Rhinovirus
an update
Dr.T.V.Rao MD
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
Common cold Pharyng Tracheobronchitis Pneumonia
RHINOVIRUSES
INFLUENZA type A
INFLUENZA type B
CORONAVIRUSES
ADENOVIRUSES ...
Coryza Pharyngitis Croup Tr.bronchitis Pneumonia
RSV
PARAINFLUENZA (type 3)
PARAINFLUENZA (type 2)
PARAINFLUENZA (type 1)
...
Rhinoviruses
• Rhinoviruses (from the Greek (gen.) "nose")
are the most common viral infective agents in
humans and are th...
Viral Rhinitis
 sites infected
Rhinovirus nose > pharynx > saliva
90% 70% 50%
Coronavirus ?nose
Parainfluenza, RSV, adeno...
 Rhinoviruses are the most commonly
isolated viruses from persons with mild
upper respiratory illness.
 Rhinoviruses are...
RHINOVIRUS GROUP
• Produces Common Cold.
• Mild respiratory Illness.
• More than 100 serotypes
• Nasal secretions are infe...
Properties of Rhinoviruses.
• Gross appearance like Entero viruses,
• Acid Labile destroyed at 3.0 pH.
• Grown in
Human Ce...
Rhinovirus
• Picornoviridae family
• Size
• Single stranded
• Incubation period of 1
to 3 days
• Optimum growth occurs
bet...
Rhino Virus
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10
Structure
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11
Entering a Cell
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12
Rhinovirus bonded to a CAM
1 receptor
Antibodies bonded to a
rhinovirus
Understanding – Common cold
• leading cause of doctor visits and lost hours
both at school and the workplace over >100
dif...
Transmission of Rhinoviruses
• There are two
modes of
transmission: via
aerosols of
respiratory droplets
and from
contamin...
Pathogenesis - Rhinoviruses
• Entry through Respiratory tract.
• Nasal Mucosa, can infect Lower Respiratory
tract.
• Chill...
Pathogenesis
Epithelial destruction hypothesis:
intact nasal epithelium (Winther et al)
rhinovirus replication in extrem...
Pathogenesis
• Inflammatory
cascade
hypothesis:
Common cold
symptoms result
from an
inflammatory
cascade triggered
by a vi...
Cytokines initiate pathogenic process
Small number of virus
infected cells elaborate a
variety of cytokines
initiating a h...
Interleukin-1
• T-cell activation
• B-cell profileration, antibody synthesis
• up-regulation adhesion molecule expression
...
Clinical Findings.
• Incubation 2-4 days,
• Last for 7 days.
• Sneezing, Nasal
Obstruction, Sore
throat,
• May lead to
sec...
The common cold, nasal congestion is
caused by a vasodilation of the subepithelial
capillaries and of the cavernous sinuse...
Clinical Findings.
• Incubation 2-4 days,
• Last for 7 days.
• Sneezing, Nasal
Obstruction, Sore
throat,
• May lead to
sec...
Laboratory Diagnosis
• Isolation of virus
may be obtained
from nasal or
throat swabs
collected early in
infection.
• Cultu...
Immunity – Rhinoviruses.
• Antibodies in
Nose
• Recurrent
infections with
antigenic
variants, may be
2-3 attacks a year.
D...
Prevention and Control
• No specific
treatment.
• Vaccines are
unsuccessful.
• Intranasal spray of
Gamma
Interferon for 5
...
Epidemiology - Rhinoviruses.
• Prevalent all over the
world.
• Close Contact.
• Fingers and Hand
- Hand washing.
• High ra...
CDC Recommends
• The CDC recommends
that children with
symptoms lasting more
than 10 days who are
unresponsive to over-
th...
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28
Stop Spreading the Virus
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29
Use Tissue Paper
• Use paper
:Instead of shared
cloth towels.
Individuals with
colds should
always sneeze or
cough into a ...
Hand washing
• Hand washing is the
simplest and most
effective way to keep
from getting rhinovirus
colds. Children and
adu...
Treatments are Still Experimental
• DRACO, a broad-spectrum
antiretroviral therapy being
developed at the Massachusetts
In...
Preventing Common Cold
• There is no vaccine to protect you against
the common cold. However, you may be
able to reduce yo...
Prospects of Vaccine
• There are no vaccines against these viruses as
there is little-to-no cross-protection between
serot...
• The Programme Created by
Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and
Health care Workers in the
Developing World
• Email
• doctortvrao...
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Rhinovirus an update

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Rhino virus an update

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Rhinovirus an update

  1. 1. Rhinovirus an update Dr.T.V.Rao MD Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
  2. 2. Common cold Pharyng Tracheobronchitis Pneumonia RHINOVIRUSES INFLUENZA type A INFLUENZA type B CORONAVIRUSES ADENOVIRUSES (types 1-5,7) EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS RSV PARAINFLUENZA (types 1-3) COXSACKIE (group A & B) ECHOVIRUS +++ ++ - + + + + ++ + - + + - - Viral Organisms in U.R.I. Adults Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2
  3. 3. Coryza Pharyngitis Croup Tr.bronchitis Pneumonia RSV PARAINFLUENZA (type 3) PARAINFLUENZA (type 2) PARAINFLUENZA (type 1) RHINOVIRUSES INFLUENZA type A INFLUENZA type B ADENOVIRUSES (types 1-3,5) CORONAVIRUSES EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS COXSACKIE (group A & B) ECHOVIRUS ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ + ++ - + + + + + + + + + + + + +++ + - ++ ++ - + + + - +++ ++ + + + - Viral Organisms in U.R.I. Children Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3
  4. 4. Rhinoviruses • Rhinoviruses (from the Greek (gen.) "nose") are the most common viral infective agents in humans and are the predominant cause of the common cold. Rhinovirus infection proliferates in temperatures between 33–35 °C (91–95 °F), and this may be why it occurs primarily in the nose. Rhinovirus is a species in the genus Enterovirus of the Picornaviridae family of viruses. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4
  5. 5. Viral Rhinitis  sites infected Rhinovirus nose > pharynx > saliva 90% 70% 50% Coronavirus ?nose Parainfluenza, RSV, adenovirus U & L.RT Influenza extensive destruction of U & L.RT (ciliated, intermediate and basal cells of epithelium) Ebisava et al, 1969)Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5
  6. 6.  Rhinoviruses are the most commonly isolated viruses from persons with mild upper respiratory illness.  Rhinoviruses are a genus of picornaviridae  In contrast to enteroviruses they do not replicate in the intestinal tract, they have an extreme species specificity and more fastidious growth requirements Rhinoviruses are .. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6
  7. 7. RHINOVIRUS GROUP • Produces Common Cold. • Mild respiratory Illness. • More than 100 serotypes • Nasal secretions are infective. Mistaken with Infections with Corona viruses, Adenovirus. Para influenza viruses. Influenza viruses Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7
  8. 8. Properties of Rhinoviruses. • Gross appearance like Entero viruses, • Acid Labile destroyed at 3.0 pH. • Grown in Human Cell lines, WI – 38 MRC -5 • Cultivated at 330 c Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8
  9. 9. Rhinovirus • Picornoviridae family • Size • Single stranded • Incubation period of 1 to 3 days • Optimum growth occurs between 33 and 34 deg Celsius (93 deg F) • Not stable below the pH of 5-6 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9
  10. 10. Rhino Virus Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10
  11. 11. Structure Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11
  12. 12. Entering a Cell Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12 Rhinovirus bonded to a CAM 1 receptor Antibodies bonded to a rhinovirus
  13. 13. Understanding – Common cold • leading cause of doctor visits and lost hours both at school and the workplace over >100 different viruses found to cause symptoms of the common cold responsible for about 70% of the cases where a virus has been found one of the most common illnesses to man 35 to 50% of the total number of common colds Hand to hand contact Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13
  14. 14. Transmission of Rhinoviruses • There are two modes of transmission: via aerosols of respiratory droplets and from contaminated surfaces, including direct person-to- person contact. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14
  15. 15. Pathogenesis - Rhinoviruses • Entry through Respiratory tract. • Nasal Mucosa, can infect Lower Respiratory tract. • Chilling, wearing wet cloths do not produce infection. • But common cold starts with chills. • Local inflammation and cytokines may be responsible for the symptoms of common cold. • Interferon production occurs early and specific antibody appears in nasal secretions Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15
  16. 16. Pathogenesis Epithelial destruction hypothesis: intact nasal epithelium (Winther et al) rhinovirus replication in extremely small number of cells (Arrunda et al) viral quantity does not influence duration nor severity of colds (Arrunda et al) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16
  17. 17. Pathogenesis • Inflammatory cascade hypothesis: Common cold symptoms result from an inflammatory cascade triggered by a viral infectionDr.T.V.Rao MD 17
  18. 18. Cytokines initiate pathogenic process Small number of virus infected cells elaborate a variety of cytokines initiating a host inflammatory response, which orchestrate chemotaxis and expression of endothelial adhesion receptor molecules resulting in the typical common cold symptoms. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18
  19. 19. Interleukin-1 • T-cell activation • B-cell profileration, antibody synthesis • up-regulation adhesion molecule expression • mediator, cytokine, growth factor induction • increased vascular permeabilitiy • up-regulation kinin receptor expression • hematopoietic progenitor cell stimulation • neuro-endocrine interactionsDr.T.V.Rao MD 19
  20. 20. Clinical Findings. • Incubation 2-4 days, • Last for 7 days. • Sneezing, Nasal Obstruction, Sore throat, • May lead to secondary infection with Bacteria. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20
  21. 21. The common cold, nasal congestion is caused by a vasodilation of the subepithelial capillaries and of the cavernous sinuses, by edema in the lamina propria and by inflammatory processes in which neutrophils and kinins play an important role. o Histamine plays only a minor role in the symptoms of common cold o Little is known about the role of prostaglandins and leukotrienes in the common cold. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21
  22. 22. Clinical Findings. • Incubation 2-4 days, • Last for 7 days. • Sneezing, Nasal Obstruction, Sore throat, • May lead to secondary infection with Bacteria. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
  23. 23. Laboratory Diagnosis • Isolation of virus may be obtained from nasal or throat swabs collected early in infection. • Culturing on MRC5 or W 138 • Appearing of CPE Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23
  24. 24. Immunity – Rhinoviruses. • Antibodies in Nose • Recurrent infections with antigenic variants, may be 2-3 attacks a year. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24
  25. 25. Prevention and Control • No specific treatment. • Vaccines are unsuccessful. • Intranasal spray of Gamma Interferon for 5 Days Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25
  26. 26. Epidemiology - Rhinoviruses. • Prevalent all over the world. • Close Contact. • Fingers and Hand - Hand washing. • High rate of infection in Infants and Children. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26
  27. 27. CDC Recommends • The CDC recommends that children with symptoms lasting more than 10 days who are unresponsive to over- the-counter medications or with fevers over 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit seek medical attention. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27
  28. 28. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28
  29. 29. Stop Spreading the Virus Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29
  30. 30. Use Tissue Paper • Use paper :Instead of shared cloth towels. Individuals with colds should always sneeze or cough into a facial tissue, and promptly throw it Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30
  31. 31. Hand washing • Hand washing is the simplest and most effective way to keep from getting rhinovirus colds. Children and adults should wash hands at key moments after nose-wiping, after diapering or toileting, before eating, and before preparing food. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31
  32. 32. Treatments are Still Experimental • DRACO, a broad-spectrum antiretroviral therapy being developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has shown preliminary effectiveness in treating rhinovirus, as well as a number of other infectious viruses Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32
  33. 33. Preventing Common Cold • There is no vaccine to protect you against the common cold. However, you may be able to reduce your risk of getting a cold by taking these steps: • wash your hands often with soap and water do not touch your eyes, nose, or mouth with unwashed hands stay away from people who are sick Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33
  34. 34. Prospects of Vaccine • There are no vaccines against these viruses as there is little-to-no cross-protection between serotypes. At least 99 serotypes of Human rhinoviruses affecting humans have been sequenced. However, recent study of the VP4 protein has shown it to be highly conserved amongst many serotypes of Human rhinovirus, opening up the potential for a future pan-serotype Human rhinovirus vaccine. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 34
  35. 35. • The Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Health care Workers in the Developing World • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.com Dr.T.V.Rao MD 35
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