Paramyxovirus net


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Paramyxovirus net

  1. 1. Parainluenza virus Dr.T.V.Rao MD Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
  2. 2. Parainluenza virus causesRespiratory infection in youngThey are the second most common cause oflower respiratory tract infection in youngerchildren. Together, the Parainluenza virusescause ~75% of the cases of Croup.Repeated infection throughout the life of thehost is not uncommon. Symptoms of laterbreakouts include upper respiratory tractillness as in a cold and sore throat. Theincubation period of all four serotypes is 1 to7 days. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  3. 3. Virus Properties.150-300 nm in size.Envelop Two GlycoproteinG protein attaches to cell surfaces,F protein causes cell to cell fusion.No Haemagglutinnins or Neuraminidase activity.Grows in Human cell cultures He la and He p2. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  4. 4. Para Influenza Viruses typesFour Types arepresent.Type 1 Sendai VirusType 2 Acute Laryngotracheo bronchitis.Type 3 Respiratoryinfection in childrenType 4 Respiratoryinfection. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  5. 5. ETIOLOGY:Parainluenza viruses areenveloped RNA virusesclassified asparamyxoviruses. Fourantigenically distinct types—1, 2, 3, and 4 (with 2subtypes, 4A and 4B ) Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  6. 6. Morphology – Parainluenza HPIVs are negative- sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that possess fusion and hem agglutinin- neuraminidase glycoprotein "spikes" on their surface. There are four serotypes types of HPIV (1 through 4) and two subtypes (4a and 4b). Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  7. 7. VirionThe Virion varies insize (averagediameter between150 and 300 nm) andshape, is unstable inthe environment(surviving a fewhours onenvironmentalsurfaces), and isreadily inactivatedwith soap and water. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  8. 8. There are four serotypes in ParmyxoviridaeHPIV-1 (most common cause of croup;also other upper and lower respiratorytract illnesses typical)HPIV-2 (causes croup and other upperand lower respiratory tract illnesses)HPIV-3 (associated with bronchiolitis andpneumonia)HPIV-4 (includes subtypes 4a and 4b) Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  9. 9. Present with Respiratory illness The most distinctive clinical feature of HPIV-1 and HPIV-2 is croup (i.e., laryngotracheobronchitis); HPIV-1 is the leading cause of croup in children, whereas HPIV-2 is less frequently detected. Both HPIV-1 and -2 can cause other upper and lower respiratory tract illnesses. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  10. 10. Parainluenza infections spread through respiratory tract HPIV infection is acquired through inhalation of infected droplet nuclei or indirectly through contact with infected secretions. The incubation period is generally 2-6 Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  11. 11. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in Parmyxoviridae HPIV infection in the respiratory tract leads to secretion of high levels of inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)–alpha, interleukin (IL)–2, IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)– alpha. The peak duration of secretion is 7-10 days after initial exposure. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  12. 12. Mechanisms of pathogenesis in Parmyxoviridae Increasing levels of certain chemokines such as RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)–K are detected in the nasal secretion of paediatric patients Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  13. 13. Maternal antibodies protect first few months Passively acquired maternal antibodies may play a role in protection from HPIV types 1 and 2 in the first few months of life, highlighting the importance of breast- feeding.. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  14. 14. Clinical Features 10% of the respiratory infections are caused CROUP – LRI, Bronchitis, Bronchiolitis, Pneumonia. Minor reparatory tract infections, Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  15. 15. Children present with Respiratory infectionsA broad range offindings is observedand may includefever, nasalcongestion,pharyngealerythema, non-productive tominimally productivecough, inspiratorystridor, rhonchi,rales, and wheezing. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  16. 16. Clinical Features Respiratory illness, Febrile Rhino rhea, Tracheo Bronchitis, Pneumonia. Immune deficient High Mortality. Otitis Media Sudden Death Syndrome. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  17. 17. Upper and Lower respiratory tract infection major manifestation Other infections: HPIVs routinely cause otitis media, Pharyngitis, and conjunctivitis coryza, and these can occur singly or in combination with a lower respiratory tract infection. HPIV-3 is the most frequently reported HPIV associated with Otitis media Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  18. 18. Parainluenza infection in ImmunosuppressedImmunosuppressed people, suchas transplantpatients,Parainluenzavirus infectionscan cause severepneumonia, whichis often fatal Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  19. 19. Epidemiology Common between 6 weeks to 6 months. Close contacts. Contaminated fingers, Fomites, IgA A important in Immunity. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  20. 20. Reinfections in Parainluenza Parainluenza infections do not confer complete protective immunity; therefore, Reinfections can occur with all serotypes and at any age, but Reinfections usually cause a mild illness limited to the upper respiratory tract. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  21. 21. Laboratory Diagnosis Nasopharynge al Swabs Nasal washings IMF techniques, ELISA CF. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  22. 22. Laboratory DiagnosisThroat andNasal SwabsCultured in ,Monkey kidneyand cell lines.ELISA, CF,HI Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  23. 23. Infection with HPIVs can be confirmed with .. 1) by isolation and identification of the virus in cell culture or by direct detection of the virus in respiratory secretions (usually, collected within one week of onset of symptoms) using immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassay, or polymerase chin reaction assay, Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  24. 24. Infection with HPIVs can be confirmed with serology2) by demonstrationof a significant rise inspecific IgGantibodies betweenappropriatelycollected pairedserum specimens orspecific IgMantibodies in a singleserum specimen. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  25. 25. Hand Washing in reduce the infection ratesFrequent handwashing and notsharing itemssuch as cups,glasses, andutensils with aninfected personshould decreasethe spread ofvirus to others. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  26. 26. Treatment and Prophylaxis. Treatment with Ribavirin No Vaccine to date. Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  27. 27. For Article of Current Interest Visit me on Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  28. 28. Programme Created byDr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Paramedical Students in Developing World Email Dr.T.V.Rao MD