Indus Valley rivers• The two rivers that were the location for the early river valley civilization in India were the Ganges River and the Indus River.
Agriculture in India• Around 3200 B.C., people started farming in villages along the Indus River. This was the Indian version of the Neolithic Revolution (agricultural revolution)
Geography of India• Located south of Himalayan Mountains did provide isolation between India and China.• The Hindu Kush didn’t provide complete isolation because of the mountain passes. Northern India contains two rivers (Indus and Ganges)
Monsoon• These are the seasonal winds dominate India’s climate.• From October to May they blow dry winds to India.• Starting in the middle of June, the winds change bringing much rain to the area.
Harappa• Is one of the major cities of the Indus River civilization.• Some of the similarities with the cities in Sumer, flooding could be destructive and unpredictable.• They traded with the Sumerians.• They both had polytheistic religions.
Harappa cities • What made the Harappa’s cities unique for early civilization was that the grid like layout of their streets. • They used oven baked bricks for building. • Underground sewer system.
Shang• Shang Dynasty was the 1st dynasty recorded.• The Mandate from heaven was if a ruler was fair and just he would have divine approval to rule.• China also had the longest continuous civilization in the world.
Chinese writing • Writing 1st Writing was carving on bones or tortoise shells
Chinese Culture• Social• Family was most important in Chinese society• Elder men controlled family life• Girls have arranged marriages at 13-16
Shang Technology • Shang had bronze for tools and weapons and the production of silk.
Dynastic cycle • Dynastic Cycle formed-rise, decline, and replacement of Chinese dynasties
Caste system in India • Over the years many rules were made for how people in theses classes or castes could interact with each other. People were born into their caste for life.
Reincarnation • Hindus believe in reincarnation. They believe the soul is born again into another body after death. In the next life, the soul has another chance to learn its lessons.
Untouchables • Some “impure” people lived outside the caste system. They were butchers, grave diggers, and trash collectors. Due to this work being considered unclean, they were called untouchables.
Mahabharata • The Magadha was a group that won control over almost all of India. The epic poem Mahabharata was written and tells of the blending of cultures at the time. It also sets down ideals that were to become important to Hindu life.
Epics• The main purpose of the epics in ancient society was to teach moral values of the society.
Vedas • This was sacred literature of Hinduism. • The Vedas are four collections of prayers, magical spells, instructions for performing rituals.
Upanishads• From the vedas, the dialogue between teacher and students were called the upanishads.• Basically the upanishads are a written dialogue or discussion.
Sanskrit• The Aryans in ancient India used a language called sanskrit.
Karma • According to Hindus, how a person behaves in one life has an effect of the person’s next life. This is the soul’s karma – good or bad deeds.
Founding of Buddhism • Buddhism was started around the same time as Hinduism and Jainism. It was started around the 528 B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama. • A polytheistic religion
Buddhism• The ideas of Buddhism are eight fold path.• Nirvana• Four Noble truths
Eight fold path • Buddha then began to teach others on how to attain enlightenment. They were told to follow a plan of behavior called the Eightfold Path.
Nirvana • The eightfold path was right views, right resolve, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration. This would lead to nirvana or a release from selfishness and pain
Four noble truths• Buddha first sermon became a landmark in the history of the world’s religions.• It laid out the four main ideas that he had understood in his enlightenment called the four noble truths.
Judaism• Is a Monotheistic religion .• The holy book (sacred text) is the Torah.• Founded by Abraham
Ten commandants • They are a moral code that was passed from god (Yahweh) to Moses on Mount Sinai.