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    part 7a part 7a Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 11
      Muscles
    • Structure
      Muscles cells
      generate force and movements used to regulate the internal environment, and they also produce movements in the external environment.
      Ex. skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle
    • Types of Muscle Tissues
      Skeletal muscles
      its contraction is responsible for supporting and moving the skeleton.
      contraction of skeletal muscle is initiated by impulses in the neurons to the muscle and is usually under voluntary control
    • Types of Muscle Tissues
      Smooth muscles
      Surround various hollow organs and tubes, Ex. stomach, intestines, urinary bladder, uterus, blood vessels, and airways in the lungs.
      The autonomic nervous system, hormones, autocrine/paracrine agents, and other local chemical signals control smooth muscle contraction. Some smooth muscles contract autonomously, however, even in the absence of such signals.
      Smooth muscle is not normally under voluntary control.
    • Types of Muscle Tissues
      Straited (Cardiac) Muscle
      Muscle of the heart
      Contraction propels blood through the circulatory system
    • Skeletal muscles
      Muscle fiber
      A single skeletal muscle cell
      Formed by fusion of undifferentiated, mononucleated cells, known as myoblasts into single cylindrical, multinucleated cell.
    • Structures
      Skeletal muscle differentiation is completed around the time of birth
      Continue to increase in size during growth from infancy to adult, but no new fibers are formed from myoblasts.
      If skeletal-muscle fibers are destroyed after birth as a result of injury, they cannot be replaced.
      New fibers can be formed, however, from undifferentiated cells known as satellite cells
      Does not restore a severely damaged muscle to full strength.
    • Structures
      Muscle
      refers to a number of musclefibers bound together by connective tissue.
      Tendons
      Collagen fibers that links the muscles and bones
      Located at each end of the muscles
    • Structures
      Striated muscles
      Under light microscope, is a series of light and dark bands perpendicular to the long axis of the fiber
      ex. Cardiac muscles
      Myofibrils
      cylindrical bundles with thick and thin filaments in the cytoplasm
      Cytoplasm of fiber is filled with myofibrils
      Skeletal-muscle fibers viewed through a light microscope. Each bracket at the left indicates one muscle fiber. Arrow
      indicates a blood vessel containing red blood cells.
    • Myofibrils
      Sarcomere
      One repeating unit of thick and thin filament in the myofibril
      Thick filaments
      Composed of contractile protein myosin
      Found in middle of sarcomere where their order parallel produces wide, dark A bands
      Thin filaments
      Composed of contractile protein actin
      As well as Troponin and Tropomyosin (regulation contraction)
    • Structures
      Each sarcomere contains 2 sets of thin filaments
      One end of each thin filament is anchored to a network of interconnecting protein called Z line
      Other end overlaps a portion of the thick filament
      I bands
      Light bands that lies between the ends of the A bands of two adjacent sarcomeres and contains those portions of the thin filaments that do not overlap the thick filaments.
      H zone
      Narrow light band in the center of the A band
      Only thick filaments, specifically their central parts, are found in the H zone
      M line
      Narrow, dark band in the center of the H zone
      Corresponds to proteins that link together the central region of the thick filaments
    • M line
    • Structures
      Titin
      A protein that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle
      Extends from Z line to M line
      linked to both the M-line proteins and the thick filaments
    • Structures
      Cross bridges
      Projections that bridges the space between overlapping thick and thin filaments
      portions of myosin molecules that extend from the surface of the thick filaments toward the thin filaments
      During contraction, the cross bridges make contact with the thin filaments and exert force on them
    • Molecular Mechanisms of Contraction
    • Contraction-turning on of the force-generating sites( cross bridges) in a muscle fiber.
      Relaxation- force generation is turned off and tension declines.
      the emotional state of low tension.
      Contraction and Relaxation
    • The sliding filament theory is the explanation for how muscles produce force (or, usually, shorten).  It explains that the thick and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortening the entire length of the sarcomere. 
      Sliding filament mechanism
    • Actin- globular proteins composed of a single polypeptide that polymerizes with other actins to form two intertwined helical chains.
      Actin-thin filament.
      Myosin-thick filament.
    • Is the sequence of events that occur between the time a cross bridge binds to a thin filament, moves, and then is set to repeat the process.
      Cross bridge cycle
    • 1. attachment of the cross bridge to the thin filament.
      2. movement of cross bridge, producing tension on the thin filament.
      3. detachment of the cross bridge from the thin filament.
      4. energizing of the cross bridge for it to repeat the cycle.
      Cross bridge cycle
    • 1. (ATP hydrolysis) provides energy for cross-bridge movement
      2. ATP binding tom myosin breaks the link formed between actin and myosin during cycle, allowing the cycle to be repeated.
      Roles of ATP
    • Roles of Troponin, Tropomyosin, and Calcium in contraction.
    • Tropomyosin and troponin are proteins that prevents cross bridges from interacting with actinin resting muscle fiber.
      Calcium triggers contraction by reaction with regulatory proteins that in the absence of calcium prevent interaction of actin and myosin.
      Introduction
    • Is a complex of three regulatory proteins that is essential to muscle contraction.
      Troponin is attached to the protein tropomyosin and lies within the groove between actin filaments in muscle tissue. 
      Troponin
    • Troponin C-binds to calcium ions to produce a conformational change in TnI
      Troponin T-binds to tropomyosin, interlocking them to form a troponin-tropomyosin complex
      Troponin I-binds to actin in thin myofilaments to hold the troponin-tropomyosin complex in place
      Individual subunits serve different functions:
    • Is an actin-binding protein that regulates actin mechanics.
      Chains of tropomyosin molecules are arranged end to end along the actin filament.
      It inhibits contraction by blocking the interaction of actin and myosin, except when influenced by troponin.
      Tropomyosin 
    • Muscle contraction is regulated by calcium ions, which will change thin filament into an activated state by binding to troponin.
      Removal of calcium from troponin reverses the process, turning off contractions.
      Calcium