Medical informatics for Medical students

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Medical informatics for Medical students

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Medical informatics for Medical students

  1. 1. Medical Informatics for Medical Students Dr.T.V.Rao MD Professor Of MicrobiologyDR.T.V.RAO MD 1
  2. 2. MEDICAL INFORMATICS DEFINITIONS• Medical Information Science is the science of using system-analytic tools . . . to develop procedures (algorithms) for management, process control, decision making and scientific analysis of medical knowledge - Ted Shortliffe• Medical Informatics comprises the theoretical and practical aspects of information processing and communication, based on knowledge and experience derived from processes in medicine and health care - Jan van Bemmel DR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  3. 3. MEDICAL INFORMATICS • Medical informatics is the intersection of information science, computer science, and health care. It deals with the resources, devices, and methods required to optimize the acquisition, storage, retrieval, and use of information inDR.T.V.RAO MD health and biomedicine 3
  4. 4. MEDICAL INFORMATICS• Medical informatics has been also defined as the field that "concerns itself with the cognitive, information processing, and communication tasks of medical practice, education, and research, including information science and the technology to support these tasksDR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  5. 5. HEALTH (MEDICAL) INFORMATICS A RAPIDLY DEVELOPING SCIENCE• Medical informatics is the rapidly developing scientific field that deals with resources, devices and formalized methods for optimizing the storage, retrieval and management of biomedical information for problem solving and decision making. Edward Shortliffe, M.D., Ph.D. What is medical informatics? Stanford University, 1995 .DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  6. 6. HEALTH INFORMATICS CONSISTS OF • Information Technology • Health care • Research • Education • Fundamentals • Communication • Knowledge Management • Decision supportDR.T.V.RAO MD • Clinical Information 6
  7. 7. MEDICAL INFORMATICS Knowledge Clinical Information Management Management Communication Decision SupportDR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  8. 8. TECHNOLOGY NEEDS• Laptops for each student • Microsoft Office Professional • Stedman’s Medical Spellchecker • Endnotes • Adobe Photoshop Elements • Medical ReferencesDR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  9. 9. PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT KEEP YOU UPDATE ANYWHERE • PDAs for each student • Evidence Based Ref. • Disease Reference • Medical Calculator • Drug Reference • Medical Dictionary • The CDCS system • Computer Lab • Student teaching • Faculty developmentDR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  10. 10. MEDICAL INFORMATICS IMPROVES EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES• Didactic vs problem solving• Competencies • Word processing • Information retrieval • Information management • Data analysis • Presentation • Communication skills • E-mail, file transfer, webDR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  11. 11. INFORMATICS USE IN HEALTH CARE • Communication • Decision Support • Telemedicine • Reminder systems • Tele-radiology • Diagnostic Expert Systems • Patient e-mail • Drug Interaction • Presentations • Information Management • Knowledge management • Electronic Medical Records • Journals • Billing transactions • Consumer Health information • Ordering Systems • Evidence-based medical informationDR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  12. 12. COMPUTER MAKE THE DIAGNOSTIC-THERAPEUTIC CYCLE, SIMPLIFIED Data collection: -History Data -Physical examinations Information -Laboratory and other tests Patient Decision making Therapypla n Planning Diagnosis/assessmentDR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  13. 13. MEDICAL INFORMATICS? WHY WE LEARN• Computers are cool today.• If you don’t know a little bit about what "coils” are inside -• you will get frustrated and will bother other people.• And yet we want computers and IT now! DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  14. 14. EXAMPLES OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS AREAS• Hospital information systems • Electronic medical records & medical vocabularies • laboratory information systems • pharmaceutical information systems • radiological (imaging) information systems • Patient monitoring systems• Clinical decision-support systems • Diagnosis/interpretation • Therapy/managementDR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  15. 15. HEALTH INFORMATICS TOOLS• include not only computers but also clinical guidelines, formal medical terminologies, and information and communication systems. It is applied to the areas of nursing, clinical care, dentistry, pharmacy, public health and (bio)medical research.DR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  16. 16. INFRASTRUCTURE TO SUPPORT INFORMATICS CURRICULUM .• Hardware/Software• Support Issues• Workflow/Mindset Issues• Training Issues• Budgeting IssuesDR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  17. 17. INFRASTRUCTURE FOR MEDICAL INFORMATICS Data Collection and Student Evaluation System Student Arcstream System and Faculty PDAs Avantgo Server Wireless Laptops Stedman’s Medical Dictionary SQL Server Microsoft Office Professional InfoRetriever Dorland’s Medical Spellchecker ePocrates Photoshop Elements PDxMD InfoRetriever College of Medicine CPOnhand Endnote Network Infrastructure Technology Enhanced Classrooms Campus Wide Wireless Coverage Video Conferencing Virtual Library File, Exchange, Web Servers Blackboard Resources Courseware All Courses IT Section Support Database Development Web design Video Editing Tech SupportDR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  18. 18. COMPUTER-AIDED INSTRUCTION• These include computer-aided instruction, learning about computers and their applications, use of computer-based information resources, use of computers as a tool and as a mechanism for information management, decision support and communication.) While medical informatics includes computer applications, it is not limited only to the use of computers, but includes the knowledge, skills and attitudes involved in seeking, manipulating and using biomedical information.DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  19. 19. COMPUTER AND MEDICAL INFORMATICS• Changes in health care delivery and styles of learning in medical education have forced a need to use and critically evaluate a variety of new teaching tools, including the computer. While the computer is unlikely to ever replace the patient as the primary focus of learning, it does have the ability to reproduce a highly interactive environment and can mimic many situations in Medicine.DR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  20. 20. EARLIER ATTEMPTS OF TEACHING WITH COMPUTERS• The first serious introduction of computers into medical education was made two decades ago. De Dombal reported the use of computer-based material to enhance the understanding of trainees faced in an emergency department with the management of patients with acute abdominal pain.DR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  21. 21. ARE TOO SLOW ADOPTING THE CHANGE • Medical schools have long recognized the need to revise their teaching methodology, but have been slow to change.DR.T.V.RAO MD 21
  22. 22. PATIENT DATA IS MOST IMPORTANT SOURCE OF INFORMATION• As medical knowledge continues to expand rapidly with demands for more efficient coordination of patient data become paramount, and the pressures for improved practice and application of evidence based medicine increases, medical informatics will have increasing influence in our working lives as clinicians.DR.T.V.RAO MD 22
  23. 23. WE STILL CONTINUE TO DO WITH TRADITIONAL DIDACTIC METHODS• Till recently, teachers and their pupils have been content with, and able to rely on, the traditional resources that have always been available in medical education.• This involves teaching and learning centred on the patient, and backed up by lectures and tutorials. Other information can be obtained from and journals. For a number of reasons these resources are no longer sufficientDR.T.V.RAO MD 23
  24. 24. MEDICAL EDUCATION IS SHIFTING TO PROBLEM BASED LEARNING• There has been a philosophical shift in medical education in recent years.• Pioneered by the McMaster and Newcastle medical schools, there has been a move from the traditional lecture-focussed program to a problem-based approach (Harden).DR.T.V.RAO MD 24
  25. 25. VIRTUAL REALITY IN TEACHING A PRIORITY IN MEDICAL EDUCATION• The use of virtual reality in simulated procedures is a new application of computers in medical education and is as yet in its infancy. Procedures can be standardised and trainees able to test and practice their skills.DR.T.V.RAO MD 25
  26. 26. CYBERNETICS• Theory of Information Communications Coding Algorithms Probabilities and Stochastic Processes• Theory of Control Operations Research Optimization Management Science• Systems AnalysisDR.T.V.RAO MD 26
  27. 27. LIBRARY RESOURCES BECOMES ELECTRONIC• The modern library places an increasing amount of its material in electronic format and increasing numbers of journals are available either on CD- - ROM or over the Internet. This represents a considerable saving in storage space and manpower. Many students who wish to pursue their studies using library facilities can now do son in electronic fashion, and often from their own homeDR.T.V.RAO MD 27
  28. 28. FACULTY SHOULD BE PROVIDE ELECTRONIC INFORMATION• Faculty must identify the prerequisite information and skills that students need to enable them to access electronic information sources, as well as the course content the student needs to "know" and the information the student needs to "know how to access" electronically.DR.T.V.RAO MD 28
  29. 29. STUDENTS SHOULD DEVELOP INTEREST IN ELECTRONIC INFORMATION • Students attitudes toward their education may also have to change. Students need to learn that they must be information seekers as well as information managers. They also need to acquire knowledge about relevant sources of information, and the skills to access electronic information.DR.T.V.RAO MD 29
  30. 30. HANDHELD APPLICATIONS • ePocrates • 5 Minute Clinical Consult • Medical Calculators • Immunization scheduleDR.T.V.RAO MD 30
  31. 31. MEDICAL INFORMATICS EMPOWER STUDENTS• Helping students to become independent learners, information seekers, and proficient users of computer technology have long been goals that were often inadequately implemented throughout the medical school curriculum.DR.T.V.RAO MD 31
  32. 32. ORIENTATION BY TEACHERS IS THE PRIMARY GOAL • By making our primary goal the preparation of students to be medical information managers, we have a strong rationale for the inclusion of medical informatics applications into the curriculum. This goal also provides a criterion by which the appropriateness of curricular offerings can be judged and the outcomes of instruction canDR.T.V.RAO MD be evaluated. 32
  33. 33. INDIAN JOURNAL OF MEDICAL INFORMATICS (IJMI)• Indian Journal of Medical Informatics (IJMI) is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, online journal adopting a broad definition of "medical informatics" and focusing on the applied aspects of computers to healthcare delivery.DR.T.V.RAO MD 33
  34. 34. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BASICS OF SECURITY - 1• make sure workstation is physically safe and securenever send passwords by email• never paste passwords beside the workstation• install and regularly (weekly) update virus protection• avoid sending attachments• never open unsolicited attachments, always check andouble-check the attachment’s file extension DR.T.V.RAO MD 34
  35. 35. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY BASICS OF SECURITY -2• Never open unexpected file with extensions EXE COM DOC DLL PIF LNK VBS (Windows does not show LNK and PIF extensions)• Never click on a link – hover the link with mouse and look at the status bar where the link leads when clicked• firewall may protect both yourself and the world but may also cheat you)DR.T.V.RAO MD 35
  36. 36. BARRIERS TO IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGYDR.T.V.RAO MD 36
  37. 37. KNOWLEDGE IS EXPLODING AND PATIENTS ARE DEMANDINGDR.T.V.RAO MD 37
  38. 38. MEDICAL INFORMATICS IMPROVES THE PROFESSIONAL STANDARDS• Our Goals include Improving health care through information technology ,while promoting the renewal of traditional values in the medical profession."DR.T.V.RAO MD 38
  39. 39. MEDICAL INFORMATICS TO BE PART OF CURRICULUM• Medical informatics to be incorporated into medical school curricula in developing world. So Medical informatics allows physicians to access, analyze, and manage information so that they can make educated decisions in patient care .The use of computers and the related technology is essential for communication and information-sharing with colleagues, for public and patient education, and for professional developmentDR.T.V.RAO MD 39
  40. 40. ELECTRONIC MEDIA SHOULD BE PART OF EDUCATION• Computer technology provides immediate access to information and a mechanism for the rapid dissemination of knowledge. The use of computer technology has become an important component of education, particularly at the medical college level, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) has also been integrated into continuing medical educationDR.T.V.RAO MD 40
  41. 41. CONTINUED EFFORTS BY FACULTY WILL CREATE INTEREST• Continued efforts must be made to teach them the skills necessary so that they can benefit from available and evolving technology. In addition, we recommend that students be introduced to computer- based testing early in their medical school careers to improve their comfort levels with this mediumDR.T.V.RAO MD 41
  42. 42. EDUCATIONAL STRATEGIES• Didactic vs problem solving• Competencies • Word processing • Information retrieval • Information management • Data analysis • Presentation • Communication skills • E-mail, file transfer,DR.T.V.RAO MD web 42
  43. 43. APPROACHING BASIC SCIENCES CLASSES WITH MEDICAL INFORMATICS• Anatomy lab video • LXR Testing Program enabled • Question bank• BacusLabs digital web- • Computer-based testing slide program • Item analysis/grading • United Streaming Videos• Gold Standard Multimedia* • Anatomy • Histology• Cross Sectional • Web Path AnatomyDR.T.V.RAO MD 43
  44. 44. MEDICAL INFORMATICS MAKES THE BETTER HEALTH MANAGERS• Our primary goal the preparation of students to be medical information managers, we have a strong rationale for the inclusion of medical informatics applications into the curriculum.DR.T.V.RAO MD 44
  45. 45. MEDICALSTUDENT.COM • A digital library of authoritative medical information for the medical student and all students of medicineDR.T.V.RAO MD 45
  46. 46. ABOUT.COM WWW.ABOUT.COM• The site contains the greatest collections of information on diseases and conditions on the Net. It spans the globe and provides interactive chats and forums for experts and patients to come together. This site not only directs you to outside sources, but also takes each topic and gives you the rundown from top to bottom.DR.T.V.RAO MD 46
  47. 47. BEST DOCTORS WWW.BESTDOCTORS.COM • Find the best doctors and provide the best content on a site that others can access free of charge. Founded by a man who was diagnosed with an inoperable tumor and wanted the best doctors to treat him, he set out to empower other patients through information.DR.T.V.RAO MD 47
  48. 48. HEALTHATOZ.COM WWW.HEALTHATOZ.COM• This is the kind of site that contains so much information that theres little chance you wont find what youre looking for. Not only are the diseases covered extensively, but the interactive tools make your search for information much more enjoyable. Come here to learn, then take advantage of links to other sources to intensify your search for information.DR.T.V.RAO MD 48
  49. 49. HEALTH COMMUNITIES.COM WWW.HEALTHCOMMUNITIES.COM • The site is specifically designed to give you disease-related information through what it calls channels. Its one of the most interactive medical portals on the Net, offering chats, discussion forums, and clinical trials. This site enables you to access the world of medicine in seconds.DR.T.V.RAO MD 49
  50. 50. HEALTH FINDER WWW.HEALTHFINDER.GOV• This government portal opens the world of Internet medicine. Whether its through tools such as libraries, online journals, or medical dictionaries or hot topics that might interest you, this site delivers quickly and with reliability. A big bonus of the site is that it also provides content in Spanish.DR.T.V.RAO MD 50
  51. 51. INTELIHEALTH WWW.INTELIHEALTH.COM • It is important for a portal to "have it all." This one is a good example. Whether its drug information, a medical dictionary, or a rundown on a long list of diseases and conditions, Intelihealth is your gateway to top-notch information. It doesnt hurt to have Harvard Medical Schools consumer health information tied to the sit e.DR.T.V.RAO MD 51
  52. 52. NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH WWW.NIH.GOV • Contain the leading collection of health research institutes in the world. Whether the topic is allergy and infectious disease or cancer, this is your gateway to health information. Youll find the latest in research and well- written fact sheets and brochures that reach out to inform all.DR.T.V.RAO MD 52
  53. 53. NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE WWW.NLM.NIH.GOV• The best electronic medical library in the world. It gives you access to the most important research and links to thousands of sites, sending you around the globe for the best information in a matter of seconds. Physical medical libraries,DR.T.V.RAO MD 53
  54. 54. WEBMD WWW.WEBMD.COM • One of the most heavily marketed portals on the Net, this site stands up to most of the hype. Its nicely divided for different audiences, ranging from patients and doctors to physician assistants to health teachers. It has a robust television service that allows you to watch broadcasts on different health topics.DR.T.V.RAO MD 54
  55. 55. STANDARDS FOR EXCHANGE AND MANAGEMENT OF MEDICAL INFORMATION• To maintain interoperability between systems across different platforms.• HL7 (Health Level 7): aims to provide standards for the exchange, management and integration of data that support clinical patient care and management, delivery and evaluation of health care services.• Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM): Diagnostic images, waveforms and test reports. DR.T.V.RAO MD 55
  56. 56. COMPUTER ARE STAYING WITH US ..• The computer is here to stay in one form or another. It is unlikely that any amount to scientific data on its reliability or validity will influence use of the medium. However, used appropriately computers can be of considerable educational benefit and will serve medical students and practitioners throughout their careers DR.T.V.RAO MD 56
  57. 57. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IS NOT A REMEDY FOR ALL ILLS IN MEDICAL EDUCATION• Information technology must not be viewed as a potential cure to the current ailments of medical education. It may be part of the solution and should be treated as suchDR.T.V.RAO MD 57
  58. 58. • Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for ‘e’ learning resources for Medical Professionals. Email doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 58

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