Planning a thesis by Medical Students


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Planning a thesis by Medical Students

  1. 1. Prof T.V.Rao MD<br />Planning a thesis forPOSTGRADUATE students in medicine<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />1<br />
  2. 2. A thesis is ……<br />A dissertationor thesisis a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some countries/universities, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used as part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in others, the reverse is true.<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />2<br />
  3. 3. A Dictionary meaning of a Thesis<br />the·sis  (thss)·ses (-sz) 1. A proposition that is maintained by argument.<br />2. A dissertation advancing an original point of view as a result of research, especially as a requirement for an academic degree.<br />3. A hypothetical proposition, especially one put forth without proof.<br />4. The first stage of the Hegelian dialectic process.<br />5. a. The long or accented part of a metrical foot, especially in quantitative verse.<br />b. The unaccented or short part of a metrical foot, especially in accentual verse.<br />6. Music The accented section of a measure.<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Picking a topic for your dissertation or thesis may be the biggest hurdle you face in post graduation. Sure, you’ve got to write the thesis or dissertation, but if you choose the wrong topic, you may not even get that far<br />CHOOSING YOUR THESISOR DISSERTATION TOPIC- A hurdle to begin ?<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Criteria for selecting a topic:<br /><ul><li>Is this topic appropriate to the conditions of your workplace ?
  6. 6. Will this topic appeal to my interests?
  7. 7. Is this topic something I can speak about with enthusiasm and insight?
  8. 8. Will I be able to offer a fresh perspective on this topic? </li></ul>Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />5<br />
  9. 9. 1. What does the other professionals most likely know about this subject?<br />2. What elements are most important to this topic?<br />3. How much can I competently research and report on in the time I am given to present ?<br />When narrowing your topic ask the following questions:<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />6<br />
  10. 10. Definitions<br />Examples<br /> -hypothetical examples<br />Statistics<br />Analogies/ Comparison-contrast<br />Anecdotes<br />Quotation/ Testimony<br />Types of supporting materialbetter read related topics<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />7<br />
  11. 11. Plan the matters before implementing<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />8<br />
  12. 12. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />9<br />
  13. 13. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />10<br />
  14. 14. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />11<br />
  15. 15. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />12<br />
  16. 16. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />13<br />
  17. 17. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />14<br />
  18. 18. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />15<br />
  19. 19. Planning the Dissertation<br />Step 2<br />Choosing the<br />issue<br />Step 1<br />Choosing the <br />Study Theme<br />Step 8<br />Description &<br />justification of<br />RMs<br />Step 3<br />Brainstorming<br />Making a <br />mind map<br />The Dissertation<br />Step 7<br />Introduction<br />Aims<br />Step 4<br />What research<br />methods?<br />Step 5<br />Drawing up<br />a plan or<br />structure<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Step 6<br />Introduction<br />Context<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />16<br />
  20. 20. You should note some main terms, comprising those naming components of the thesis topics and those providing directions for coping with it. It is recommended to seek especially for words defining the type of reasoning you want to use: why, how, compare, analyze, assess, argue, etc. Make sure that you appreciate the meanings of such terms<br />Basic understanding of the topic you have chosen is your strength <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />17<br />
  21. 21. Let’s be practical. A hypothesis is located within some subject or specific matter. To firmly discover and confirm the preference for a thesis subject may require a long time. It depends on the student..<br />But they have to respect the wisdom of guides / mentors<br />Choosing the topic ?<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />18<br />
  22. 22. The initial step towards in choosing a thesis is to explore the majority of potential thesis topics and choose among them the best one.<br />While exploring thesis topics, it is recommended calm down! Then you should begin thinking about potential thesis topics. You will wish to narrow down your list of possible ideas as much as it is possible<br />Narrow the topic of choice <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />19<br />
  23. 23. Statisticians improve the quality of data with the design of experiments and survey sampling. Statistics also provides tools for prediction and forecasting using data and statistical models. Statistics is applicable to a wide variety of academic disciplines, including natural and social sciences, government, and business. Statistical consultants are available to provide help for organizations and companies without direct access to expertise relevant to their particular problems.<br />Never underestimate the power of statistics <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />20<br />
  24. 24. Before you fall into writing or research, you should understand some thesis topics you are managing. Keep in mind that you are not being required only to gather information, but develop and show your way of thinking. You will save yourself frustration and time by starting this thinking early in the writing process. <br />Thesis is not just writing but more<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />21<br />
  25. 25. When you have gotten the point where you have decided on a properly narrow subject, you may wish to think about drafting a proposal. Actually, it may be necessary anyway. If it is so, you should not worry about it; creating the first draft and submitting it to the guider will benefit you greatly, as he will be capable to assist you to hone your subject even further.<br />Early and appropriate synopsis will clear doubts about thesis<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />22<br />
  26. 26. Your proposals for initiating work ….<br />There are several reasons to writing a thesis proposal. First of all, by doing so you indicate that a topic you’ve chosen for your research is really significant, and offers a lot of opportunities to work on. Secondly, your thesis proposal writing will become a sort of a scheme, a detailed plan you can lean on when conducting your researches and looking for proper helpful materials. Thesis proposal writing also demonstrates that you were able to come up with methods of analysis that are appropriate and correspond to the information you possess. Together all these reasons show to a committee that you have absolute control over your research topic, and that your findings will be significant.<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />23<br />
  27. 27. A typical thesis (or dissertation) has a title page, an Abstract, a table of contents, a body, comprising the various chapters (introduction, literature review, findings, etc.), and a bibliography or (more usually) a references section. They vary in their structure in line with the many different areas of study (arts, humanities, social sciences, technology, sciences, etc.) and the great differences between them<br />Structure<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />24<br />
  28. 28. Structure<br />Dissertations normally report on a research project or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of the thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the methods used and the findings of the project by including a series of chapters: a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, with an explanation of why the subject was chosen for study; b) a literature review, reviewing relevant literature and showing how this has informed the research issue; c) a methodology chapter, explaining how the research has been designed and why the research methods being used have been chosen; d) a findings chapter, outlining the findings of the research itself; e) an analysis and discussion chapter, analyzing the findings and discussing them in the context of the literature review (this chapter is often divided into two—analysis and discussion); f) a conclusion.<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />25<br />
  29. 29. A thesis statement is the main point that you're trying to get the readers to understand. It should be reinforced with examples throughout the whole essay. So... look at your prompt and try to make a thesis statement out of it. Circle keywords in the prompt and make sure you include those words in your statement. Remember, support your thesis statement with EXAMPLES. <br />Prepare to choose <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />26<br />
  30. 30. Thesis Content<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />27<br />
  31. 31. background<br />statement of the problem<br />purpose of the study<br />theoretical bases and organization<br />limitations of the study<br />definition of terms<br />Introduction to the study: <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />28<br />
  32. 32. Another important tip on how to write a thesisis to conduct a literature review and find out what topic fits your research. A nicely written thesis review will attract readers and everyone will feel happy about it. You need to understand what is written in the topic. It will help you to know the present literature in a better way.<br />Review of the literature a must<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />29<br />
  33. 33. In search of how to write a thesis one should follow rules and regulations in writing a thesis. It is true that rules will differ from college to college. Therefore, it is important for you to take help from your supervisor and to be aware of the right guidelines.<br />Follow guidelines of the university<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />30<br />
  34. 34. Design of the investigation<br /> Population and/or sample<br />treatment<br />data analysis procedures<br />Methodology <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />31<br />
  35. 35. Presentation of the findings<br />Discussion of the findings<br />Results and discussion <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />32<br />
  36. 36. Summary, conclusions, and recommendations<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />33<br />
  37. 37. Incorrectly cited online references in college research papers can cut into your grade, so it is important your use proper form. College essays require you to use a certain citation style guide, to make sure that all students' work is in uniform style. This also makes it easy to mark as your instructors will recognize a universal style and be able to follow up easily. There are many different citation styles, but the main three are America Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA) and Chicago Manual of Style. <br />References<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />34<br />
  38. 38. Organize the matters on thesis<br />There are four broad types of organization methods, called modes of argument, for a dissertation or thesis: <br />(1) Comparative- Two or more aspects of a topic are compared.<br />(2) Discursive- The topic is explained and developed with reasons and examples.<br />(3) Argumentative - The writer explains why a topic deserves more attention or why it should be viewed from a different perspective.<br />(4) Chronological- Historical developments in a topic are explained or explored in chronological order.<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />35<br />
  39. 39. This is the final touch for your thesis. Check and recheck your thesis and make it free from mistakes. There are good numbers of editing and spell check software that can help you a lot. Make sure you use the right form of grammar and English structure.<br />A good Proof reading avoids several embarrassments <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />36<br />
  40. 40. If your selected topic is your professor’s favorite area, you need to be aware the subject may lose appeal prior to it is even “house-trained.” Besides, when your professor goes on to another area of interest, you will be cut off and perhaps unable to fulfill your work. Keep in mind, this is a topic, which should remain you engrossed and motivated several years. You should pick it as cautiously as you would a new dress.<br />If the topic is absolute interest of your guide – no way cope up – or in trouble<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />37<br />
  41. 41. Most students and ill informed guides may spend a long time researching a particular topic before finally choosing one for their thesis. You should examine present literature both generally and specifically. One way to do it is to contact main researchers to assist you to identify unpublished and published studies<br />Be well informed on matters .. Or loose time<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />38<br />
  42. 42. Conduct periodic keyword searches in various computerized databases to recognize new problems or angles related to your topic. Remember that this is an interminable and daunting undertaking, because new research is evolving. Make sureyour time is not dominated exploring new research at the expenditure of analyzing your own.<br />Concentrate on your topic stop research on well research topics<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />39<br />
  43. 43. When reviewing the literature, you need to determine if your project will suit the genius of an existing journal. You need to be capable to put yourself in the reviewer’s desk and assess whether your thesis would increase the integrity of a trustworthy journal.<br />Choose the best indexed journals <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />40<br />
  44. 44. A good thesis subject matter is interesting to you, your guide or advisor, and the research community. Like with various aspects of finish school, the balance you discover will depend partly on the relationship with your guide<br />What can be a good thesis<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />41<br />
  45. 45. Submitting the thesis<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />42<br />A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense. By the final deadline, the student must submit a complete copy of the thesis to the appropriate body within the accepting institution, along with the appropriate forms, bearing the signatures of the primary supervisor, the examiners, and, in some cases, the head of the student's department. Other required forms may include library authorizations (giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection) and copyright permissions<br />
  46. 46. Finally, write an Implications of Research page that will tell about new knowledge that your research is going to come up with. Stress once more the importance of the conducted research.Provide the List of References. Cite all ideas, concepts, text, data that are not your own.This is just the basic outline. Its purpose is to make you feel more certain about writing a thesis proposal. The rest is up to you.<br />Finally emphasize about your work that what matters your future <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />43<br />
  47. 47. The thesis or dissertation certainly has an impact on that future. Trying to figure out how your topic will help or hurt is the most time-consuming part of narrowing down the choices.<br />Has thesis has any impact on your future ???<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />44<br />
  48. 48. Some guides / mentors are too adamant, stick to their outdated knowledge creating conflicts in selecting the topics and completing the thesis.<br />Choose modern topics which can serve your progress in your career.<br />Best option remains with guides, advisers and mentors, every research is a progress in Science<br />By repeating a grand old ideas will stagnate departments.<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />Go forward with research – be a master of future rather than creating conflicts<br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />45<br />
  49. 49. Donot get disappointed if your thesis cannot meet the academic standards <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />46<br />
  50. 50. Our research in medicine is uncertain do not plan thesis for explosive ideas <br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />47<br />
  51. 51. Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />48<br />For Articles of Academic medical Interest follow me on<br />
  52. 52. Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for ‘e’ learning resources for Microbiologists in Developing World<br />Email<br /><br />Dr.T.V.Rao MD<br />49<br />
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