omniscient     Veda Purusha (Knowledge) - Omnipresent     Yajna P...
Discovery of Planets‘Star’ and ‘aster’ come from Sanskrit ‘Str’“He has studded the sky with constellations”               ...
First Medicinal Plant Symposium  Date : 700 BC (2700 years ago)  Venue : Regions of Himalayas  Proceedings : Charaka Samhi...
Symposium on Man and Disease:        The Question                       “What is the source of the                        ...
Pariksi Maudgalya         “Man is born of the          Spirit, likewise all          diseases are born of          the Spi...
Sage Saraloma   “No. The Spirit dislikes     pain. It would never on     its own accord yoke itself     to painful disease...
Varyovida“Mind by itself can’t cause any thing. Without a body, there cannot be any disease, not even the mind. All life s...
Hiranyaksha“Every thing does not depend on water. I am  aware of air-borne diseases. Man is the  result of the 5 physical ...
Sage Shaunaka“How can you have the 5 elements and the  consciousness without a creator or a father  and mother? Therefore,...
Bhadrakapya   “No. Blind are not born     of the blind. And you     cannot tell who the first     parents were. Creatures ...
Rishi Bharadwaja“I disagree. The doer always proceeds the  deed. Nature alone is the cause. Roughness  of the earth, fluid...
Kankayana      “Effort or lack of        effort is not        determined by the        course of nature.        Brahmaa, t...
Aterya“No. Brahmaa cannot give pain to his own  children. Evolution has taken place over  time. So time is the cause of cr...
Punarvasu’s Decision      “Truth is hard to find by taking        sides in a debate.      “The wholesome combination of   ...
Susruta: Father of Surgery125 surgical instruments made from steel14 varieties of bandages“Nil by Mouth” for abdominal ope...
Types of Operations Plastic and                 Fractures and Rhinoplastic                dislocations Transplanting skin ...
Atreya Punarvasu: First Teacher    of Systematic Medicine‘Charaka Samhita’ about 700 BCNoted for the symposia on: –   Infl...
Origin of Medical Terminology    Modern Science      Origin in SanskritDentistry    Teeth           DantOsteopathy    Bone...
Kanada: First Expounder of Lawof Causation and Atomic TheoryTen books known as ‘Vaisesika Darshana’About 1900 years oldFir...
Great MathematiciansMedhatithi- Extended numerals to billionsAryabhata- laid foundations of AlgebraLagadha - Rationalised ...
Science of Geometry‘Sulbha Sutras’ - Sulb means to measureBodhyana’s sutras are 2800 years oldUsed in the construction of ...
Pythagorus Theorem“The diagonal of a rectangle produces area  which its length and breadth produce  separately” - BS I-I-4...
Transfer a Square into a Circle                                   N“If you wish to circle a  square, draw half its  diagon...
Square Root of 2“Increase the measure by its third part, and  again by the fourth part less by the thirty-  fourth part of...
Vedic Mathematics       The ‘Parisista’ (appendix section) of the       Atharva Veda contains 16 ‘Sutras’       (formulae)...
Nikhilam                           Multiplication           99 × 89     1) Write the base       (100)                     ...
ConclusionsMany branches of modern scienceoriginated in India (Bharat)There is not much awareness about this richheritage ...
Good NewsYou can learn Sanskrit by correspondencecourse4 stages of 10 lessons each leading to adiplomaFrom Bharatiya Vidya...
The EndThank you and Namaskar
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Founders of science in ancient india

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The enclosed pdf file "Founders of Science in Ancient India" contains good information on our science heritage from ancient times.

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Founders of science in ancient india

  1. 1. Jantar MantarMagic or Science?
  2. 2. Yantra - Tantra - MantraYantra Machine, Instrument, ToolMantra FormulaTantra Technique
  3. 3. Founders of Science in Ancient India Dr Nawal K Prinja
  4. 4. The Great RishisRishi means ‘SEER’: The discovererHindu Rishis were– philosophers– mathematicians– scientistsThey made fundamental discoveriesAll reported in the great Vedic literature
  5. 5. The PuzzleBooks are written by Aryans - not a race. Itcivilised people means ‘noble people’Civilisations existed at River Saraswatibanks of riversWhere is your river? Now extinct but its path has been traced by satellite photographyAryan must have come Myth of Aryan invasionfrom outside India has been smashed
  6. 6. Sage Atharvan: Discoverer of Fire Rishi of Atharva Veda 4000 BC or even earlier“The sage Atharvan extracted theagni(fire)” - Rig VI-16-13 Greek mythology“The priests churn for agni as says that Prometheuswas done by Atharvan” - Rig X-21-5 stole fire from heavenPrometheus = Pra + ManthaIn Sanskrit ‘by’ ‘Churning’
  7. 7. Medhatithi : Designer of Bricks Bricks (ishtaka) made to construct Yajna Kunds Formulae for laying down of bricks-Yajur Veda (XIII)There are specific names of many mechanical processes and implements in the Vedas Grinding, pounding, filtering, preserving Wheel, axle, hook, spade, boiler, pressing stone, mixing bowl, fuel, pitcher with 100 holes, weaving shuttle, drum, measuring tape
  8. 8. Dirghatama: The First AstronomerRealised the importance of having an eraTime determined by astronomical phenomenonVedic sages defined – Lunar year 354 days – Solar (Tropical) year 365 1/4 days – Civil year 360 days (21 days added every 4th year)
  9. 9. Dimensions of Yuga“With the consonants they fill the nights, with the vowels the days” - Aitareya Aranyaka Verse Type Syllables No. of Verses Total Brhati 36 12000 432000 Pankti 40 10800 432000 Kali yuga = 432000 syllables = 432000 years Dwapara yuga = 2 x Kaliyuga = 864000 years Tretaa yuga = 3 x Kaliyuga = 1296000 years Sata yuga = 4 x Kaliyuga = 1728000 years Total = Chaturyugi = 10 x kaliyuga = 4320000 years One divine day = 1000 Chaturyugi = 4320 million years Divine Day = Creation Divine Night = Dissolution
  10. 10. One God - 3 Metaphorical Forms Kala Purusha (Time) - Omniscient Veda Purusha (Knowledge) - Omnipresent Yajna Purusha (Action) - Omnipotent – Rig Veda X.90 and I.164The Supreme Purusha on chariot with two yokes and 7 horsesHorses or sons = cycles of time = Kala, muhurta, dina, ardhamasa,masa, rtu(season), caturmasa(quarter year)2 Yokes = Solictice Uttarayana (summer) Dakshinayana (winter)
  11. 11. Discovery of Planets‘Star’ and ‘aster’ come from Sanskrit ‘Str’“He has studded the sky with constellations” - Rig Veda I-68.5 Vamadeva identifies Jupiter (Brhaspati) – Rig IV-50.4 Vena Bhargava identifies Venus – Rig X-123.1
  12. 12. First Medicinal Plant Symposium Date : 700 BC (2700 years ago) Venue : Regions of Himalayas Proceedings : Charaka Samhita Organiser : Rishi Bhardvaja“He taught the science of causes, symptoms and medication- the tripartite science” -Charaka Samhita I-24
  13. 13. Symposium on Man and Disease: The Question “What is the source of the man and the disease? Do both come from the same source?King Vamaka of Kashi
  14. 14. Pariksi Maudgalya “Man is born of the Spirit, likewise all diseases are born of the Spirit. The Spirit is the source of all”
  15. 15. Sage Saraloma “No. The Spirit dislikes pain. It would never on its own accord yoke itself to painful diseases. The real cause is the mind when its engrossed by passion and ignorance”
  16. 16. Varyovida“Mind by itself can’t cause any thing. Without a body, there cannot be any disease, not even the mind. All life started from water. Water is the cause of all diseases.”
  17. 17. Hiranyaksha“Every thing does not depend on water. I am aware of air-borne diseases. Man is the result of the 5 physical elements and consciousness.”
  18. 18. Sage Shaunaka“How can you have the 5 elements and the consciousness without a creator or a father and mother? Therefore, parents are the origin of both, the individual and the disease.”
  19. 19. Bhadrakapya “No. Blind are not born of the blind. And you cannot tell who the first parents were. Creatures are born of the merits of action and from the actions arise the diseases.”
  20. 20. Rishi Bharadwaja“I disagree. The doer always proceeds the deed. Nature alone is the cause. Roughness of the earth, fluidity of water, mobility of air and heat of fire.”
  21. 21. Kankayana “Effort or lack of effort is not determined by the course of nature. Brahmaa, the Creator of the universe, is the source of all”
  22. 22. Aterya“No. Brahmaa cannot give pain to his own children. Evolution has taken place over time. So time is the cause of creation of Man and disease.”
  23. 23. Punarvasu’s Decision “Truth is hard to find by taking sides in a debate. “The wholesome combination of the physical elements gives rise to the well being of Man. Unwholesome combination leads to disease” Balanced elements = At ease with each other Unbalanced elements = not at ease = dis + ease = diseaseNow known as the Ayur Veda
  24. 24. Susruta: Father of Surgery125 surgical instruments made from steel14 varieties of bandages“Nil by Mouth” for abdominal operationsUse of antiseptics (mustard, nimba leaves etc)Training of surgeons on dead animals and watermelonClassified surgical operations into 8 kinds – extraction,excising,incising,probing,scarifying, suturing,puncturing and evacuating fluid
  25. 25. Types of Operations Plastic and Fractures and Rhinoplastic dislocations Transplanting skin Removal of flaps Haemorrhoids Cataract crouching Caesarean HerniaAlexendra’s invasion brought it to Greeceand then to rest of the Europe
  26. 26. Atreya Punarvasu: First Teacher of Systematic Medicine‘Charaka Samhita’ about 700 BCNoted for the symposia on: – Influences of Vata – Origin of man and disease – Taste and its enumeration – Growth of foetal limbs – Use of the emetic nut and dose of the anema
  27. 27. Origin of Medical Terminology Modern Science Origin in SanskritDentistry Teeth DantOsteopathy Bones AsthiGeriatrics Old Age JeernChiropody Feet CharnDermatology Skin Churm
  28. 28. Kanada: First Expounder of Lawof Causation and Atomic TheoryTen books known as ‘Vaisesika Darshana’About 1900 years oldFirst to explore the relation between ‘Causeand Effect’Identified atoms (Parmanu) as the buildblocks of matterDefined chemical action (Paka)
  29. 29. Great MathematiciansMedhatithi- Extended numerals to billionsAryabhata- laid foundations of AlgebraLagadha - Rationalised AstronomyBaudhayana - The first great Geometer
  30. 30. Science of Geometry‘Sulbha Sutras’ - Sulb means to measureBodhyana’s sutras are 2800 years oldUsed in the construction of altars for yajnaDiscovered the Pythagorus theorem beforePythagorusFormula to draw a circle with same area ofa squareComputed square root of 2 = 1.414213
  31. 31. Pythagorus Theorem“The diagonal of a rectangle produces area which its length and breadth produce separately” - BS I-I-48 a c b a2 + b2 = c2
  32. 32. Transfer a Square into a Circle N“If you wish to circle a square, draw half its diagonal about its centre towards the North-East W line; then describe a circle together with the one- third of that which lies outside the square” - BS I-I-58
  33. 33. Square Root of 2“Increase the measure by its third part, and again by the fourth part less by the thirty- fourth part of itself” - BS I-61-2 D = a + a/3 + a/(3x4) - a/(3x4x34) √2 = 1 + 1/3 + 1/(3x4) - 1/(3x4x34) = 1.4142
  34. 34. Vedic Mathematics The ‘Parisista’ (appendix section) of the Atharva Veda contains 16 ‘Sutras’ (formulae) that turn difficult Mathematics into simple and fun calculations.The material is mostly based on ‘Vedic Mathematics’by Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji of Govardan Pitha, weare grateful to him for revealing the cryptic mysteriesof the Sutras.
  35. 35. Nikhilam Multiplication 99 × 89 1) Write the base (100) 99 01 2) Find the first complement 11 3) And the second complement 895) Finally, cross subtract 88 11 4) Multiply the complements The answer is 8811
  36. 36. ConclusionsMany branches of modern scienceoriginated in India (Bharat)There is not much awareness about this richheritage of IndiaKnowledge of Sanskrit is essential todiscover our own riches
  37. 37. Good NewsYou can learn Sanskrit by correspondencecourse4 stages of 10 lessons each leading to adiplomaFrom Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Manchester
  38. 38. The EndThank you and Namaskar

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