Paula Boyden March ITP Presentation


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  • Ideally stop infection getting into shelters. Realistically aiming to minimise the risk of infection Minimise effects of infection i.e. spread within a shelter Incubation e.g. spread of infection at school/one of audience with sore throat. Go thro a period before clin sx Have to accept some admission to shelter will be incubating disease – no clinical signs, therefore cannot detect Excretion Towards end of the incubation period animals will start to shed. Excretion will be millions of organisms per gram of vomit or d+ before think it has an infection i.e. cannot say an individual is healthy, can only say it is clinically well Carriers e.g. Cat flu. Many cats end up excreting virus, may be intermittent. Shedding increases with stress. Major stress = re-homing centre/sanctuary
  • Direct In an ideal world all new animals would be quarantined; realistically won’t work due to the volumes taken in i.e. shaking hands / sniffing bottoms
  • i.e. anything a dog or cat comes into contact with Air: Kennel cough in dogs – infectious aerosol. Can sneeze around 3ft, so need at least 4ft distance between kennels across central walkway People behaviour very important in biosecurity: Staff trained Correct procedures
  • Zoonosis: Disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans All food poisoning organisms: Salmonella, Campylobacter 40% dogs carry Campylobacter, biggest cause of food poisoning in the UK and commonest human zoonosis in Europe. Main source poultry Each yr DT have 2-4 cases with Campylobacter. i.e. don’t wash their hands before making coffee. Moral = make your own coffee NB: If staff infected with Salmonella/Campy, will take home to their families CL Salmonella story, lost 9kg in 3d. Poorly defrostede turkey. Stayed +ve for 5months including daughter having no contact with turkey
  • Immunity: The power to resist infection or the action of certain poisons Definition of an antigen: a substance which the immune system recognises as foreign or non self Definition of an antibody: a glycoprotein which has the capacity to recognise and bind to foreign molecules
  • Inherited / innate immunity e.g. horses don’t get foot and mouth, cats don’t get canine distemper, dogs don’t get FeLV NB: Be aware that immunity not immediate i.e. even if vaccinate on entry to sanctuary, may still succumb to disease
  • Naturally acquired immunity results from an attack of some disease from which the animal has recovered. The bodies defence in this case is the production of antibodies and cellular immunity which destroy the foreign agent. A young animal may acquire passive immunity via the placenta in utero and/or through the colostrum of its dam These acquired antibodies are known as maternally derived antibodies. (MDA)
  • Artificially acquired : again there are two varieties, active or passive. Active Immunity This is produced by inoculating an animal with a vaccine (ie dead or modified bacteria or virus) or with a toxoid. The vaccine or toxoid stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies and to generate a ‘memory’ so that if the disease is encountered a rapid response is mounted. Vaccine: Here the immune response is mounted to the invading organism Toxoid: This is specific to tetanus (for the horse owners in the audience). Tetanus is a bacterial infection. The bacteria produces toxins (poisons). It is these poisons which cause the clinical signs of tetanus. Therefore the vaccine aims to stimulate the immune system to bind to the poisons to prevent the clinical signs of tetanus. Similarly, in the case of acute injury e.g. a cut, tetanus anti-toxin is administered to bind to any poisons before they can cause the clinical signs of tetanus. Passive immunity This attained by injecting animal blood serum drawn from the body of an immune animal into that of another. The serum contains antibodies which enable the animal to resist infection. This gives immediate immunity but is not long lasting; it can be used in the face of infection NOTE: Ensure delegates understand the difference between active and passive immunity
  • Feeding: Well fed  better immunity Pregnancy: decreases immunity. Huge draw on body Stress decreases immunity. Take dog off streets into sanctuary, can’t choose what to do so stress levels ^^^ Drugs e.g. steroids NB: Study done a couple of years ago re stress and cortisol levels. Suggested HAC as so high. Smell other dogs but cannot see and cannot get away.
  • Level of immunity needs to be ABOVE the level of infection i.e. need to keep level of infection BELOW level of immunity. Do this by proper management and proper cleaning
  • If are able to/cannot manage, as level of infection increases, exceeds immunity and disease results This will be a process of progression: incubation period  excretion  clinical signs of disease i.e. trying to avoid levels of infection exceeding levels of immunity. Otherwise potential exponential rise of infection Greater the stress, greater the immune system is suppressed and individuals become more prone to infection. Therefore HOW WE MANAGE ANIMALS IN SHELTERS IS CRITICAL
  • What is passive immunity: MDA T1/2 every 9 days approx Neonatal period is the only time in life when whole protein can be absorbed through the gut and into the body. Gut only permeable for 24-36hrs. Antibodies in first milk (colostrum only)
  • Emphasise importance of management and cleanliness. Higher the level of infection, more rapid the onset of disease. What does this mean? Lower levels means greater time lag before infection happens; may be the difference between being able to vaccinate and stimulate immunity. At least should reduce severity of clinical signs if not prevent altogether
  • NB: Immunity gap: period when maternal immunity too high to allow vaccine to stimulate immune system, but too low to prevent against infection
  • Most diseases are caused by either viruses or bacteria. Viruses - minute in size,need cells of the host to replicate. Bacteria - larger in size, multiply by division. In addition some diseases are caused by Protozoa and Helminths (larger organisms) such as lungworm in cattle (also known as husk).
  • Live vaccines are non-harmful strains of a disease that have had their ability to cause disease modified (reduced). They create a quicker immune response and immunity lasts longer. Killed vaccines have been rendered inactive. Immunity generally doesn’t last as long and more frequent boosters are required. Some vaccines would not be safe to have live components so killed vaccines have to be used. Heterologous vaccines: Some vaccines use components similar to the disease but not exactly the same to give cross protection against the diseases e.g. cowpox was used to vaccinate against smallpox in humans (smallpox is now officially eradicated from the world). Early distemper vaccines were actually measles vaccines (the 2 diseases come from the same family). Shope Fibroma virus cross protects against Myxomatosis. Toxoids: As mentioned before: tetanus is a bacterial infection. The bacteria produces toxins (poisons). It is these poisons which cause the clinical signs of tetanus. Therefore the vaccine aims to stimulate the immune system to bind to the poisons to prevent the clinical signs of tetanus. Similarly, in the case of acute injury e.g. a cut, tetanus anti-toxin is administered to bind to any poisons before they can cause the clinical signs of tetanus. Specific Antigen: Some vaccines are genetically engineered and have a specific piece of the virus which stimulates immunity e.g. FeLV. i.e. these are a purified form of vaccine – it is only the part of the virus that stimulates the immune system that is used in the vaccine.
  • Live vaccines: small, non harmful dose of the infectious agent. Will replicate in the body (hence the marked response) but will not cause disease. 4 main differences between live and killed vaccines (as listed): Greater stimulation of immune system: more dramatic response Much more rapid response i.e. rapid mobilisation due to replication of vaccine Generally single dose, but young e.g. puppies/kittens special case Immunity generally lasts longer
  • Killed vaccine: inoculate (inject) with a dose of the killed organism e.g. Nobivac Lepto 2. As the organism is killed and it does not replicate in the body there is: A less dramatic response A slower response Generally 2 doses are required to achieve the required level of immunity (irrespective of the age of the individual) More frequent boosters e.g. Lepto 2 must be given annually to maintain immunity cf Nobivac DHP, live vaccine, repeat every 3 years Safety Before a vaccine is brought to market, we need to prove 2 things: that it works (is efficacious) and that it is safe. In order to prove safety we have to administer multiple doses to ensure that there are no adverse reactions. For killed vaccines we have to give TWICE the dose. For live vaccines we have to give TEN TIMES the dose because they replicate in the body.
  • 4 main differences between live and killed vaccines; reiterate as per diagram Greater stimulation of immune system: more dramatic response Much more rapid response i.e. rapid mobilisation due to replication of vaccine Generally single dose, but young e.g. puppies/kittens special case Immunity generally lasts longer
  • Remove all faeces: organic material and disinfectant = nice smelling shit Clean thoroughly: smooth, impervious surfaces. Will dilute infectious material Pressure hose: useful BUT too often and will destroy material i.e. don’t do every day but as part of routine. NB: Coat oils on floor/walls – if poorly cleaned will remain in situ. Start to look soiled with grease/fat so pressure wash monthly. Disinfect: Need to mix with water to work properly. Follow correct dilution. Look at for approved disinfectants. Do not make stronger – not necessarily better. Equally weaker will be ineffective. May find 2 dilution levels – everyday use and in face of infection. If have outbreak often good to change disinfectant e.g. Trigene / Virkon. NB: Commercially made disinfectant have detergents to get into nooks and crannies. Hydrogen peroxide and chloride NOT a good substitute. Leave 20-30 mins to allow to work – won’t be effective if remove as soon as apply DRY: Essential part to complete the process. Most organsims hate drying. E.g. use sqeegee. I.e. bateria/virusesd prefer warm and wet
  • Walls between kennels need to be solid. Free flow of air means that disease particles not only enter central corridor but can spread from dog to dog via this route
  • Kennels have pop hatches which allow air to blow in from kennels to central corridor
  • Consider fans in central corridor pushing air through the kennels and to the outside i.e. cleanest air in central corridor
  • Hand washing
  • Ideally wash hands between each animal. Not practical in sanctuary situation, but should at least be done between blocks
  • Paula Boyden March ITP Presentation

    1. 1. International Training VeterinaryPaula Boyden BVetMed MRCVS Veterinary Director
    2. 2. INTRODUCTIONBiosecurityPopulation managementDuty of CareQuality of lifeStress management
    3. 3. BIOSECURITYPurpose: Minimise risk of infection Minimise effects of an infectionFactors Affecting Spread: Incubation Excretion of infection
    4. 4. TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION Direct Indirect Zoonosis
    5. 5. Direct Transmission
    6. 6. Indirect TransmissionWhat is a fomite? Floors/walls Bowls/blankets Air People
    7. 7. ZoonosisWhat is a zoonosis?
    8. 8. Immunity FIGHTS INFECTIOUS ORGANISMS Attacks body’s own cells Rejects and destroys i.e. Autoimmune disease abnormal cells e.g. cancer cells The Immune System Defends the body against Foreign (non self) antigens Rejects foreign cells e.g.Reactions to allergens e.g Organ transplantsPollens, foods, drugs etc
    9. 9. Types of Immunity I m m u n ityI n h e r it e d A c q u i r e d N a t u r a l ly A c q u i r e d A r t i f i c i a l ly
    10. 10. Naturally Acquired ImmunityActive following infection (antibodies & CMI)Passive MDA via dam’s milk (90%) via placental transfer
    11. 11. Artificially Acquired ImmunityActive vaccine or toxoidPassive injection of antibodies (antiserum)
    12. 12. Factors Affecting Immunity• Feeding• Pregnancy• Stress• Drugs
    13. 13. IMMUNITYImmunity - antibodies - previous contact/infection - vaccination - feeding - pregnancy - stress - drugs
    14. 14. INFECTION & IMMUNITYImmunityInfection
    15. 15. Rising Infection and Immunity Symptoms Immunity Infection Excretion starts Infection
    16. 16. Infection and Passive Immunity Infection Symptoms Low infectionImmunity levels Excretion starts Time
    17. 17. High and Low Levels of Infection Infection Symptoms High infection levels Low infectionImmunity levels Excretion starts Time
    18. 18. MATERNALLY DERIVEDMDA ANTIBODY Vaccination Weeks
    19. 19. MATERNALLY DERIVEDMDA ANTIBODY Vaccination Low infection level Weeks
    20. 20. MATERNALLY DERIVED ANTIBODY InfectionMDA Vaccination High infection levels Weeks
    21. 21. VaccinesVaccines are used to protect against:Viruses - eg ParvovirusBacteria - eg LeptospirosisProtozoa/Helminths eg Husk(sets off immune response identical to natural infection)
    22. 22. Types of VaccineLive, attenuated e.g. DHPKilled (inactivated) e.g. LeptospirosisHeterologous e.g. smallpoxToxoids e.g. Tetanus ToxoidSpecific Antigen (Sub unit)
    23. 23. Live Vaccines‘Better’ stimulation ofimmune systemV. rapid responseUsually single doseMore persistent level ofimmunity
    24. 24. Killed VaccinesGenerally require twoinjections for primarycourseRequire more frequentboostersNB - both must pass thesame safety tests
    25. 25. Primary Course Vaccination 10000Antibody Livetitre Killed 1 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 Age (weeks)
    26. 26. CLEANING• Remove all faeces• Clean thoroughly• Pressure hose• Disinfect• Leave 20-30 minutes• Dry
    27. 27. AIR MANAGEMENT
    28. 28. AIR MANAGEMENT
    29. 29. AIR MANAGEMENT
    30. 30. PEOPLEPersonal hygiene• Hand washing• Personal gels• Clothing
    31. 31. How to Wash Your Hands
    32. 32. Any Questions?
    33. 33. MANAGEMENT Quarantine Isolation Progression Sectioning
    34. 34. Questions so far?
    35. 35. WHY MANAGE STRAYS? Welfare Zoonoses: Rabies Toxocara/Echinococcus Enteric organisms Insect borne organisms Ringworm Public nuisance
    36. 36. MEASURING NUMBERSMobilityLack of individual identificationCatch/mark/releaseCalculation:Total population = number marked x total counted marked countedAlternatives
    37. 37. FACTORS AFFECTING NUMBERS Food Water Nesting spaces Birth rates Disease Mortality rates
    38. 38. METHODS OF CONTROL Killing Sanctuary Trap/neuter/release
    39. 39. NEUTERINGBenefit to individual: Reproductive system disease Neoplasia BehaviourPopulation controlCost
    40. 40. POPULATION DYNAMICS450400350300 Start250 0%200 70%150 80% 90%10050 0 8 pups/10yr 6 pups/10yr 6 pups/5yr 3 pups/5yr
    41. 41. MALE OR FEMALE?Males onlyFirst year - 10 male, 10 female, 20 dogsResult: 60 pups produced Neuter 9 adult malesSecond year- 1 entire male, 9 neutered males, 10 females, 60 pupsResult: 60 more pups produced Population 130 dogs 1 very tired but happy male
    42. 42. MALE OR FEMALE?Females onlyFirst year - 10 male, 10 female, 20 dogsResult: 60 pups produced Neuter 9 adult femalesSecond year- 10 males, 9 neutered females, 1 entire female, 60 pupsResult: 6 pups produced Population 86 dogs
    43. 43.
    44. 44. Questions so far?
    45. 45. DUTY OF CAREAn animal’s needs: for a suitable environment for a suitable diet to be able to exhibit normal behaviour patterns to be housed with, or apart from, other animals to be protected from pain, suffering, injury and disease
    46. 46. QUALITY OF LIFEAnimal’s feelingsRelationship to welfareAffected by: Housing Exercise Companionship FeedingMeasurement
    52. 52. Questions so far?
    53. 53. STRESS MANAGEMENTMental stimulation Social interaction – conspecifics Social interaction – humans ToysDrugsNeutraceuticals
    54. 54. SUMMARYBiosecurity – down to youPopulation management – down to your relationshipsDuty of care – your managementQuality of life – needs more work