Breeding’s a Problem – or is it?   John Bower BVSc MRCVS The Veterinary Hospital Group, Plymouth, UK
Dogs versus women <ul><li>Dogs don’t mind you seeing other dogs </li></ul><ul><li>The later you come home, the better the ...
Breeding <ul><li>Basic Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Who breeds? </li></ul><ul><li>Breeders & Purchasers </li></ul><ul><li>Breed...
Oestrus – Heat - Calling <ul><li>Dogs On heat twice a year  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oestrus 3 weeks, usually mate & conceive...
Gestation Periods <ul><li>Dog 63 days </li></ul><ul><li>Cat 63 days </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit 30-33 days </li></ul><ul><li>...
Birth (Parturition) <ul><li>3 stages of Labour: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st  stage nest making, cervix dilating </li></ul><...
 
 
Who Breeds? <ul><li>Pedigree dogs & cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Professional” Breeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet Own...
Essentials <ul><li>Owners should only breed from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically healthy animals of correct age </li></u...
In-breeding <ul><li>Mating animals to close relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Is (was?) a common practice to increase chances of...
Essentials <ul><li>Purchasers should only buy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pets from the premises they were born in, or </li></u...
In the UK……….. <ul><li>1 in 5 dogs has a behaviour problem (genuine or perceived) </li></ul><ul><li>Of these, 1 in 7 is du...
 
Factors influencing behaviour  development  <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li...
Factors influencing behaviour  development  <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li...
Even the size of one species varies enormously Great Dane Yorkshire Terrier
Factors influencing behaviour  development  <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li...
 
Factors influencing behaviour  development  <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li...
Bad Good
Factors influencing behaviour  development  <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li...
What is socialisation ? <ul><li>The process by which an animal learns to recognise and relate to the species with which it...
What is habituation? <ul><li>The process by which an animal becomes accustomed to its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>This ...
Factors influencing behaviour  development  <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li...
 
Be aware that: <ul><li>Fear related problems are the commonest type genetically transferred </li></ul><ul><li>Most other b...
Socialisation of Puppies <ul><li>Socialisation age 3 – 12 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 st  vaccination at say 8 weeks on...
Your role <ul><li>Essential to handle pups gently and frequently between 3 – 14 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>Different p...
Ensure you have examined pet thoroughly
 
Socialisation of Kittens <ul><li>Socialisation age 2 - 7 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 st  vaccination at say 8 weeks onw...
New experience!
Your role <ul><li>Essential to handle kittens gently and frequently between these ages </li></ul><ul><li>Different people ...
The pet is a member of the owners family
Normal weaning  Kittens & Puppies <ul><li>1 st  3 weeks ad lib suckling </li></ul><ul><li>Dam starts to withdraw, with ful...
Hand rearing <ul><li>Often fed on demand past 3 rd  week </li></ul><ul><li>Solid feeding encouraged by hand/fingers </li><...
Frustration related aggression <ul><li>Disappointed expectation  </li></ul><ul><li>Demanding behaviour rewarded </li></ul>...
Rehoming - Social matches <ul><li>best </li></ul><ul><li>Littermates </li></ul><ul><li>Unrelated kittens < 7 weeks </li></...
These cats like each other!
These don’t!
Pedigree Dogs <ul><li>TV programme in UK this year exposed some bad breeding practices </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with KC ...
TV programme in UK this year <ul><li>Exposed some bad breeding practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with in-breeding ...
TV programme in UK this year <ul><li>Identified Breeds where serious problems </li></ul><ul><li>Raised public awareness of...
 
Some  Breed Problems - Dogs <ul><li>Boxer Cardiomyopathies </li></ul><ul><li>Bull Terrier Early Kidney failure </li></ul><...
Hip Dysplasia
Skull Comparisons – Syringomyelia / Chiari-like Malformations
Cats & the GCCF <ul><li>Cats have problems too – but many fewer </li></ul><ul><li>GCCF seems a bit more in control of thei...
Manx Cat – Spinal abnormality
Facial dermatitis Persian
Summary - Breeding pets is NOT easy & can be disastrous if: <ul><li>Parents are not free from obvious physical or temperam...
Good luck! Rescue Homes fulfil a vital role
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Breeding's a Problem... Or is it? - John Bower, Veterinary Hospital Group Plymouth

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John Bower on breeding and socialisation of dogs.

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Breeding's a Problem... Or is it? - John Bower, Veterinary Hospital Group Plymouth

  1. 1. Breeding’s a Problem – or is it? John Bower BVSc MRCVS The Veterinary Hospital Group, Plymouth, UK
  2. 2. Dogs versus women <ul><li>Dogs don’t mind you seeing other dogs </li></ul><ul><li>The later you come home, the better the welcome </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs don’t notice if you call them another dog’s name </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs think breaking wind is funny </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs’ parents never visit </li></ul><ul><li>Dogs temperament is the same all month long </li></ul>
  3. 3. Breeding <ul><li>Basic Facts </li></ul><ul><li>Who breeds? </li></ul><ul><li>Breeders & Purchasers </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding problems </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing behavioural development </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation & Habituation – your role </li></ul><ul><li>Hand rearing </li></ul><ul><li>Rehoming </li></ul><ul><li>Some breed related problems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Oestrus – Heat - Calling <ul><li>Dogs On heat twice a year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oestrus 3 weeks, usually mate & conceive at about 10 days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cats seasonally polyoestrous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually Spring & Autumn but not always </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating stops the cat calling </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Gestation Periods <ul><li>Dog 63 days </li></ul><ul><li>Cat 63 days </li></ul><ul><li>Rabbit 30-33 days </li></ul><ul><li>Guinea Pig 60-75 days </li></ul><ul><li>Rat/Mouse 21 days </li></ul>
  6. 6. Birth (Parturition) <ul><li>3 stages of Labour: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st stage nest making, cervix dilating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd stage is the birth of the young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 rd stage is expulsion of the placentas </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. Who Breeds? <ul><li>Pedigree dogs & cats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Professional” Breeders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pet Owners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mongrel dogs or Moggies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentional - by pet owners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unintentional; mismating, strays etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The results of both can end up in your Rescue Homes </li></ul>
  8. 10. Essentials <ul><li>Owners should only breed from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physically healthy animals of correct age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals with sound temperament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals not carrying genetic defects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals not closely related to each other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pedigree dogs & cats should be tested for known Genetic Disorders of that breed </li></ul><ul><li>Crossbreds should only be bred from if there are no behaviour or other adverse problems </li></ul>
  9. 11. In-breeding <ul><li>Mating animals to close relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Is (was?) a common practice to increase chances of offspring similar to parents </li></ul><ul><li>Does produce some “clones” of successful show dogs </li></ul><ul><li>Does however produce some animals with serious abnormalities which are inherited </li></ul><ul><li>Is now beginning to be accepted as “bad practice” </li></ul>
  10. 12. Essentials <ul><li>Purchasers should only buy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pets from the premises they were born in, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pets from reliable rescue homes where temperament & health have been assessed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pets whose parents they have seen if breeder or home bred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedigree pets whose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>parents have been tested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& are free of genetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defects </li></ul></ul>Rescue Home
  11. 13. In the UK……….. <ul><li>1 in 5 dogs has a behaviour problem (genuine or perceived) </li></ul><ul><li>Of these, 1 in 7 is due to lack of good socialisation and habituation </li></ul><ul><li>50 % of dogs and cats in rescue centres are there because of their behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Many breeds have conformation or medical inherited problems </li></ul>
  12. 15. Factors influencing behaviour development <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation & habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of other pets & humans </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and ageing </li></ul>
  13. 16. Factors influencing behaviour development <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation & habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of other pets & humans </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and ageing </li></ul>
  14. 17. Even the size of one species varies enormously Great Dane Yorkshire Terrier
  15. 18. Factors influencing behaviour development <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation, habituation, & handling </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of other pets & humans </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and ageing </li></ul>
  16. 20. Factors influencing behaviour development <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation, habituation, & handling </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of other pets & humans </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and ageing </li></ul>
  17. 21. Bad Good
  18. 22. Factors influencing behaviour development <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation, habituation, & handling </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of other pets & humans </li></ul><ul><li>Disease and ageing </li></ul>
  19. 23. What is socialisation ? <ul><li>The process by which an animal learns to recognise and relate to the species with which it lives </li></ul><ul><li>This may be other domestic pets as well as humans, and possibly livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Primary phase 3-14 weeks in dogs, 2-7 weeks in cats. Secondary phase around puberty </li></ul>
  20. 24. What is habituation? <ul><li>The process by which an animal becomes accustomed to its environment. </li></ul><ul><li>This may include domestic machines, telephone, door bell, farm machinery, traffic, aircraft, skateboards, hot air balloons, kites, gun fire etc </li></ul><ul><li>Same ages as for socialisation </li></ul>
  21. 25. Factors influencing behaviour development <ul><li>Breed and inherent behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Maternal behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Early environment </li></ul><ul><li>Socialisation & habituation </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour of other pets & humans </li></ul>
  22. 27. Be aware that: <ul><li>Fear related problems are the commonest type genetically transferred </li></ul><ul><li>Most other behavioural problems are due to either: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor early socialisation or habituation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect handling by new owner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrongly placed pet </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Socialisation of Puppies <ul><li>Socialisation age 3 – 12 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 st vaccination at say 8 weeks onwards, expose to environment safely </li></ul><ul><li>Pups who experience things after 14 weeks of age for the first time may remain fearful of it for life </li></ul>
  24. 29. Your role <ul><li>Essential to handle pups gently and frequently between 3 – 14 weeks of age </li></ul><ul><li>Different people </li></ul><ul><li>Examine feet, mouth, ears, eyes, coat </li></ul><ul><li>Add food to bowl while eating </li></ul><ul><li>Sit in their basket! </li></ul><ul><li>Reward good behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Pass on this advice to new owners </li></ul>
  25. 30. Ensure you have examined pet thoroughly
  26. 32. Socialisation of Kittens <ul><li>Socialisation age 2 - 7 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>From 1 st vaccination at say 8 weeks onwards, expose to environment safely </li></ul><ul><li>Kittens who experience things after 12 weeks of age for the first time may remain fearful of it for life </li></ul>
  27. 33. New experience!
  28. 34. Your role <ul><li>Essential to handle kittens gently and frequently between these ages </li></ul><ul><li>Different people </li></ul><ul><li>Pick them up, groom underneath etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Examine feet, mouth, ears, eyes, fur </li></ul><ul><li>Pass on this advice to new owners </li></ul>
  29. 35. The pet is a member of the owners family
  30. 36. Normal weaning Kittens & Puppies <ul><li>1 st 3 weeks ad lib suckling </li></ul><ul><li>Dam starts to withdraw, with full feed not always available </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer to prey/solid food </li></ul><ul><li>Any frustration or aggression is directed towards the prey </li></ul>
  31. 37. Hand rearing <ul><li>Often fed on demand past 3 rd week </li></ul><ul><li>Solid feeding encouraged by hand/fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of maternal modelling </li></ul><ul><li>Human focus of feeding process, not prey </li></ul><ul><li>Less independence </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to tolerate frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Aggression (cats) or dominance (puppies) may develop </li></ul>
  32. 38. Frustration related aggression <ul><li>Disappointed expectation </li></ul><ul><li>Demanding behaviour rewarded </li></ul><ul><li>Hand reared kittens </li></ul><ul><li>Food, attention, owner interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Can be severe & persist </li></ul>
  33. 39. Rehoming - Social matches <ul><li>best </li></ul><ul><li>Littermates </li></ul><ul><li>Unrelated kittens < 7 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Queen + kitten </li></ul><ul><li>Adult + kitten </li></ul><ul><li>Adults opposite sex </li></ul><ul><li>Adults male n </li></ul><ul><li>Adults female n </li></ul><ul><li>worst </li></ul>
  34. 40. These cats like each other!
  35. 41. These don’t!
  36. 42. Pedigree Dogs <ul><li>TV programme in UK this year exposed some bad breeding practices </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with KC Breed Standards which exaggerated some aspects of anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with Breeders’ & Show judges’ interpretations? </li></ul>
  37. 43. TV programme in UK this year <ul><li>Exposed some bad breeding practices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with in-breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems with breeding for appearance alone – not for function or behaviour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>problems due to KC standards or Judges’ interpretation of them </li></ul></ul>
  38. 44. TV programme in UK this year <ul><li>Identified Breeds where serious problems </li></ul><ul><li>Raised public awareness of problems </li></ul><ul><li>Called for changes in breed standards – KC have now revised all these – but enough? </li></ul><ul><li>KC agreement to microchip all dogs on BVA /KC schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Breed Societies can & MUST help </li></ul>
  39. 46. Some Breed Problems - Dogs <ul><li>Boxer Cardiomyopathies </li></ul><ul><li>Bull Terrier Early Kidney failure </li></ul><ul><li>Cocker Spaniel Rage Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Bedlington/Skye/Dob Copper Toxicosis </li></ul><ul><li>Cavalier King Charles Cardiomyopathies & Syringomyelia </li></ul><ul><li>German Shepherd Hip Dysplasia </li></ul><ul><li>Labrador Retriever Elbow / Hip Dysplasia </li></ul>
  40. 47. Hip Dysplasia
  41. 48. Skull Comparisons – Syringomyelia / Chiari-like Malformations
  42. 49. Cats & the GCCF <ul><li>Cats have problems too – but many fewer </li></ul><ul><li>GCCF seems a bit more in control of their breeders </li></ul><ul><li>Won’t register strange new breeds </li></ul><ul><li>TV trying to put together a programme similar to the dog one </li></ul>
  43. 50. Manx Cat – Spinal abnormality
  44. 51. Facial dermatitis Persian
  45. 52. Summary - Breeding pets is NOT easy & can be disastrous if: <ul><li>Parents are not free from obvious physical or temperament abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>Tests are not carried out for known breed abnormalities </li></ul><ul><li>The litter is not handled & socialised well </li></ul><ul><li>New owners are not chosen and advised correctly </li></ul><ul><li>Your role is very important – especially in 3 & 4 above </li></ul>
  46. 53. Good luck! Rescue Homes fulfil a vital role
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