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Erik erikson the life span approach


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Erik Erikson - The Life Span Approach

Erik Erikson - The Life Span Approach

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  • 1. Erik Erikson: The Life- Span Approach
  • 2. Psychosocial Stages of Personality Development8 successive stages over the lifespanAddresses bio, social, situational, personalinfluencesCrisis: must adaptively or maladaptively copewith task in each developmental stage – Respond adaptively: acquire strengths needed for next developmental stage – Respond maladaptively: less likely to be able to adapt to later problemsBasic strengths: Motivating characteristics andbeliefs that derive from successful resolution ofcrisis in each stage
  • 3. Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Mistrust Birth to age 1 Totally dependent on others Caregiver meets needs: child develops trust Caregiver does not meet needs: child develops mistrust Basic strength: Hope – Belief our desires will be satisfied – Feeling of confidence
  • 4. Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and DoubtAges 1-3Child able to exercise some degree ofchoiceChild’s independence is thwarted: childdevelops feelings of self-doubt, shame indealing with othersBasic Strength: Will – Determination to exercise freedom of choice in face of society’s demands
  • 5. Stage 3: Initiative vs. GuiltAges 3-5Child expresses desire to take initiative inactivitiesParents punish child for initiative: childdevelops feelings of guilt that will affectself-directed activity throughout lifeBasic strength: Purpose– Courage to envision and pursue goals
  • 6. Stage 4: Industriousness vs. InferiorityAges 6-11Child develops cognitive abilities to enablein task completion (school work, play)Parents/teachers do not support child’sefforts: child develops feelings ofinferiority and inadequacyBasci strength: Competence– Exertion of skill and intelligence in pursuing and completing tasks
  • 7. Stages 1-4– Largely determined by others (parents, teachers)Stages 5-8– Individual has more control over environment– Individual responsibility for crisis resolution in each stage
  • 8. Stage 5: Identity vs. Role ConfusionAges 12-18Form ego identity: self-imageStrong sense of identity: face adulthoodwith certainty and confidenceIdentity crisis: confusion of ego identityBasic strength: Fidelity– Emerges from cohesive ego identity– Sincerity, genuineness, sense of duty in relationships with others
  • 9. Stage 6: Intimacy vs. IsolationAges 18-35 (approximately)Undertake productive work and establishintimate relationshipsInability to establish intimacy leads tosocial isolationBasic strength: Love– Mutual devotion in a shared identity– Fusing of oneself with another person
  • 10. Stage 7: Generativity vs. StagnationAges 35-55 (approximately)Generativity: Active involvement inteaching/guiding the next generationStagnation involves not seeking outlets forgenerativityBasic strength: Care– Broad concern for others– Need to teach others
  • 11. Stage 8: Ego Integrity vs. DespairAges 55+Evaluation of entire lifeIntegrity: Look back with satisfactionDespair: Review with anger, frustrationBasic strength: Wisdom – Detached concern with the whole of life
  • 12. Assessment in Erikson’s TheoryPsychohistorical Analysis – Application of lifespan theory to lives of historical figuresPsychological Tests: – Instruments based on crises in stages
  • 13. Research in Erikson’s TheoryTrust– Early strong bonds with mother later were more curious, sociable and popularIdentity– Strong identity associated with greater cognitive and emotional functioning in college students– Crisis may begin later than age 12– Continuing process over the lifespan
  • 14. Research in Erikson’s TheoryGenerativity– Evokes need to feel closer to others– Correlated with extraversion, openness to new experiences– Likely to be involved in community, social relationships
  • 15. Research in Erikson’s TheoryMaturity– High ego integrity: spent much time reviewing their livesEthnic Identity– Ethnic minorities: ethnic identity significant factor in determining sense of self
  • 16. Contributions of EriksonPersonality develops throughout thelifetimeIdentity crisis in adolescenceImpact of social, cultural, personal andsituational forces in forming personality
  • 17. Criticisms of EriksonAmbiguous terms and conceptsLack of precision– Some terms are not easily measured empiricallyExperiences in stage may only apply tomalesIdentity crisis may only apply to thoseaffluent enough to explore identities