Animal Welfare and
Quality of life
Some thoughts and ideas to promote
the improvement of animal welfare
in our organisatio...
How do we perceive animals?
• From Aristotle to Darwin to your individual
beliefs………..
• Aristotle's views influenced view...
Who put the cat amongst the pigeons?
Darwin challenged many previous
thoughts on animals
• Where they came from
• How they survive
• What their needs were
• Wh...
So why do we still treat animals
poorly?
• When an idea or belief has been around for a
long time it is hard to extinguish...
Beliefs come from different but
essentially popular sources
Does it make a difference how they
are trained? Surely it is only
important that they are trained!

or
Blackwell et al 2008
• Behaviours that owners find problematic are
widespread in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris)
population (Voith et al.,1...
• So education to the dog owning
public is still a very important tool to
improve animal welfare.
• If better training met...
Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832)

• The question is not, can they
reason: nor, can they talk, but
• can they suffer?
How do we know when they are
suffering if they can’t communicate?
• We must understand the animals ethology
• We must be a...
Questions we need to try and answer
• Are all dogs needs the same?
• Is there one environment that suits all dogs?
• What ...
Where to start
• There are a number of methods that
have been used to assess welfare in
the past; Bramble’s 5 freedoms are...
• 1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access
to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and
vigour.
• 2. F...
Freedom from Hunger and Thirst
• “The dogs have plenty of food”
• How, when, where, how often, how much,
what there fed al...
Freedom from Discomfort
• Ask yourself what makes you feel
uncomfortable.
• Beds, temperature regulation, noise, clean
res...
Is this ok??
So why is this??
Freedom from Pain
• This in theory should be the easiest thing to
do.
• Good veterinary care is essential for good
welfare...
Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
• Ethology
• Do the research
• Have a good understanding of what your dogs
needs are.
Freedom from Fear and Distress
• Possibly the hardest to achieve.
• Arguably the most important of the five.
• Understand ...
How to improve welfare
• First thing to do is never say it is good enough!
• Second thing to do is identify achievable goa...
How to improve welfare
• We need to be able to identify both above and
below basic welfare
• We need trained people to ide...
Individual welfare scores
• To be completed by 2-3 carers
• Aims to identify areas to work on
• Can be used as a tool to c...
Welfare Assessment
Always think to yourself when filling in this
assessment how this dog would fit into your
own family li...
Section One - Home-ability
Description

Best

0

1

2

3

4

5

x

Worst

Home-ability

Excellent

No

Known person direct...
Section Two - Dog to Dog Interactions
Description

0

1

2

3

4

5

x

Sociability with other dogs?

All dogs

Can the do...
Section Three - Human Interactions
Description

0

Best

Physical Handling

Excellent

Does the dog initiate contact

Alwa...
Section Four - Manageability in Kennels
0

Description

1

2

3

4

5

Reactive entering or leaving kennel?

Low

x

High
...
Section Five - Stress Levels
0

Description

1

2

3

4

5

Is the dog calm in the kennel?

Yes

x

No

Visible signs of s...
Totals
Section Score
Section

0

1

2

3

4

5

48

Home-ability

41

Dog – Dog Interactions

10

Human Interactions

46

...
Observational welfare assessment
• A simple walk around the shelter on a weekly
basis can help identify areas of poor welf...
Can assessing the welfare of
individuals tell us about the shelter?
• 100 dogs
• 15 cases of stereotypy
• 10 cases of shut...
Welfare Audit
• Fill in the welfare audit by marking one circle on
each question.

•
•
•
•

Within this welfare audit ther...
• The top mark for this audit would be 45 the
worst would be 135 and an average 90.
Although this audit may give an overal...
Kennel floor space (ref 1)
1. Larger than the dimensions indicated in category 2.

2.Small dogs (less than 12kg (26lbs) – ...
Access to water

1. As for 2 with the addition of water presented in a
variety of options as per the individuals needs.
2....
Kennel temperature regulation
1. Individually controlled, to change temperatue for individual housed in the kennel

2.Adju...
Each dog is trying to tell us how they feel
Are we listening?
• Some people say that dogs understand us
better than we understand them?
• This is a difficult subject to cover but vital...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cg1Y_2AvS3c
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward
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ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward

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ICAWC 2013, Barcelona, Spain - Steve Goward's presentation on Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life

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  • This is not a comprehensive collation of all the recent research on animal welfare and QOLThese are my thoughts based on working for DT for over12 years and being fortunate enough to travel to many countries and observe the difficulties faced in animal welfare around the worldThere are people much smarter than me, spending a lot longer researching this topic out there but I do hope to share some thoughts that may be useful to your organisations
  • Aristotle's view was that animals were ours to do as we pleasedPythagoras (c.500BC) believed that humans and animals were made of the same elements as us and opposed cruelty to animals.Theophrastus a student of Aristotle believed that it was wrong to kill animals and make them suffer because animals and humans were made up of the same fluids and tissues and they had emotions and feelings.But it was Aristotle's views that remained popular and that were taken up by subsequent parties
  • And this has provided often heated discussions from religious groups and scientists about where we came from.But Darwin was a scientist and believed in the use of animals to further knowledge and understanding so depending on your stance on animal welfare you may or may not agree with him.But surely if we believe that we all share our evolutionary past then why wouldn’t we share some element of the right to appropriate welfare and quality of life?
  • As we say with dog behaviour the longer a behaviour is practiced the harder it is to undo
  • I am not comparing these two guys as great philosophers but both have huge popularity and are recognisable and therefore influential.With Influence there should be attached great responsibility, potentially even more so these days with the advent of social media and the truth that is presumed by many that if its on TV then it must be true?? I am not here to talk about individuals but there is a direct correlation between training and welfare
  • Well for any of you that have heard me speak previously will know how I feel about aversive and punishment based training methodsThe research does show the benefits of positive reinforcement training But common sense and good ethics should get us to that same place, who wants to hit dogs and electrocute them to get them to comply?
  • You can see from this slide that the most successful strategy in dealing with training and behaviour issues is positive reinforcement.
  • And the research also tells us that unwanted behaviours from our dogs may be a factor in the arrival of dogs at our shelters.
  • I know this isn't a factor for many of you operating in countries where dog ownership is a relatively new concept but the same message has to go out to the public whether they are dealing with street dogs or dogs in their homes.So back to suffering…….
  • I think Jeremy Bentham posed a very good question back in the 18th centuryWE hear about animal suffering all the time so I would imagine everyone in this room will agree they can suffer
  • Without this we can only perceive the animal from our perspective and our priority of needs. I will come back to point 2 at the end
  • When I talk about training dogs and changing their behaviour I always stress the importance of the individual.A generic training programme is likely to be less successful than a tailor made one.So therefore it suggests that individual dog needs vary.
  • When I visit shelters it is often said that the dogs have plenty of food.I know money is always a factor when feeding large amounts of animals but to improve on quality of life this is often an area that can be addressed without too much financial strainOften a simple thing that can improve the lives of dogs living in groups is to have multiple access points to fresh water. (observation of groups)
  • By observing interactions throughout the shelter day we can identify situations that can improve the welfare of individuals and a whole group
  • So a simple observation from a far can highlight issues that may be overlooked when you are in amongst the busy schedule of a shelter
  • Adlib feeding isn't going to be the answer for all shelters but there needs to be a recognition that there is a problem before you can start finding the solutions
  • Sitting in these chairs may make you feel uncomfortable but you know that it wont be long before you get the chance to move and find comfort elsewhere.If we were here in August and the aircon broke down how would you feel about sitting in close proximity to others and that my presentation ran over by an hour ( not unheard of by the way, once I start talking about dogs its often difficult for me to stop)By giving dogs choices we enable them to have some control over their environment and this I believe is one of the greatest factors on improving welfare of captive animals.
  • Most of us agree that animal hoarding does not go hand in hand with good welfare
  • So by changing the owner of the dogs to a rescue shelter are we improving the welfare??Our definition of animal welfare cannot change to suit our needs it should be a constant.
  • Choices within the environment gives back some control to the dogs and this can vastly improve their welfare.Being able to move out of the heat or the cold and move away from things that scare you all impact on the dogs quality of life.
  • I say easy with an understanding that its not the cheapest thing and that the veterinary budget may be your largest outgoing.BUT…. I do believe to have good welfare that all dogs in your care should receive the correct treatment.If…. You cant afford it then is right to have X numbers of dogs in your facility?***You.. May say that’s easy for you to say but I have been to shelters saving the lives of dogs only to keep them in a prolonged state of pain and discomfort for the want of veterinary treatment so I do not apologise for this statement.
  • This situation has nowbeen addressed and I give the shelter huge credit for the work they do in incredibly difficult circumstancesThe vets here were constantly repairing injuries from dog fights that had become infected Their time was dominated by potentially preventable conditions.Sometimes its hard to see the wood for the trees
  • And that’s why having someone not used to the daily routines of the shelter are often best placed to give an honest opinion of the processes and procedures Remember this is not about criticising but gaining important information so you can help improve the welfare of the dogs in your care
  • I don’t know if you have heard the expression “opening a can of worms” but essentially it means this is a topic that causes much discussion and debate.
  • We need to know what are normal behaviours and try to allow these behaviours to be practicedSocial needs, food acquisition and consumption, play, exploration, exercise are all natural behaviours that can be hard to fulfil in a shelter.I haven't got time to go through the dogs ethology but it is a vital piece of the welfare jigsaw.
  • With the very nature of the way we house dogs in shelters we are always going to see fear and distress.What we must not do is let it become the normal base line emotion of dogs in our care. By this I mean we shouldn’t become sensitised to fearful behaviour from dogs.Kennel design and retro fitted screens or strategic planting can help reduce how threatened dogs feel whilst in shelters.Raised platforms, indoor kennels inside compounds can give a place for fearful dogs to hide if they feel threatened.
  • Poor handling and the use of force will cause fear and distress so in turn reduce welfare
  • I am lucky enough to work for an organisation that has been able to consistently improve the welfare of the dogs in our care with new ideas and an understanding of the species we work with.This is vital if you operate a no kill organisation.This has been achievable through education and the understanding that welfare and quality of life is a constant battle and an individual thing because some dogs are able to adapt to shelter life more readily than others
  • We have developed a welfare score sheet for individuals in our care and have trained our staff and volunteers to use this tool to help us identify areas of poor welfare.It is very difficult to use one form for all situations but I have tried to develop a shelter welfare assessment form to try and help identify areas to improve.I do think it would work better if each shelter developed their own in conjunction with an external (not emotionally connected) partyI will go through some of the measures we have come up with and for the most part they are working well
  • For those dogs that represent a serious welfare concern this is a good tool to help you identify where to target your efforts to improve the dogs situation Even if you operate a no kill shelter there may be situations that dictate the need for euthanasia due to the poor welfare of an individual.This welfare assessment is subjective and getting a variety of people to complete the assessment can provide a more balanced picture of the dogs welfare.
  • If your shelter operates as a rehoming centre and your primary goal is to move dogs on there is an area dedicated to help identify how probable that is.If your shelter is taking dogs in with a limited rehoming option it is in my opinion vital to have some measure of welfare in your facility.
  • This is really an opinion based on the behaviour categories seen here.If this area scores badly it is important that the stress and the dog or human interactions score well as the dog is likely to be with us for some time.
  • Many dog owners in the uk are concerned about taking on a dog that is not sociable and therefore this section is of particular interest to potential adopters.And helps us understand what areas to work on with an individuals social skills
  • This section is important from a rehabilitation point of view.Being able to handle the dog and interact with it in a positive way is essential to promote a change in a dogs behaviour.
  • From a safety point of view the staff and volunteers working at the shelter should be able to manage the dog in a way that reduces stress, anxiety and fearLong term kennelling can have a detrimental effect on the dogs welfare and a deterioration of behaviour can be sign of reduced ability to cope
  • Having a list of stress related behaviours is important as a reminder that some of our dogs do not cope in our kennels and that we shouldn’t get used to their behaviour and consider it as normal for them
  • This welfare score is something that has been developed and continues to be updated and improved over timeThis assessment as it is may not suit your organisation but I do feel that all animal welfare organisations that house animals either in the short or long term should have a welfare assessment
  • To get an overview of the numbers of welfare cases in a shelter a simple walk around with a focus on abnormal or fear driven behaviours can give us clues to where the problems lie.
  • I only used 100 dogs to make my own life easier as my maths isn't great !!For those of you that say to me we have too many dogs to do this with then my answer is probably not what you want to hear.IF YOU CANT DO WELFARE ASSESSMENTS BECAUSE YOU HAVE TOO MANY DOGS THEN THE LIKLIHOOD IS THAT YOUR DOGS ARE LIKELY TO BE TO SOME DEGREE EXPERIENCING POOR WELFARE
  • As part of a recent course on shelter dog behaviour we were asked to come up with a welfare audit to try and help identify areas of poor welfare in the design and routines of shelters.
  • We must be careful not to interpret this score as a pass or fail but to help identify areas to work on to improve
  • This was developed with the kennels I have worked in within the uk and is not a definitive welfare audit of all types of shelters but as a template may be of
  • These are just tools to help us understand how to move forward and by sharing each others mistakes and success we can help more dogs use to your organisation when trying to establish what areas need to be addressed.This is a 10 page word document so If anyone wants a closer look at this welfare audit I will happily email it to you and you can change it, adapt it to suit your needs.
  • . I come from a country that is sadly one of the worst for not taking the time to learn other languages.When I go to other countries to work do I feel anxious about not understanding what everyone is talking about? You better believe I do!! What do I worry about? Asking where the toilet is or asking for a drink or asking directions to get somewhere! How is this anxiety relieved by meeting up with people who have taken the time to learn my language and can understand my needs - I am the dog in this scenarioI don’t want you to feel sorry for me but please understand that when you take the time to truly listen to your dogs needs they will thank you for it ! As I thank you for taking the time to understand my needs.
  • For those of you that know me You will know I like people to enjoy my presentations, the reason for this is not so you will buy me a beer in the bar later (although im not saying don’t) But because i believe if you enjoy the presentation you will go away thinking about it and what you can do to influence animal welfare in your organisationAnd just in case there is anyone left in the world who hasn’t seen this I always like to end with a smile
  • ICAWC 2013 - Welfare Assessment and Quality of Life - Steve Goward

    1. 1. Animal Welfare and Quality of life Some thoughts and ideas to promote the improvement of animal welfare in our organisations.
    2. 2. How do we perceive animals? • From Aristotle to Darwin to your individual beliefs……….. • Aristotle's views influenced views for hundreds of years. • Other great thinkers of the time did not share Aristotle's views that we could treat animals as we like.
    3. 3. Who put the cat amongst the pigeons?
    4. 4. Darwin challenged many previous thoughts on animals • Where they came from • How they survive • What their needs were • What drives them to pass on their genes
    5. 5. So why do we still treat animals poorly? • When an idea or belief has been around for a long time it is hard to extinguish. • I equate this poor welfare of animals to the same problems I see with training methods employed by some trainers.
    6. 6. Beliefs come from different but essentially popular sources
    7. 7. Does it make a difference how they are trained? Surely it is only important that they are trained! or
    8. 8. Blackwell et al 2008
    9. 9. • Behaviours that owners find problematic are widespread in the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) population (Voith et al.,1992; Wells and Hepper, 2000; Bradshaw et al., 2002; Kobelt et al., 2003; Hiby et al., 2004) • and are a common cause of dogs being abandoned, sent to re-homing centres, or euthanized (Bailey, 1992; Miller et al., 1996; Patronek et al., 1996; Serpell, 1996; Salman et al., 1998, 2000; Scarlett et al., 1999; New et al., 2000; Marston and Bennett, 2003; Shore et al., 2003; Mondelli et al., 2004; Shore, 2005).
    10. 10. • So education to the dog owning public is still a very important tool to improve animal welfare. • If better training methods are employed along with a greater understanding of the species there are likely to be less dogs handed over to shelters for behavioural reasons.
    11. 11. Jeremy Bentham(1748-1832) • The question is not, can they reason: nor, can they talk, but • can they suffer?
    12. 12. How do we know when they are suffering if they can’t communicate? • We must understand the animals ethology • We must be able to interpret their vocalisations and body language properly • We must appreciate the impact of denying them freedom to express certain behaviours • We must improve our knowledge and understanding of the species we are trying to help
    13. 13. Questions we need to try and answer • Are all dogs needs the same? • Is there one environment that suits all dogs? • What is an acceptable level of welfare?
    14. 14. Where to start • There are a number of methods that have been used to assess welfare in the past; Bramble’s 5 freedoms are always a good base to begin but there is much more information we are now aware of that helps us identify poor welfare.
    15. 15. • 1. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst - by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour. • 2. Freedom from Discomfort - by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area. • 3. Freedom from Pain, Injury or Disease - by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment. • 4. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour - by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal's own kind (if appropriate}. • 5. Freedom from Fear and Distress - by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering.
    16. 16. Freedom from Hunger and Thirst • “The dogs have plenty of food” • How, when, where, how often, how much, what there fed all can have an impact on quality of life. • Water bowls, troughs, containers.
    17. 17. Freedom from Discomfort • Ask yourself what makes you feel uncomfortable. • Beds, temperature regulation, noise, clean resting area. A place to feel safe • Choices make the difference here.
    18. 18. Is this ok??
    19. 19. So why is this??
    20. 20. Freedom from Pain • This in theory should be the easiest thing to do. • Good veterinary care is essential for good welfare.
    21. 21. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour
    22. 22. Freedom to Express Normal Behaviour • Ethology • Do the research • Have a good understanding of what your dogs needs are.
    23. 23. Freedom from Fear and Distress • Possibly the hardest to achieve. • Arguably the most important of the five. • Understand what creates fear and distress in dogs.
    24. 24. How to improve welfare • First thing to do is never say it is good enough! • Second thing to do is identify achievable goals • Take ideas and knowledge from where ever you can get them and prioritise welfare and quality of life
    25. 25. How to improve welfare • We need to be able to identify both above and below basic welfare • We need trained people to identify areas that need to be improved and how to do it! • We need to understand the importance of quality over quantity
    26. 26. Individual welfare scores • To be completed by 2-3 carers • Aims to identify areas to work on • Can be used as a tool to corroborate euthanasia requests • Subjective
    27. 27. Welfare Assessment Always think to yourself when filling in this assessment how this dog would fit into your own family life? Would you consider living with this dog? Will this dog be able to live a full life in our shelter?
    28. 28. Section One - Home-ability Description Best 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Worst Home-ability Excellent No Known person directed aggression/reactivity Low Stranger directed aggression/reactivity Low x High Other animal directed aggression/reactivity Low x High Car Travel Excellent On leash aggression towards people Low x High On leash aggression towards dogs Low x High Muzzle Trained Yes x No Is the dog comfortable being alone Yes x High chase drive (cars, cyclists, joggers) Low Recall when off the lead Immediate x High x Poor x x High x Totals 0 2 6 No 20 20 Never 48
    29. 29. Section Two - Dog to Dog Interactions Description 0 1 2 3 4 5 x Sociability with other dogs? All dogs Can the dog share kennel space? Always x Never Will the dog eat safely around other dogs? Always x Never On lead meetings - calm Calm x Excitable On lead meetings - vocalisation Quiet x Excessive On lead meetings - aggression Never x Always On lead meetings - confident Confident Possessive/guarding towards other dogs Low Play Style Calm No dogs x x High x Totals 0 Worried 16 25 Rough 41
    30. 30. Section Three - Human Interactions Description 0 Best Physical Handling Excellent Does the dog initiate contact Always Impulse control Excellent Retrieving of toys Always Relinquishing of Toys Happy/Eager Interaction with the handler Excellent Possessiveness (Guarding) Low Play interaction with the handler Interactive Focus on handler with distraction Excellent Play Style Forgiving 1 2 x 5 Worst Never x None Never x x x Unwilling None x High Avoidant x x None Rough x 0 4 Impossible x Totals 3 4 6 10
    31. 31. Section Four - Manageability in Kennels 0 Description 1 2 3 4 5 Reactive entering or leaving kennel? Low x High Ease to remove the dog from its kennel? Easy x Impossible Is the dog calm when shut in? Calm Can the dog be taken off site safely Yes Placing a harness on the dog Easy Reactive when dogs pass the kennel Low Probability of redirection behaviours Low x High Placing a muzzle on the dog Easy x Impossible Risk to unfamiliar staff Low risk x High risk Reactivity on the lead Low Ease of placing a muzzle on Easy x Difficult Risk to volunteers Low risk x High risk Does the dog cope with routine change Copes well x Unable Resistance returning to kennel Low Stressed x x Impossible x x High x 0 3 High High x Totals No 2 3 28 10 46
    32. 32. Section Five - Stress Levels 0 Description 1 2 3 4 5 Is the dog calm in the kennel? Yes x No Visible signs of stress Minimal x Excessive Self Mutilation None x Excessive Stereotypies/OCD’s None x Excessive Tail chasing/spinning None x Excessive Vocalisation None Does the dog hide away Never Does the dog show obsessive behaviours Never Sleeping Normal Wall bouncing None Ability to settle Easy Appeasement behaviours Normal x Excessive Avoidance behaviours Normal x Excessive Toileting Normal x Abnormal New environments Copes well Time to recover from stressful situation Immediate Excessive x Always x x Always No Sleep x x Excessive Impossible x Unable x Hours/Days x Totals 0 3 6 9 8 0 26
    33. 33. Totals Section Score Section 0 1 2 3 4 5 48 Home-ability 41 Dog – Dog Interactions 10 Human Interactions 46 Manageability in Kennels 26 Stress Levels Totals Complete Total of all Section’s Columns 0 171
    34. 34. Observational welfare assessment • A simple walk around the shelter on a weekly basis can help identify areas of poor welfare • For people that work regularly at the shelter the noise and fights or lack of behaviour becomes normal • So education to all staff & volunteers on normal and abnormal behaviours is essential
    35. 35. Can assessing the welfare of individuals tell us about the shelter? • 100 dogs • 15 cases of stereotypy • 10 cases of shut down behaviour • 15 cases of veterinary shortfall • No enrichment
    36. 36. Welfare Audit • Fill in the welfare audit by marking one circle on each question. • • • • Within this welfare audit there are 45 questions. 1 = Above welfare standard 2 = Acceptable welfare standard 3= Below welfare standard
    37. 37. • The top mark for this audit would be 45 the worst would be 135 and an average 90. Although this audit may give an overall score rating for the welfare of dogs in the kennels, care is needed when interpreting these results as it is possible to get a “pass” of 90 yet many aspects of the audit may have scored poorly and some above average. The main use for this audit tool is to identify areas that could be improved.
    38. 38. Kennel floor space (ref 1) 1. Larger than the dimensions indicated in category 2. 2.Small dogs (less than 12kg (26lbs) – sleeping area not less than 1.1 sq m (12 sq feet), width and length not less than 0.9 m (3 feet). Adjoining exercise area not less than 3.7 sq m (40 sq feet), width not less than 0.9m (3 feet). 2.Medium dogs (12kg (26lbs) to 30kg (66lbs) – sleeping area not less than 1.4 sq m (16 sq feet), width and length not less than 1.2m (4 feet). Adjoining exercise area not less than 5.5 sq m (60 sq feet), width not less than 1.2 m (4 feet). 2.Large dogs (more than 30kg (66lbs)) – sleeping area not less than 1.4 sq m (16 sq feet), width and length not less than 1.2 m (4 feet). Adjoining exercise area not less than 7.4 sq m (80 sq feet), width not less than 1.2 m (4 feet). 3. Smaller than the dimensions indicated in category 2. Kennel temperature regulation 1. Individually controlled, to change temperatue for individual housed in the kennel 2.Adjustable to control temperature in the block of kennels 3.No ability to regulate temperature in the facility Material used for kennel 1. un-damaged, Fit for purpose, non porous, easy to clean & maintain 2.Un-damaged, fit for purpose 3.Damaged, dangerous & unable to clean Kennel drainage 1. Drainage for individual kennels to reduce cross contamination 2.Drainage for the whole block 3.No drainage Numbers of kennels Per block 1. Below 10 2.Between 10 & 20 3. Above20 Dogs per kennel(size of kennels & dogs dependant) 1. Varied due to size and temperament 2.From 1 to 4 dogs 3. social isolation or above 4 dogs Toileting options 1. Multiple opportunities to toilet away from the kennel, preference tested substrate within the kennel 2. Area away from the sleep and feeding area 3. No options to toilet away from sleep area and feeding area Kennel lighting (Ref 4) 1. Both natural and artificail light, with options to reduce and increase as required 2.When using artifical light it should closely mirror that of natural light in both intensity and duration 3.No lighting Kennel floor 1. Un-damaged, non porous, non slip & comfortable 2.Un-damaged, non porous 3.Damaged, porous & unable to clean Kennel weather resistance 1. adaptable shelter to meet the needes of individuals 2.Provides shade and shelter from the elements 3.No shelter from the elements Kennel noise level (Ref 2) 1. Effective sound proofing within the kennel environment and around the site. Noise levels maintained below 80dB 2. Some sound proofing between the kennels. Noise levels between 80 & 100dB 3. No sound proofing. Noise levels above 100dB Sleeping options 1. As for 2 but with options for types of bedding and area away from sources of stress 2. Dry, clean bedding away from the elements. 3. No bedding or wet dirty & exposed to the elements Kennel orientation 1. Variation of choices for the dog to enable self reguation of temperature 2. Not exposed to the elements 3. Exposure to the elements without the option to seek shelter
    39. 39. Access to water 1. As for 2 with the addition of water presented in a variety of options as per the individuals needs. 2. Access to clean fresh water. 3. Limited or no access to clean fresh water Feeding regime 1. As for 2 with the addition to be able to provide chewing material and variety in the dogs diet as neccessary. More than once per day. 2. Dogs fed sufficient to ensure good body condition. 3.Insufficient dietry needs met, unsafe feeding regime. Time away from kennel 1. As for 2 with multiple opportunities to express natural behaviours and interact with people and other dogs as appropriate. 2. The opportunity to exercise and express natural behaviours away from the kennel on a daily basis. 3. No opportunity to express natural behaviours away from the kennel. Kennel cleaning regime 1. As for 2 with attention paid to all items in the kennel and ability to remove dogs from the area being cleaned. 2. Estaablished cleaning regime using appropriate materials that are fit for purpose resulting in a clean and disinfected kennel. 3. No cleaning regime or incorrect use of materials and equipment. Behaviour in kennels 1. Calm, relaxed and living mostly without negative emotions. 2. Dogs coping with the environment and able to adapt. 3. Stereotypies, obsessive behaviours and frequent aggressive responses. Shut down behaviour with no ability to choose a behaviour Social interactions (human) 1. Repeated opportunities to interact and play whilst acting out natural behaviours creating a positive emotional state. 2. Opportunity to interact witht the emphasis on positive emotions on a daily basis. 3. No opportunities to interact with people or that the interactions induce a negative emotional state.
    40. 40. Kennel temperature regulation 1. Individually controlled, to change temperatue for individual housed in the kennel 2.Adjustable to control temperature in the block of kennels 3.No ability to regulate temperature in the facility Kenne
    41. 41. Each dog is trying to tell us how they feel
    42. 42. Are we listening?
    43. 43. • Some people say that dogs understand us better than we understand them? • This is a difficult subject to cover but vital that we work together to improve our animals quality of life wherever they are in the world
    44. 44. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cg1Y_2AvS3c
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