ICAWC 2011: Steve Goward - Environmental Enrichment on a Shoestring

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ICAWC 2011: Steve Goward - Environmental Enrichment on a Shoestring

  1. 1. ICAWC 2011 <ul><li>Environmental enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>on a shoestring! </li></ul>
  2. 2. The research
  3. 3. <ul><li>References: </li></ul><ul><li>The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association (UK), 2007. Leamington maze for Guide Dogs, Leamington Spa, UK. </li></ul><ul><li>The Guide Dogs for the Blind Association (UK), 2008. Guide Dog Trainers find that dogs love Classic FM!, Leamington Spa, UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Guide Dogs for the Blind (USA), 2007. Kennel Enrichment, San Rafael, USA. </li></ul><ul><li>Atsumi, T., Tonosaki, K., 2007. Smelling lavender and rosemary increases free radical scavenging activity and decreases cortisol level in saliva. Psychiatry Res 150, 89-96. </li></ul><ul><li>Barnett, J., Hemsworth, P., 1990. The validity of physiological and behavioural measures of animal welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 25, 177-187. </li></ul><ul><li>Beerda, B., Schilder, M.B.H., Bernadina, W., Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M., De Vries, H.W., Mol, J.A., 1999a. Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. II. Hormonal and immunological responses. Physiology & Behavior 66, 243-254. </li></ul><ul><li>Beerda, B., Schilder, M.B.H., Janssen, N.S.C.R.M., Mol, J.A., 1996. The use of saliva cortisol, urinary cortisol, and catecholamine measurements for a noninvasive assessment of stress responses in dogs. SO - Hormones & Behavior. 30(3). 1996. 272-279. </li></ul><ul><li>Beerda, B., Schilder, M.B.H., Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M., De Vries, H.W., Mol, J.A., 1998. Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 58, 365-381. </li></ul><ul><li>Beerda, B., Schilder, M.B.H., Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M., De Vries, H.W., Mol, J.A., 1999b. Chronic stress in dogs subjected to social and spatial restriction. I. Behavioral responses. Physiology & Behavior 66, 233-242. </li></ul><ul><li>Bradshaw, R.H., Marchant, J.N., Meredith, M.J., Broom, D.M., 1998. Effects of Lavender Straw on Stress and Travel Sickness in Pigs. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 4, 271. </li></ul><ul><li>Coover, G.D., Heybach, J.P., Lenz, J., Miller, J.F., 1979. Corticosterone &quot;basal levels&quot; and response to ether anesthesia in rats on a water deprivation regimen. Physiology & Behavior 22, 653-656. </li></ul><ul><li>Coppola, C.L., Grandin, T., Enns, R.M., 2006. Human interaction and cortisol: Can human contact reduce stress for shelter dogs? Physiology & Behavior 87, 537-541. </li></ul><ul><li>Cronin, G.M., Hemsworth, P.H., Barnett, J.L., Jongman, E.C., Newman, E.A., McCauley, I., 2003. An anti-barking muzzle for dogs and its short-term effects on behaviour and saliva cortisol concentrations. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 83, 215-226. </li></ul><ul><li>Davis, A.K., Maney, D.L., Maerz, J.C., 2008. The use of leukocyte profiles to measure stress in vertebrates: a review for ecologists. Functional Ecology 22, 760-772. </li></ul><ul><li>De Villiers, M.S., Van Jaarsveld, A.S., Meltzer, D.G.A., Richardson, P.R.K., 1997. Social dynamics and the cortisol response to immobilization stress of the African wild dog, Lycaon pictus. Hormones & Behavior 31, 3-14. </li></ul><ul><li>Dreschel, N.A., Granger, D.A., 2005. Physiological and behavioral reactivity to stress in thunderstorm-phobic dogs and their caregivers. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 95, 153-168. </li></ul><ul><li>Durrell, J.L., Beattie, V.E., Sneddon, I.A., Kilpatrick, D., 2003. Pre-mixing as a technique for facilitating subgroup formation and reducing sow aggression in large dynamic groups. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 84, 89-99. </li></ul><ul><li>Field, T., 1995. Massage therapy for infants and children. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 16, 105-111. </li></ul><ul><li>Field, T., Kilmer, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Burman, I., 1996. Preschool children's sleep and wake behavior: Effects of massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care Vol 120 1996, 39-44. </li></ul><ul><li>Frank, D.G., Audrey; Bergeron, Renee, 2006. Placebo-controlled double-blind clomipramine trial for the treatment of anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>or fear in beagles during ground transport. Canadian Veterinary Journal 47, 1102-1108. </li></ul><ul><li>Graham, L., Wells, D.L., Hepper, P.G., 2005. The influence of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 91, 143-153. </li></ul><ul><li>Hennessy, M.B., Davis, H.N., Williams, M.T., Mellott, C., Douglas, C.W., 1997. Plasma cortisol levels of dogs at a county animal shelter. Physiology & Behavior 62, 485-490. </li></ul><ul><li>Hennessy, M.B., Williams, M.T., Miller, D.D., Douglas, C.W., Voith, V.L., 1998. Influence of male and female petters on plasma cortisol and behaviour: Can human interaction reduce the stress of dogs in a public animal shelter? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 61, 63-77. </li></ul><ul><li>Hiramatsu, R., 1981. Direct assay of cortisol in human saliva by solid phase radioimmunoassay and its clinical applications. Clinica Chimica Acta 117, 239-249. </li></ul><ul><li>Hubrecht, R., 1993a. Dog Housing and Welfare. Animal Welfare Research Report No 6., Universities Federation for Animal Welfare, Potters Bar, Herts, UK. </li></ul><ul><li>Hubrecht, R., 1995. Dogs and Dog Housing, In: Smith, C.P.a.V.T. (Ed.), Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965 - 1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. AWIC Resource Series No. 2. , U.S. Department of Agriculture and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK, pp. &quot;Dogs and Dog Housing&quot; is a chapter from: Smith, C.P. and V. Taylor (September 1995). Environmental Enrichment Information Resources for Laboratory Animals: 1965 - 1995: Birds, Cats, Dogs, Farm Animals, Ferrets, Rabbits, and Rodents. AWIC Resource Series No. 1992. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD and Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), Potters Bar, Herts, UK, pp. 1949-1962. </li></ul><ul><li>Hubrecht, R.C., 1993b. A comparison of social and environmental enrichment methods for laboratory housed dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 37, 345-361. </li></ul><ul><li>Kahn, J.-P., Rubinow, D.R., Davis, C.L., Kling, M., Post, R.M., 1988. Salivary Cortisol a Practical Method for Evaluation of Adrenal Function. Biological Psychiatry 23, 335-349. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirschbaum, C., Hellhammer, D.H., 1989. Salivary cortisol in psychobiological research: an overview. Neuropsychobiology 22, 150-169. </li></ul><ul><li>Kobelt, A.J., 2004. The behaviour and welfare of pet dogs in suburban backyards., Animal Welfare Science Centre, Institute of Land and Food Resources, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, p. 126. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Kobelt, A.J., Hemsworth, P.H., Barnett, J.L., Butler, K.L., 2003. Sources of sampling variation in saliva cortisol in dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 75, 157-161. </li></ul><ul><li>Lindsay, S.R., 2000. Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training, Volume 1: Adaptation and Learning. Blackwell Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Loveridge, G., 1998a. Environmentally enriched dog housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59, 101-113. </li></ul><ul><li>Loveridge, G.G., 1998b. Environmentally enriched dog housing. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 59, 101-113. </li></ul><ul><li>McFarlane, J.M., Curtis, S.E., Simon, J., Izquierdo, O.A., 1989. Multiple concurrent stressors in chicks 2. Effects on hematologic, body composition, and pathologic traits. Poultry Science 68, 510-521. </li></ul><ul><li>Meehan, C.L., Mench, J.A., 2007. The challenge of challenge: Can problem solving opportunities enhance animal welfare? Applied Animal Behaviour Science 102, 246-261. </li></ul><ul><li>Moberg, G.P.a.M., J.A., 2000. The biology of animal stress: basic principles and implications for animal welfare. CAB International, Wallingford. </li></ul><ul><li>Mooncey, S., Giannakoulopoulos, X., Glover, V., Acolet, D., Modi, N., 1997. The effect of mother-infant skin-to-skin contact on plasma cortisol and beta -endorphin concentrations in preterm newborns. Infant Behavior & Development Vol 20(4) Oct-Dec 1997, 553-557. </li></ul><ul><li>Newberry, R.C., 1995. Environmental enrichment: Increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 44, 229-243. </li></ul><ul><li>Palazzolo, D.L., Quadri, S.K., 1987. The Effects of Aging on the Circadian Rhythm of Serum Cortisol in the Dog. Experimental Gerontology 22, 379-388. </li></ul><ul><li>Pell, S.M., McGreevy, P.D., 1999. A study of cortisol and beta-endorphin levels in stereotypic and normal thoroughbreds. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 64, 81-90. </li></ul><ul><li>Poole, T.B., 1998. Meeting A Mammal’s Psychological Needs, In: Sherpherdson, D.J.M., J. D.; Hutchins, M. (Ed.), Second Nature: Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals, Smithsonian Institute Press </li></ul><ul><li>Washington, DC, pp. 83-94. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescott, M.J., Morton, D.B., Anderson, D., Buckwell, A., Heath, S., Hubrecht, R., Jennings, M., Robb, D., Ruane, B., Swallow, J., Thompson, P., 2004a. Environmental enrichment. Laboratory Animals 38, 42-47. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescott, M.J., Morton, D.B., Anderson, D., Buckwell, A., Heath, S., Hubrecht, R., Jennings, M., Robb, D., Ruane, B., Swallow, J., Thompson, P., 2004b. Housing and husbandry. Laboratory Animals 38, 27-38. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescott, M.J., Morton, D.B., Anderson, D., Buckwell, A., Heath, S., Hubrecht, R., Jennings, M., Robb, D., Ruane, B., Swallow, J., Thompson, P., 2004c. Refining dog husbandry and care - Eighth report of the BVAAWF/FRAME/RSPCA/UFAW Joint Working Group on Refinement. Laboratory Animals (London) 38, S1-S94. </li></ul><ul><li>Roe, S., 2004. Discussion of enrichment strategies in place at Melbourne Zoo with Senior animal keeper, In: Cobb, M. (Ed.), Unpublished, Melbourne. </li></ul><ul><li>Rooney, N.J., Bradshaw, J.W.S., 2003. Links between play and dominance and attachment dimensions of dog-human relationships. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 6, 67-94. </li></ul><ul><li>Sandøe, P., Christiansen, S., 2008. Ethics of Animal Use. Blackwell Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen, J.M., Ledger, R.A., 2005. An audit of behavioral indicators of poor welfare in kenneled dogs in the United Kingdom. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 8, 79-96. </li></ul><ul><li>Taylor, K.D., Mills, D.S., 2007. The effect of the kennel environment on canine welfare: a critical review of experimental studies. Animal Welfare 16, 435-447. </li></ul><ul><li>Tod, E., Brander, D., Waran, N., 2005. Efficacy of dog appeasing pheromone in reducing stress and fear related behaviour in shelter dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 93, 295-308. </li></ul><ul><li>Tuchscherer, M., Puppe, B., Tuchscherer, A., Kanitz, E., 1998. Effects of social status after mixing on immune, metabolic, and endocrine responses in pigs. Physiology & Behavior 64, 353-360. </li></ul><ul><li>Van de Weerd, H.A., Docking, C.M., Day, J.E.L., Avery, P.J., Edwards, S.A., 2003. A systematic approach towards developing environmental enrichment for pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 84, 101-118. </li></ul><ul><li>Vincent, I.C., Michell, A.R., 1992. Comparison of cortisol concentrations in saliva and plasma of dogs. Research in Veterinary Science 53, 342-345. </li></ul><ul><li>Vining, R.F., McGinley, R.A., Maksvytis, J.J., Ho, K.Y., 1983. Salivary Cortisol a Better Measure of Adrenal Cortical Function Than Serum Cortisol. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry 20, 329-335. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, D.L., 2004a. The influence of toys on the behaviour and welfare of kennelled dogs. SO - Animal Welfare. 13(3). August 2004. 367-373. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, D.L., 2004b. A review of environmental enrichment for kennelled dogs, Canis familiaris. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 85, 307-317. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, D.L., 2006. Aromatherapy for travel-induced excitement in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 229, 964-967. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, D.L., Graham, L., Hepper, P.G., 2002. The influence of auditory stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Animal Welfare 11, 385-393. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, D.L., Hepper, P.G., 1998. A note on the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 60, 83-88. </li></ul><ul><li>Wells, D.L., Hepper, P.G., 2000. The influence of environmental change on the behaviour of sheltered dogs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 68, 151-162. </li></ul><ul><li>Wiepkema, P., Koolhaas, J., 1993. Stress and animal welfare. Animal Welfare 2, 195-218. </li></ul><ul><li>Young, R.J., 2003. Environmental Enrichment for Captive Animals. Blackwell Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Zayan, R., 1991. The Specificity of Social Stress. Behavioural Processes 25, 81-94. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2 types of enrichment
  6. 6. Animate
  7. 7. Inanimate
  8. 8. What’s enriching for you?
  9. 9. Does watching the sun set do it for your dog?
  10. 10. <ul><li>Know your species ! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ethology <ul><li>Adam Miklosi </li></ul><ul><li>Ray Coppinger </li></ul><ul><li>David Mech </li></ul>
  12. 12. Individual preferences <ul><li>Not every dog wants to play with a ball </li></ul><ul><li>Some may prefer a good comfy spot to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Others like to use their nose </li></ul><ul><li>Some like to dig </li></ul><ul><li>Others love to run or swim </li></ul><ul><li>Whilst many just want to be with you </li></ul>
  13. 13. For those that like to use their nose
  14. 14. Sensory garden
  15. 17. Hide & seek <ul><li>Teach the dog to follow a scent to find a special toy or food item. </li></ul><ul><li>Start easy and make more difficult </li></ul>
  16. 19. The sniffing trail
  17. 22. Food activity toys
  18. 25. Some like to dig!
  19. 27. Toys <ul><li>What is a toy ? </li></ul><ul><li>Aren't they expensive? </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t they just sit in the kennel getting dirty? </li></ul><ul><li>Surely we have to throw it to make it fun? </li></ul>
  20. 29. Interactive toys
  21. 30. Interactive toys
  22. 33. Drink more coffee!
  23. 36. Or cake tins
  24. 37. Giant activity toys
  25. 38. Giant activity toys
  26. 39. Agility equipment?
  27. 42. Quality time with someone
  28. 43. Quality time with someone
  29. 44. Don’t forget the puppies!
  30. 47. Music
  31. 48. Lets share ideas and help each other in the battle against boredom and stress in our kennels
  32. 49. Thank you to everyone who gave me so many ideas and inspired me with their videos and emails.
  33. 50. Caring for animals unites us all!
  34. 51. Thank you For listening

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