Teaching medicine from past to future
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Teaching medicine from past to future



Teaching medicine from past to future

Teaching medicine from past to future



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Teaching medicine from past to future Presentation Transcript

  • 2. WHAT WE ARE TRAINED – WE TEACH• The Classical in which a lecture is divided into broad areas and then subdivided. This is the easiest method of structuring a lecture and, potentially, the most boring. An extension of this method is the iterative classical in which a set procedure is applied to each topic. For example signs, symptoms, diagnoses, management and prognosis may be applied to a set of related diseases.DR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  • 3. PROBLEMS IN MEDICAL EDUCATION:• Too much information, too little time, too many students in crowded rooms, and exams that discourage real learningDR.T.V.RAO MD 3
  • 4. EDUCATION IS CHANGING FROM PAST TO FUTURE• The old way of learning, was knowing what you should know. Now the way of learning is knowing what you dont know, not feeling bad about it, and knowing how to find out.• BMJ 2003;327:1430-1433DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  • 5. TEACHING ON PROBLEM AND SOLVING• The Problem Centred in which a problem is outlined and various solutions are offered. Handled well, this method can play on the curiosity or clinical interests of the students.DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  • 6. THE SEQUENTIAL • In which a problem or question is presented and followed by a chain of reasoning which leads to a solution or conclusion. It is easy to lose the students’ attention when using this method so the use of periodic summaries is recommendedDR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  • 7. THE COMPARATIVE• In which two or more perspectives, methods or models are compared. It is better done visually rather than orally. A common weakness is to assume that the audience knows intimately the perspective or methods under review. If in doubt, first outline each of the perspectives.DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  • 8. THE THESIS • In which an assertion is made and then proved or disproved through a mixture of argument and perhaps speculation. Potentially an interesting approach for students but, like the sequential approach, it can sometimes be difficult to follow.DR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  • 9. WHAT IS WRONG WITH OUR LECTURES• Whats wrong with lectures?” was a key question posed to undergraduate medical education program.• What students disliked was not lectures, but poor• quality lecturing. Students’ dislikes were:• • inaudibility;• • incoherence;• • talking too fast;• • poor use of audio visual aids;• • too much informationDR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  • 10. WHY THING GO WRONG IN TEACHING• saying too much too quickly;• • not giving sufficient time to copy diagrams;• • assuming too much knowledge;• • forgetting to provide summaries;• • not indicating asides;• • difficulty in timing a lecture.DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  • 11. TEACHERS EXPRESS THEIR REASONS • unresponsive audiences; • • large groups; • • effort and time involved in preparation; • • feelings of failure after a bad lecture; • • lecturing on topics disliked.DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  • 12. Assess Reflect Plan TeachDR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  • 13. MEDICAL STUDENTS HAVE THEIR OWN CHOICES• Science students value logically structured notes more highly than do arts students and arts students value gains in insights and new perspectives more than science and medical students do. Science students see lectures as an entrée into reading. For arts students lectures, ideally, follow reading, and help them to interpret what they have read (Brown & Daines, 1981a and b).DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  • 14. THE TEACHER AND CHANGES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION 1- Changes in medical education• Medical education has seen major changes over the past decade. Integrated teaching, problem-based learning, community-based learning, core curricula with electives or options and more systematic curriculum planning. DR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  • 15. THE TEACHER AND CHANGES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION 2- Changes in medical education• Increasing emphasis is being placed on self-directed study with students expected to take more responsibility for their own learning. DR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  • 16. THE TEACHER AND CHANGES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION 3- Changes in medical education• The application of new learning technologies has supported this move.• New directions can be identified too in the area of assessment with increased emphasis on performance assessment. DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  • 17. THE TEACHER AND CHANGES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION 4- An increased emphasis on the students The increasing emphasis on student autonomy in medical education has moved the centre of gravity away from the teacher and closer to the student. Indeed it has become fashionable to talk about learning and learners rather than teaching and the teacher.DR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  • 18. HOW TO MAKE YOUR LECTURES WORK• Connecting learning to the knowledge of the learner facilitates retention and transfer of information. All learning experiences should therefore be appropriate to the level of the learner and relate to the learners previous experiences. During the learning session, information should be structured in a way that demonstrates the relationship between key ideas. As well, there should be clear linkages between individual sessions to allow for progressive reinforcement of fundamental concepts, while at the same time minimizing unnecessary redundancy.DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  • 19. “not so much what toteach, but how to teach…” Sir William Osler, 1899 DR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  • 20. “TO ACT ON OR INFLUENCE EACH OTHER”• Learning is a process that results in some modification, relatively permanent, of the learners way of thinking, feeling or doing. Learning therefore requires the active construction of new ideas or ways of thinking on the part of the learnerDR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  • 21. EFFECTIVELY COMMUNICATING YOUR IDEAS? • Organize your ideas into a logical structure including headings and subheadings. Provide students with your outline at the beginning of the class. Continue to refer to your outline as the class progressesDR.T.V.RAO MD 21
  • 22. ORGANISE YOUR LECTURE FOR 60 MINUTES FIRST ~5-10 MINUTES• Provide your “core idea,” hook students, relate to what they know already, review or link to previous material, provide organizer for the lecture, and note importance of the topic to the students, course and other goalsDR.T.V.RAO MD 22
  • 23. NEXT ~40-45 MINUTES ( CONTAIN THE BODY OF LECTURE ) • Introduce new concepts, present key terms, explain challenging concepts, link to “real life” situations, provide vivid examples and illustrations, ask questions, respond to answers, build in case studies, break up lecture with activities. Review main points periodically.DR.T.V.RAO MD 23
  • 24. CONCLUDE IN 5-10 MINUTES• Summarize, reiter ate the “core idea,” reflect back on organizer, link to additional readings and next class, solicit feedback.DR.T.V.RAO MD 24
  • 25. THE 10 QUALITIES OF EXEMPLARY LECTURERS• 1. Carefully select key information• 2. Clearly state their key objectives• 3. Inform students in advance of topics and• objectives• 4. Structure presentations using a specific• organizer• 5. Provide hand-outs or slides with key information• in advanceDR.T.V.RAO MD 25
  • 26. THE 10 QUALITIES OF EXEMPLARY LECTURERS (CONT.)• 6 Pose an intriguing question or problem• 7. Use a wide variety of oral and visual techniques• 8. Present key ideas as opposed to lists of details• 9. Explain clearly using multiple approaches e.g.• narrative, comparisons, examples• 10. Promote interactive learning.DR.T.V.RAO MD 26
  • 27. Your Job as Teacher Initiate the conversation about learning goals Help student make a plan that make sense Make the student be accountable for the goals he or she has set Give feedback on reaching the goals Have student adjust goals as needed DR.T.V.RAO MD 27
  • 28. TEACHERS TO REMEMBER WE ARE NOT ROBOTS BRING LIFE TO YOUR TEACHING• “Learning is not a spectator sport. Students... must talk about what they are learning , write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives.” (Chickering and Gamson, 1987)DR.T.V.RAO MD 28
  • 29. OUR TEACHING SHOULD BE PATIENT CENTRED• Medical education should be patient cantered Ample content in our day to day practice Formative Assessment needs to be stressedDR.T.V.RAO MD 29
  • 32. “He teaches best who showshis students not what tothink, but how to think…” Alan Gregg DR.T.V.RAO MD 32
  • 33. TECHNOLOGY - EMPOWERING OUR STUDENTS ARE THE MEDICAL TEACHERS READY ….. • Adopting technology in education dramatically results in better educational results, progressive college operations, and also smoother and more streamlined academic and administrative workflowDR.T.V.RAO MD 33
  • 35. • Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical Professionals, and Medical Educators in the Developing World • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 35