ICAWC 2011: Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky - Feline and Canine Infectious Diseases
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ICAWC 2011: Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky - Feline and Canine Infectious Diseases

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From the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, covering infectious diseases and vaccination for dogs and cats.

From the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, covering infectious diseases and vaccination for dogs and cats.

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  • Need a better pic here!
  • – for dogs, may be frustration and social isolation; for cats, constant presence of other cats
  • Can pups or kittens be fostered or otherwise protected? Pregnant bitches/ queens
  • Do not mix until sure they are healthy/ pref vaccinated
  • Do not mix until sure they are healthy/ pref vaccinated
  • Do not mix until sure they are healthy/ pref vaccinated
  • Live versus killed vaccines Parenteral/ intranasal Vaccine breakdown (maybe too detailed)
  • MDA and immunity gap
  • Do not mix until sure they are healthy/ pref vaccinated
  • Do not mix until sure they are healthy/ pref vaccinated
  • Do not mix until sure they are healthy/ pref vaccinated
  • Isolation picture Colour co-ordinated equipment Keep staff to one area Or at least clean high risk animals last One-way traffic
  • Cost implications – but actually being proactive about vetting can help save costs long term Get a vet who will visit the shelter if possible – may not always be appropriate but really useful to visit at least on occasion Diagnostic tests might not be needed every time, but defo if an outbreak, vac or treatment failure or new disease signs Target treatment and prevention
  • Cost implications – but actually being proactive about vetting can help save costs long term Get a vet who will visit the shelter if possible – may not always be appropriate but really useful to visit at least on occasion Diagnostic tests might not be needed every time, but defo if an outbreak, vac or treatment failure or new disease signs Target treatment and prevention
  • Cost implications – but actually being proactive about vetting can help save costs long term Get a vet who will visit the shelter if possible – may not always be appropriate but really useful to visit at least on occasion Diagnostic tests might not be needed every time, but defo if an outbreak, vac or treatment failure or new disease signs Target treatment and prevention
  • Ownership and understanding of a problem
  • Isolation can be stressful Kept in groups hard to control disease, can also be stressful Kennels with shared open drainage
  • MDA and immunity gap

ICAWC 2011: Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky - Feline and Canine Infectious Diseases ICAWC 2011: Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky - Feline and Canine Infectious Diseases Presentation Transcript

  • Infectious diseases and vaccination in cats and dogs Rachel Dean and Jenny Stavisky
  • Introductions
    • Rachel
    • Jenny
  • What we do....
    • Visit
    • Teach
    • Help
  • The Plan
    • Principles of disease prevention & control
      • Bug, Host, Environment
      • Prevent, Protect, Control
    • Infectious diseases
      • Parvovirus in dogs
      • Parvovirus in cats
      • Cat flu
      • Kennel cough
  • The problem
    • Lots of animals
    • Lots of bugs
    • Stressful environment
    • Bugs are cleverer than we are
    • The ideal future:
    • no overpopulation + responsible pet ownership = no shelters
    • Infectious diseases common in shelters
    • Caused by a variety of ‘bugs’
    • Bacteria, viruses, fungi, worms....
    • Viruses probably the biggest problem
    Infectious diseases
    • Bug
    • Host
    • Environment
    Relationships
  • The Bug
    • Which one(s)
    • Which animals are affected
    • How easily it’s transmitted
    • How well it survives in the environment
    Bug
  • The Host
    • Age
    • Pregnancy/ birth
    • Stress (physical or psychological)
    • Immunity (vaccination)
  • Environment
    • Contact between animals
    • Presence of FOMITES
    • Hygiene – cleaning, surfaces, drains, bedding
    • Presence of quarantine/ isolation
    • Bug
    • Host
    • Environment
    Relationships DISEASE
  • Three Part Strategy
    • PREVENT
    • PROTECT
    • CONTROL
  • PREVENT
    • Are the animals in a healthy environment?
  •  
  • PREVENT
    • Are the animals in a healthy environment?
    • Nutrition and changes in diet
  •  
  • PREVENT
    • Are the animals in a healthy environment?
    • Nutrition and changes in diet
    • Stress
  •  
  • PREVENT
    • Are the animals in a healthy environment?
    • Nutrition and changes in diet
    • Stress
    • Most vulnerable animals
  •  
  • PREVENT
    • Are the animals in a healthy environment?
    • Nutrition and changes in diet
    • Stress
    • Most vulnerable animals
    • Vaccination
  • PROTECT
    • Quarantine facilities for new arrivals
  •  
  • PROTECT
    • Quarantine facilities for new arrivals
    • Vaccinate!
  • What is a vaccine?
    • Similar to natural infection
    • Immune system responds to the vaccine and protects the animal for a period of time
    • The body remembers
  • Types of vaccine
    • Lots of different types
    • Vaccination is safer than natural infection
  • Expectations
    • Nothing can stop an animal meeting a bug
    • Some vaccines stop clinical disease and shedding of virus – canine parvovirus
    • Some vaccines reduce clinical disease and shedding of virus – cat flu
  • PROTECT
  • PROTECT
    • At least two vaccines when they start their vaccines
    • Vaccinate as soon as possible after entering the shelter
  • PROTECT
    • Quarantine facilities for new arrivals
    • Vaccinate!
    • Vaccinate at the right age
  • Can be too young
  • Exception to the rule
    • Poor start in life
    • High risk
  • Never too old
  • PROTECT
    • Quarantine facilities for new arrivals
    • Vaccinate!
    • Vaccinate at the right age
    • Isolate sick animals
  •  
  • PROTECT
    • Quarantine facilities for new arrivals
    • Vaccinate!
    • Vaccinate at the right time
    • Isolate sick animals
    • Avoid spread of disease
  •  
  • PREVENT
  • CONTROL
    • Recognise a problem early
  • CONTROL
    • Recognise a problem early
    • Get EVERYONE involved
  • CONTROL
    • Recognise a problem early
    • Get EVERYONE involved
    • Shut the area/shelter
  •  
  • CONTROL
    • Recognise a problem early
    • Get EVERYONE involved
    • Shut the area/shelter
    • Euthanasia
  • CONTROL
  • Think
    • PREVENT
    • PROTECT
    • CONTROL
  • Teamwork!
    • eds_catherding_low.MPG
  • The Plan
    • Principles of disease prevention & control
      • Bug, Host, Environment
      • Prevent, Protect, Control
    • Infectious diseases
      • Parvovirus in dogs
      • Parvovirus in cats
      • Cat flu
      • Kennel cough
  • Canine parvovirus
    • The bug
    • Small virus
    • Very hardy and difficult to kill
    • Faecal-oral transmission
    • Likes rapidly dividing cells
  • Canine parvovirus
    • The host
    • Puppies
    • At time of weaning
    • Change of diet, stress, disease
    Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  • Canine parvovirus
    • The environment
    • Presence of lots of virus
    • Other diseases
    • Stress
    Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  • Canine parvovirus
    • The disease
    • Diarrhoea, often bloody
    • Vomiting
    • Miserable and lethargic
    • Dead litters
  • Canine parvovirus
    • Prevent
    • Most vulnerable
    • Foster pregnant bitches and litters
    • Hygiene
  • Canine parvovirus
    • Protect
    • Dispose of faeces
    • Isolate where possible
    • Staff for isolation/clean last
    • Vaccinate
    Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  • Canine parvovirus
    • The vaccine works well
    • Stops disease and shedding
    • When and how frequently you give it will depend on the situation
    • Pups get immunity directly from mother’s milk – maternal antibody
    • Maternal antibody protects pups BUT interferes with vaccine
  • Canine parvovirus
    • Maternal antibody gives protection in first weeks of life
    • Amount depends on:
    • Immunity of mum
    • Mum’s milk production
    • How much puppy suckles
  • Age of pup (weeks) 0 4 8 12 16 Maternal antibody level PREVENT
  • Canine parvovirus
    • If in doubt vaccinate
    • Start early and finish late!
  • Canine parvovirus
    • Control
    • Be suspicious early
    • Alert your vet
    • Hygiene very important
    • Euthanasia
    Canine parvovirus (and other causes of diarrhoea)
  • Feline parvovirus
    • = Feline Panleukopenia
    • = Feline Infectious Enteritis
  • Feline Parvovirus
    • The bug
      • Very similar to the dog
      • Can spread to dogs
    • The host
    • 3. The environment
  • Special cases
    • wobblycat.avi
  • Feline Parvovirus
    • Prevent
    • Protect
      • Vaccination is very good
    • Control
      • ISOLATE!
      • Euthanasia?
  • Cat flu
    • The bug(s)
    • There are lots of them – viruses and bacteria
    • Cat-cat spread
    • Some are very good at living outside the body – FOMITES
    • Can be infected with no signs – ‘Carriers’
    • Latent infection
  • Cat flu
    • 2. The host
    • Kittens are very vulnerable (> 6 weeks)
    • Adults can get ill too
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  • Cat flu
    • 3. The environment
    • Lots of bugs and lots of cats
    • Bugs survive well outside the cat
    • Carriers
  • Cat flu
    • 3. The environment
    • Stress makes it worse
    • Latency
  • Cat flu
    • PREVENT
    • Hygiene
    • Barriers
    • Ventilation
  • Cat flu
    • 2. PROTECT
    • Keep quarantined until vaccinated
    • Vaccination
    • reduces amount of disease/virus
    • does not prevent infection
    • Isolate cats with flu
  • Cat flu
    • 3. CONTROL
    • After infection takes time to see disease
    • One sneeze = TROUBLE!
    • Call your vet
    • Isolate
    • Clean
  • Kennel cough
    • 1. Bug
    • Lots of bugs
    • 2. Host
    • Most dogs
    • 3. Environment
    • Many kennels
  • Kennel cough
    • kennel cough.avi
  • Kennel cough
    • Disease
    • Coughing!!!
    • Snotty noses
    • Some mildly ill
    • Few very ill
    • Pneumonia
    Kennel cough
  • Kennel cough
    • 1. Prevent
    • Quarantine new dogs
    • 2. Protect
    • Vaccines may help
    • 3. Control
    • Isolate
    • Fomites!
    • Cats/humans
    Kennel cough
  • Think
    • PREVENT
    • PROTECT
    • CONTROL
  • Thank you
    • Centre for Evidence based Veterinary Medicine
    • School of Veterinary Medicine and Science
    • ICAWC
    • Shelters and animals
    • Brigita
  •