Human Area NetworksHuman Area Networking is a technology that safely turns thesurface of the human body into data transmission paths atspeeds up to 10 Mbps between any two points on the body.
History of HAN The concept of intra-body communication was first proposed by IBM in 1996.This communication mechanism was later evaluated and reported by several research groups around the world.All those reported technologies had two limitations…
Limitations…The operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of centimeters.The top communication speed was only about 40 bits/s !!These limitations were overcome by NTT (Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation) located in Tokyo, Japan and finally came up with a human area networking technology called ‘REDTACTON’.
The name suggests…TACTON “touch-act-on” meaning action triggered by touching.RED it is an auspicious color in Japanese culture with connotations of warmth and love, to convey the cordiality of interpersonal communication.
What is ?RedTacton is a new Human Area Networking technology that turns the surface of human body as a safe, high speed network transmission path.RedTacton takes a different technical approach. Instead of relying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data, it uses weak electric fields on the surface of the body as a transmission medium.
How works ?
Principle…RedTacton relies upon the principle that the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field.RedTacton detects these changes using a laser and converts it to an electric signal in an optical receiver unit circuit.
Mechanism of communication with The naturally occurring electric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electric field is exceptionally faint and unstable. The photonic electric field sensor developed by NTT enables weak electric fields to be measured by detecting changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal with a laser beam.
TransceiverFigure shows a photograph of the RedTacton transceiver connected to a PDA and a block diagram of the RedTacton transceiver developed by NTT.
Features ofRedTacton has three main functional features…
Interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time.
Experiments on Human Body
Human SafetyThe transmitting and receiving electrodes of the RedTacton transceiver are completely covered with insulating film, so the body of the person acting as the transmission medium is completely insulated. This makes it impossible for current to flow into a person’s body from the transceiver.
Comparison with other networktechnologiesEvaluation Criteria Wireless Infrared/ RedTacton LAN BluetoothTransfer Speed(Can DVD quality E P Eimages can be sent)Performancedeterioration duringperiods of congestion P E E(Simultaneous use bymany people in smallplaces)Duplex Data Transfer E E E(Interactive Processing) Performance: Excellent (E) Poor (P)
Applications… An Alarm sounds automatically to avoid accidental medicine ingestion Touch advertising and receive information
Applications… Touch printer to print Instantaneous private network via personal handshake
Applications… Connect to the network just Potential for use as by putting a laptop on the communication method in table outer space and under water
Security Applications… User verification and unlocking with a touch Automatic access log for confidential document storage
DrawbacksToo costly.It has no compelling applications which aren’t available.
Plans for Commercialization It seems like there was a press release event where they demoed the technology. The first demo was a PDA medication assistant that shows instructions relevant to touched medicine bottles. The second was a museum guide PDA whose contents was fed from a floor-embedded transmitter through user’s feet. NTT plans to develop transceivers with an emphasis on portability that are more compact, cost-effective and less power consumption. Through field testing, NTT will continue to investigate and improve the robustness of Human Area Networking and human body surface communication applications.