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  1. 1. Muscle Adaptation to Exercise<br />
  2. 2. Atrophy: Denervation atrophy<br />If the neurons to a skeletal muscle are destroyed or the neuromuscular junctions become nonfunctional, the denervated muscle fibers will become progressively smaller in diameter, and the amount of contractile proteins they contain will decrease. <br />
  3. 3. Atrophy: Disuse atrophy<br />A muscle with its nerve supply intact if the muscle is not used for a long period of time, as when a broken arm or leg is immobilized in a cast. <br />
  4. 4. Hypertrophy<br />Increased amounts of contractile activity (exercise) can produce an increase in the size of muscle fibers as well as changes in their capacity for ATP production. <br />
  5. 5. Aerobic training (Exercise)<br />exercise that is of relatively low intensity but of long duration<br />∞ increases in the number ofmitochondria in the fibers<br />∞ increase in the number of capillaries around these fibers<br /> ∞ increase in the capacity for endurance activity with a minimum of fatigue<br />
  6. 6. Strength training (Exercise)<br />short duration, high-intensity exercise that affects primarily the fast-glycolytic fibers, which are recruited during strong contractions <br />∞ increase in fiber diameter<br /> ∞ increase in the strength of the muscle and the bulging muscles of a conditioned weight lifter<br />∞ little capacity for endurance <br />
  7. 7. Exercise<br />produces little change in the types of myosinenzymes formed by the fibers and thus little change in the proportions of fast and slow fibers in a muscle<br />does change the rates at which metabolicenzymes are synthesized, leading to changes in the proportion of oxidative and glycolytic fibers within a muscle<br />
  8. 8. Aerobic Training<br />Strength Training <br />Effect on the cardiovascular system <br />Partially prevent the loss of muscle tissue that occurs with aging<br />Helps maintain stronger bones<br />
  9. 9. MuscleSoreness<br />extensive exercise by an individual whose muscles have not been used in performing that particular type of exercise<br />result of a mild inflammation in the muscle, which occurs whenever tissues are damaged <br />
  10. 10. Lever Action of Muscles and Bones <br />
  11. 11. Flexion and Extension<br />Flexion <br />- bending of a limb at a joint<br />Extension<br />- Straightening of a limb<br />
  12. 12. Antagonists<br />groups of muscles that produce oppositelydirected movements at a joint <br />
  13. 13. Flexion and Extension <br />
  14. 14. Skeletal-Muscle Disease<br />
  15. 15. Muscle Cramps<br />Produces by involuntary tetanic contraction of skeletal muscles<br />Nerve action potentials fire at abnormally high rates<br />
  16. 16. HypocalcemicTetany<br />The involuntary tetanic contraction of skeletal muscles that occurs when the extracellular calcium concentration falls to about 40% of its normal value. <br />
  17. 17. Muscular Dystrophy<br />Frequently encountered genetic diseases, most commonly in boys.<br />Associated with the progressive degeneration of skeletal- and cardiac-muscle fibers, weakening the muscles and leading ultimately to death from respiratory or cardiac failure.<br />
  18. 18. Myasthenia Gravis<br />Characterized by muscle fatigue and weakness that progressively worsens as the muscle is used. <br />Symptoms result from a decrease in the number of ACh receptors on the motor end plate. <br />
  19. 19. END<br />