Feline Infectious Disease         Control  Maggie Roberts BVM&S MRCVS  Director of Veterinary Services              Reg Ch...
Cats ProtectionWhat Do We Do?  •UK only charityEducation  •Public  •Veterinary Profession  •Others in animal welfareNeuter...
Todays Talk - OverviewWhy are infectious diseases a problem?A few specific cases        Cat ‘flu        Feline Parvovi...
What makes cats different?Cats were originally solitary hunters.Not evolved to live in close proximity with other cats....
Why do cats in shelters get sick?Immune System!!!StressHost susceptibilityTransient populationDifferent bugs from dif...
Direct (from cat to cat)Disease        Saliva e.g. FeLVtransmission   Sneezing e.g. cat ‘flu               Fighting e.g...
Cat ‘fluWhat is it?Feline herpesvirus (FHV)Feline calicivirus (FCV)Chlamydophila felisBordetella bronchiseptica
Cat ‘fluClinical Signs   Sneezing   Runny nose and eyes   Conjunctivitis   Ulcers   High temperature   Quiet and sub...
Feline herpesvirusFeline rhinotracheitis virusWho’s got herpes?Cats will be lifelong ‘carriers’  Virus shedding  Shed...
Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu       Feline herpesvirus
Feline herpesvirus
Feline calicivirusConstantly mutates – clever!Virus survives in the environment for up to 10dSpread by direct and indir...
Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu        Feline calicivirus
Feline calicivirus                    (VSD)New strain known as ‘Virulent Systemic Disease’  Swelling of head and paws  ...
VSD
ChlamydophilosisA bacteriaLikes to piggy back on virusesGot to treat it right or it sticks aroundEasy to kill in envir...
Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu      Feline chlamydophilosis
Cat ‘flu     What do you do??        VACCINATEIsolate and barrier nurseGood nursing careCan’t kill the virusAntibiotic...
Infectious diarrhoeaCausesViral agents       WormsParvovirus         RoundwormsCoronavirus        TapewormsBacterial agent...
Feline ParvovirusAlso known as:parvoenteritispanleucopeniaWhat is it?VirusBad newsSpread between cats bydirect or in...
Feline ParvovirusClinical SignsSudden death with nosignsLack of appetiteHigh temperatureWeight lossSevere vomitingSe...
Feline ParvovirusGreatest disease threat to any rescue    facilityVery high death rate, particularly in    unvaccinated ...
Feline ParvovirusDiagnosisKitten post mortemBlood testFaecal sample
Feline ParvovirusWhat do you do?VACCINATE Isolate and barrier nurse Good nursing care Can’t kill a virus Fluids (oral ...
Infectious Diseases - Ringworm
RingwormWhat is it?A fungus known as a dermatophyteIt’s not gonna kill anyone, so why is it a big problem?
RingwormClinical SignsHair lossCrusting and scalingItchingCan mimic other skin diseasesCan look like anything – or no...
Infectious Diseases - Ringworm
RingwormREMEMBER RINGWORM IS A   ZOONOTIC DISEASE
RingwormDiagnosisWoods lampHair culture
RingwormWhat do you do?Isolate and barrier nurse: sporesOral medication  Itraconazole (Itrafungol; Janssen) for 5 week ...
RingwormCP says:      3 CLEAR CULTURES BEFORE HOMINGThings to Remember:Ringworm spores can survive up to 2 yearsAppropr...
FeLVWhat is it?Feline Leukaemia VirusA retrovirus‘Friendly’ disease spreadIf mum has it – all kittens will tooOnly su...
FeLVClinical SignsRecurrent secondary infectionsHigh temperatureLethargyCancerous tumoursAnaemia                  Pho...
FeLVWhat do you do?In house test e.g. Idexx snap testConfirm positive results
FeLVWhat do you do?Isolate suspected cases and barrier nurseTest all in contact cats85% of infected cats die within 3 y...
FIV  What is it?  Feline Immunodeficiency  virus  A retrovirus  ‘Fighting’ disease spread  by biting and fighting  If ...
FIVClinical SignsEverything!!Recurrent secondary infectionsWeight lossHigh temperatureLethargyGingivitisDiarrhoeaN...
FIVWhat do you do?Test all in contactcatsSeparateCP PolicyIndoor homeEuthanasia forpositive ferals and sickpositive c...
FeLV/FIVIdeal to test everyone– cost issueWhich cats do CP test?Sick catsUnneutered adult tomsPregnant queensNursing q...
FeLV and FIV in the shelterVirus does not survive long in the environmentUsually needs direct contact (grooming, fightin...
Containing disease         Why know about the         bugs??         What’s a Fomite?         We are the major source  ...
Containing DiseasePersonal Protective Equipment Apron Gloves Oversuit Sleeves Overshoes Hat or hood on oversuit Mas...
Containing Disease Keep infected cat isolated  from all other cats Wear and use Personal  Protective Equipment  (PPE) U...
Containing diseaseHave separate cleaning utensils for isolated catUse disposable litter trays and food bowls or return t...
Containing   Disease Use disposable bedding or soak in  disinfectant before washing on hot cycle Wash contaminated beddi...
Containing disease        Deep clean area for         5 continuous days         after housing         infected cat       ...
Disease preventionAvoid over-crowdingKeep cats singly or only with cats from the same sourceUse full height sneeze barr...
Disease preventionReduce stress as much as possibleHealth check by a vetScreen for disease where possibleGood preventa...
Vaccination  Core - essential in allrescue facilities as aminimum  FHV  FCV  FPV  Rabies in endemic    area
VaccinationNon-core – dependson risk, fundsavailableFeLVChlamydophilafelisBordetellabronchiseptica
Thank You!
Maggie Roberts March ITP presentation
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  • Maggie Roberts March ITP presentation

    1. 1. Feline Infectious Disease Control Maggie Roberts BVM&S MRCVS Director of Veterinary Services Reg Charity 203644 (England and Wales) and SCO37711 (Scotland)
    2. 2. Cats ProtectionWhat Do We Do? •UK only charityEducation •Public •Veterinary Profession •Others in animal welfareNeutering •Early Neutering •Financial assistance •FeralsRehoming •Reuniting owned animals •Accepting strays and handed in cats •Rehabilitate and rehome
    3. 3. Todays Talk - OverviewWhy are infectious diseases a problem?A few specific cases Cat ‘flu Feline Parvovirus Ringworm FeLV FIVHow we contain disease
    4. 4. What makes cats different?Cats were originally solitary hunters.Not evolved to live in close proximity with other cats.Cats can be carriers of disease without showingsymptoms
    5. 5. Why do cats in shelters get sick?Immune System!!!StressHost susceptibilityTransient populationDifferent bugs from different placesShelter environment factorsPopulation density
    6. 6. Direct (from cat to cat)Disease Saliva e.g. FeLVtransmission Sneezing e.g. cat ‘flu Fighting e.g. FIV Rubbing e.g. Ringworm Indirect (from people or objects) Pens e.g. Ringworm Litter trays e.g. Coronavirus Food bowls e.g. FeLV People’s hands, shoes etc e.g. Parvovirus
    7. 7. Cat ‘fluWhat is it?Feline herpesvirus (FHV)Feline calicivirus (FCV)Chlamydophila felisBordetella bronchiseptica
    8. 8. Cat ‘fluClinical Signs Sneezing Runny nose and eyes Conjunctivitis Ulcers High temperature Quiet and subdued Loss of appetite Dribbling A cough or loss of voice Gingivo-stomatitis Lameness
    9. 9. Feline herpesvirusFeline rhinotracheitis virusWho’s got herpes?Cats will be lifelong ‘carriers’ Virus shedding Shedding may last up to 14 days Virus survives in environment for only 18hrs Spread by direct and indirect contact
    10. 10. Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu Feline herpesvirus
    11. 11. Feline herpesvirus
    12. 12. Feline calicivirusConstantly mutates – clever!Virus survives in the environment for up to 10dSpread by direct and indirect contactCats can become ‘carriers’ 50% still shedding 75 days after infection Most cats stop shedding 1 year after infection Some will be lifelong carriers - without symptoms!20-30% of cat population estimated to be shedding
    13. 13. Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu Feline calicivirus
    14. 14. Feline calicivirus (VSD)New strain known as ‘Virulent Systemic Disease’ Swelling of head and paws Flu signs Jaundice Bleeding from nose and bowel DeathAll ages can get itEven vaccinated cats
    15. 15. VSD
    16. 16. ChlamydophilosisA bacteriaLikes to piggy back on virusesGot to treat it right or it sticks aroundEasy to kill in environmentSpread by direct contact only
    17. 17. Infectious Diseases – Cat ‘flu Feline chlamydophilosis
    18. 18. Cat ‘flu What do you do?? VACCINATEIsolate and barrier nurseGood nursing careCan’t kill the virusAntibiotics for secondaryinfectionsPain reliefDecongestantsReduce stressSpecific testing may not benecessary?
    19. 19. Infectious diarrhoeaCausesViral agents WormsParvovirus RoundwormsCoronavirus TapewormsBacterial agents Protozoan agentsCampylobacter GiardiaSalmonella CoccidiaE Coli Tritrichomonas foetus
    20. 20. Feline ParvovirusAlso known as:parvoenteritispanleucopeniaWhat is it?VirusBad newsSpread between cats bydirect or indirect contactwith contaminated faecesSurvives in theenvironment a long time
    21. 21. Feline ParvovirusClinical SignsSudden death with nosignsLack of appetiteHigh temperatureWeight lossSevere vomitingSevere diarrhoea with blood and mucusDehydration
    22. 22. Feline ParvovirusGreatest disease threat to any rescue facilityVery high death rate, particularly in unvaccinated kittens
    23. 23. Feline ParvovirusDiagnosisKitten post mortemBlood testFaecal sample
    24. 24. Feline ParvovirusWhat do you do?VACCINATE Isolate and barrier nurse Good nursing care Can’t kill a virus Fluids (oral or I/V) Antibiotics for secondary infections Vaccinate in face of outbreak Use the right disinfectants
    25. 25. Infectious Diseases - Ringworm
    26. 26. RingwormWhat is it?A fungus known as a dermatophyteIt’s not gonna kill anyone, so why is it a big problem?
    27. 27. RingwormClinical SignsHair lossCrusting and scalingItchingCan mimic other skin diseasesCan look like anything – or nothing
    28. 28. Infectious Diseases - Ringworm
    29. 29. RingwormREMEMBER RINGWORM IS A ZOONOTIC DISEASE
    30. 30. RingwormDiagnosisWoods lampHair culture
    31. 31. RingwormWhat do you do?Isolate and barrier nurse: sporesOral medication Itraconazole (Itrafungol; Janssen) for 5 week courseTopical treatments Miconazole shampoo (Malaseb; VetXX), Enilconazole (Imaverol; Janssen), Lime sulphurIf long haired may need clippingUse the right disinfectants
    32. 32. RingwormCP says: 3 CLEAR CULTURES BEFORE HOMINGThings to Remember:Ringworm spores can survive up to 2 yearsAppropriate disinfectants are: Bleach or Virkon (Peroxygen compound)Steam cleaning
    33. 33. FeLVWhat is it?Feline Leukaemia VirusA retrovirus‘Friendly’ disease spreadIf mum has it – all kittens will tooOnly survives for a few hours in the environmentCats may be infected but be asymptomatic for some time
    34. 34. FeLVClinical SignsRecurrent secondary infectionsHigh temperatureLethargyCancerous tumoursAnaemia Photo courtesy of Fort Dodge Animal HealthUsually young-middle aged cats
    35. 35. FeLVWhat do you do?In house test e.g. Idexx snap testConfirm positive results
    36. 36. FeLVWhat do you do?Isolate suspected cases and barrier nurseTest all in contact cats85% of infected cats die within 3 years of infectionCP euthanase confirmed FeLV positive cats
    37. 37. FIV What is it? Feline Immunodeficiency virus A retrovirus ‘Fighting’ disease spread by biting and fighting If mum has it 1/3 of kittens will become infected Only survives for a few hours in the environment Often middle- aged cats
    38. 38. FIVClinical SignsEverything!!Recurrent secondary infectionsWeight lossHigh temperatureLethargyGingivitisDiarrhoeaNeurological diseaseSkin disease
    39. 39. FIVWhat do you do?Test all in contactcatsSeparateCP PolicyIndoor homeEuthanasia forpositive ferals and sickpositive cats
    40. 40. FeLV/FIVIdeal to test everyone– cost issueWhich cats do CP test?Sick catsUnneutered adult tomsPregnant queensNursing queensKittens of FIV positive queensOrphan kittensFeral catsStray catsCats going communal areaAny cat known to have been in contactAny cat the vet is suspicious ofAny cat before it undergoes extensive treatment orsurgery
    41. 41. FeLV and FIV in the shelterVirus does not survive long in the environmentUsually needs direct contact (grooming, fighting) to be transmittedHousing singly and using good hygiene is sufficient
    42. 42. Containing disease Why know about the bugs?? What’s a Fomite? We are the major source of infection transmission!!
    43. 43. Containing DiseasePersonal Protective Equipment Apron Gloves Oversuit Sleeves Overshoes Hat or hood on oversuit Mask? Goggles?Idea is all items should be disposable
    44. 44. Containing Disease Keep infected cat isolated from all other cats Wear and use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Use suitable disinfectant that is effective against the disease Clean and handle infected cat last
    45. 45. Containing diseaseHave separate cleaning utensils for isolated catUse disposable litter trays and food bowls or return trays and bowls to same cat
    46. 46. Containing Disease Use disposable bedding or soak in disinfectant before washing on hot cycle Wash contaminated bedding last and separate from other bedding Use footbaths containing disinfectant
    47. 47. Containing disease Deep clean area for 5 continuous days after housing infected cat Steam clean first if possible Stop the movement of cats in or out
    48. 48. Disease preventionAvoid over-crowdingKeep cats singly or only with cats from the same sourceUse full height sneeze barriersQuarantine new arrivals and isolate sick cats
    49. 49. Disease preventionReduce stress as much as possibleHealth check by a vetScreen for disease where possibleGood preventative medicine
    50. 50. Vaccination Core - essential in allrescue facilities as aminimum FHV FCV FPV Rabies in endemic area
    51. 51. VaccinationNon-core – dependson risk, fundsavailableFeLVChlamydophilafelisBordetellabronchiseptica
    52. 52. Thank You!
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