Needle stick injuries

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Needle stick injuries

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Needle stick injuries

  1. 1. NEEDLE STICK INJURIES CONCERNS & DISPOSAL OF NEEDLES Dr.T.V.Rao MDDR.T.V.RAO MD 1
  2. 2. WHAT IS NEEDLE STICK INJURY• A needle stick injury is a percutaneous piercing wound typically set by a needle point, but possibly also by other sharp instruments or objects. Commonly encountered by people handling needles in the medical setting, such injuries are an occupational hazard in the medical community. These events are of concern because of the risk to transmit blood-borne diseases through the passage of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the virus that causes AIDS. ( Wikipedia )DR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  3. 3. WHO REPORTS ON NEEDLE STICK INJURIES• WHO reports in the World Health Report 2002, that of the 35 million health-care workers, 2 million experience percutaneous exposure to infectious diseases each year. It further notes that 37.6% of Hepatitis B, 39% of Hepatitis C and 4.4% of HIV/AIDS in Health- Care Workers around the world are due to needle stick injuriesDR.T.V.RAO MD 3
  4. 4. WHO ARE AT RISK • Any worker handling sharp devices or equipment such as scalpels, sutures, hypodermic needles, blood collection devices, or phlebotomy devices is at risk. Nursing staff are most frequently injured.DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  5. 5. RISKS OF SEROCONVERSION DUE TO SHARPS INJURY FROM A KNOWN POSITIVE SOURCE Virus Risk (Range) HBV 6-30%* HCV ~ 2% HIV 0.3% (*Risk for HBV applies if not HB vaccinated)DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  6. 6. CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL CLARIFIES• According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), about 385,000 sharps injuries occur annually to hospital employees. Potential Hazard Exposure to blood and other potentially infectious materials (OPIM) because of: Unsafe needle devices.• And Improper handling and disposal of needles and other sharps.DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  7. 7. RECAPPING THE LEADING CAUSE OF INJURY• Recapping can account for 25 to 30 percent of all needle stick injuries of nursing and laboratory staff. Often, it is the single most common cause.• It is extremely dangerous to hold a needle in one hand and attempt to cover it with a small cap held in the other hand. Injuries occur three different ways: the needle misses the cap and accidentally enters the hand holding it. the needle pierces the cap and enters the hand holding it. the poorly fitting cap slips off of a recapped needle and the needle stabs the hand.DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  8. 8. DISPOSAL OF NEEDLES• Needle stick injuries commonly occur when workers dispose of needles. They occur when staff use special containers for needles and sharps. They also occur when needles are disposed of improperly in regular garbage or lost in the workplace.DR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  9. 9. ACCIDENTS OCCUR AT EVERY STEP:• Up to 30 percent of needle stick injuries of nursing and laboratory staff occur when workers attempt to dispose of needles using sharps containers. Accidents occur at every step:• while carrying the needle to the disposal container, especially when the needle is uncapped and mixed with other trash. while placing the needle into the disposal container, especially if the container is overfilled. while emptying disposal containers instead of sealing them for disposal.DR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  10. 10. DO NOT LEAVE THE NEEDLE TO THEIR FATE DISCARD SCIENTIFICALLY• Virtually all needle stick injuries of domestic and portering staff are from needles that have either been lost in the workplace or thrown into regular garbage. Janitors and garbage handlers can also experience needle stick injuries or cuts from "sharps" when handling trash that contains needles or scalpels. Some attribute the problem to forgetfulness or lack of motivation or training on the part of people who work with and dispose of needles. Others feel that inconvenient disposal systems contribute to these incidents.DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  11. 11. HOW TO DISPOSE THE NEEDLES• Workers should place needles in wide-mouth, puncture-proof containers. Locate disposal containers specifically where needles are used to make safe disposal possible without recapping. Replace the containers before they are completely filled. Make sure they are sealed, collected, and disposed of in accordance with local regulations for biomedical waste.DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  12. 12. NEWER DEVICES TO DISCARD NEEDLESDR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  13. 13. YELLOWONE NEEDLE CAP• Yellowone Needle Cap is a non-reusable sharps container for disposal of hypodermic needles. It is designed for syringes with luer-slip. The cap fits over 90 percent of all beverage cans in the world.DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  14. 14. DR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  15. 15. YELLOWONE NEEDLE CAP© FUNCTIONAL ADVANTAGES• Recycles soda cans, which are readily accessible, into safe and permanent needle disposal containers• • With just one click, the cap is permanently locked in place• • Is easy to use with luer-slip syringes needles• • Secures needles which may transfer infectious diseases• • Prevents accidental stick injuries during needle disposal• • Is ideal for emergency relief efforts, remote clinics and field situations• • Makes it safe to dispose of infectious disease waste by burying the securely locked can, or placing it in a waste disposal site• • One can holds over 150 needles (small can of 330 ml) or 400 needles (larger can of 500 ml )DR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  16. 16. SAFER WAYS TO DISCARD NEEDLES • Discard contaminated sharps immediately and without recapping in puncture- and liquid- proof containers that are closed, sealed and destroyed before completelyDR.T.V.RAO MD full. 16
  17. 17. IF YOU ARE INJURED• If you suffer an accidental contaminated needle stick injury, you should immediately wash the wound thoroughly with soap and water, then report it to your employer. Do not hesitate. Universal precautions require that all blood and other body fluids be treated as though they were contagious. In the wake of a needle stick injury,DR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  18. 18. START HANDLE THE PROBLEM WITH FIRST AID • Contaminated needle stick, sharps injury, bite or scratch - encourage bleeding, wash with soap and running water • Blood or body fluid in eyes or mouth - irrigate with copious quantities of cold water • Blood or body fluid on broken skin - encourage bleeding if possible and wash with soap under running water (but without scrubbing)DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  19. 19. BASIC INVESTIGATIONS AND TREATMENTS• Take blood for virology, (HIV, hepatitis B, hepatitis C) from the injured worker. Start PEP where appropriate and consider the need for antibiotic therapy or hepatitis B immunization. Recheck HIV status 3 months later and hepatitis serology 3 and 6 months later.• Anti retroviral treatments if warrantedDR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  20. 20. FOLLOW ME MORE ARTICLES OF INTEREST ON ISSUES OF INFECTIONSDR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  21. 21. • Needle stick injuries can be preventable if safety is followed in the work place. Many needle stick injuries cause fear among the Health care workers, leading to liabilities on the Hospitals. If the needles handled at the point of work several injuries can be avoided. Health education, understanding of Universal precaution using newer devices to dispose needle will be beneficial to Health work force • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 21

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