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Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
Listeriosis an Update
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Listeriosis an Update

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Listeriosis an Update

Listeriosis an Update

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  • 1. LISTERIOSIS AN UPDATE DR.T.V.RAO MD DR.T.V.RAO MD 1
  • 2. WHAT IS LISTERIOSIS •Listeriosis, a serious infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria Monocytogenes, has recently been recognized as an important public health problem in the United States. DR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  • 3. LISTERIOSIS PRIMARILY AFFECTS • The disease primarily affects older adults, pregnant women, new-borns, and adults with weakened immune systems. However, rarely, persons without these risk factors can also be affected. The risk may be reduced by recommendations for safe food preparation, consumption, and storage. DR.T.V.RAO MD 3
  • 4. WHO WILL GET INFECTED •The disease affects primarily persons of advanced age, pregnant women, new-borns, and adults with weakened immune systems. However, persons without these risk factors can also rarely be affected. DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  • 5. LISTERIOSIS AND ZOONOSIS DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  • 6. DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  • 7. PREGNANT WOMEN •About one in seven (14%) cases of Listeria infection occurs during pregnancy . Infection during pregnancy can cause foetal loss (miscarriage or stillbirth), preterm labour, and illness or death in new-born infants. DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  • 8. OLDER ADULTS: • More than half (58%) of Listeria infections occur among adults 65 and older . • Adults 65 years and older are about 4 times more likely than the general population to get Listeria infection . DR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  • 9. PEOPLE WITH WEAKENED IMMUNE SYSTEMS • Individuals within this group also have a higher risk for Listeria infection due to underlying medical conditions such as cancer and immunosuppressive therapy (i.e., steroids, chemotherapy, radiation), liver or kidney disease, diabetes, alcoholism, and HIV/AIDS.DR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  • 10. LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES Small cocal Gram positive Bacteria •Occurs in chains •Long filamentous forms •Tumbling motility at 250c and non motile at 370c Peritrichous flagella Aerobic and Microaerophilic Growth at 40c DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  • 11. LISTERIOSIS • Listeriosis is caused by Bacterial agent an intracellular pathogen Listeria Monocytogenes • L.monocytogens produces infections world wide • Important cause of infections in animals and man. DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  • 12. CULTURE AND GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS •Grows on Muller Hinton agar with sheep blood as enrichment. •Small zone of Hemolysis can be observed around and the underneath of the colony. •Specimens are enriched if the tissues are kept at 40c and plated on the media ( Cold enrichment )DR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  • 13. OTHER CHARACTERS AND BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS •Produces hemolytic colonies •Ferments Glucose, Maltose, lactose produces acid but no gas •Listeria Monocytogenes present in the environment •Saprophyte in soil •Present in water, sewage.DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  • 14. BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS •Bacteria are facultative anaerobic microbes •Catalase + motile •Listeria produce acid and not gas in various sugar fermentation tests DR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  • 15. FOODS CAUSES LISTERIOSIS • Most human infections follow consumption of contaminated food Rare cases of hospital-acquired transmission have been reported in new-borns • When Listeria bacteria get into a food processing factory, they can live there for years, sometimes contaminating food products . The bacterium has been found in a variety of foods, DR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  • 16. WHAT TYPE OF FOODS SPREAD THE LISTERIOSIS • Uncooked meats and vegetables • Unpasteurized (raw) milk and cheeses as well as other foods made from unpasteurized milk • Cooked or processed foods, including certain soft cheeses, processed (or ready-to-eat) meats, and smoked seafood DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  • 17. STERILIZING FOODS FROM LISTERIOSIS • Listeria are killed by cooking and pasteurization. However, in some ready-to- eat meats, such as hot dogs and deli meats, contamination may occur after factory cooking but before packaging or even at the deli counter. Also, be aware that Mexican-style cheeses (such as queso fresco) made from pasteurized milk and likely contaminated during cheese-making have caused Listeria infections.DR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  • 18. REFRIGERATED FOOD TOO CAUSE LISTERIOSIS •Unlike most bacteria, Listeria can grow and multiply in some foods in the refrigerator.DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  • 19. HOW HUMANS CONTACT LISTERIOSIS •Listeria Monocytogenes can be found in a variety of dairy products, vegetables, fish and meat products. •Listeria Monocytogenes, unlike most other harmful bacteria, will grow slowly on foods stored in a refrigerator. •Listeria Monocytogenes can also be spread by contact with an infected product or surface, such as hands or counter tops, during food preparation. DR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  • 20. PATHOGENESIS AND PATHOLOGY •Listeria Monocytogenes enters through the Gastro – intestinal tract after infections of contaminated foods such as cheese or vegetables, •The cell wall surface protein called Interanalin interacts with E –CADHERIN and enters into epithelial cells •Bacteria produce Listeriolysin •L.monocygenes can move from cell to with out being exposed to Antibodies, Complement,Polymorphonuclear cellsDR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  • 21. WHO ARE AT HIGHER RISK •The following conditions may be impaired with defective cell mediated Immunity Pregnancy AIDS Lymphomas Organ transplant recipients DR.T.V.RAO MD 21
  • 22. DR.T.V.RAO MD 22 COMMON PRESENTING MANIFESTATION OF LISTERIOSIS • Vomiting; • Nausea; • Cramps; • Diarrheal; • Severe Headache; • Constipation; or • Persistent fever.
  • 23. LATE ONSET MANIFESTATIONS • The new born child may present with late onset syndrome causes the development of Meningitis between birth and third week of life • It is often caused by serotype IV b and has a significant mortality rate DR.T.V.RAO MD 23
  • 24. LISTERIOSIS IN ADULTS •Adults may present with bacteremia . Meingoenphalitis and occur most commonly in Immunosuppressed patients in whom Listeria is one of the more common cause of Meningitis •Disease can be insidious to fulminantDR.T.V.RAO MD 24
  • 25. LISTERIOSIS AND PREGNANCY •Pregnant women - They are about 20 times more likely than other healthy adults to get Listeriosis. About one-third of Listeriosis cases happen during pregnancy.DR.T.V.RAO MD 25
  • 26. LISTERIOSIS IN NEW BORN •New-borns - New- borns rather than the pregnant women themselves suffer the serious effects of infection in pregnancy. DR.T.V.RAO MD 26
  • 27. LISTERIOSIS PRESENTING WITH MENINGITIS •Immunocompromised adults are at risk for a serious infection of the blood stream and central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Meningitis occurs in about half of the cases of adult Listeriosis. Symptoms of listeria meningitis occur about four days after the flu-like symptoms and include fever, personality change, uncoordinated muscle movement, tremors, muscle contractions, seizures, and slipping in and out of consciousness.DR.T.V.RAO MD 27
  • 28. OTHER CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS •Abscess •Conjunctivitis •Pharyngitis •Urethritis •Pneumonia •Endocarditis •SepticemiasDR.T.V.RAO MD 28
  • 29. WHY IMPORTANT IN HUMAN INFECTIONS • Can cause meningitis and Meingoenphalitis • In particularly in neonates and elderly • Pregnant women - abortions, and still birth • Asymptomatic colonization in vagina produces infertility DR.T.V.RAO MD 29
  • 30. DIAGNOSIS •Diagnosis dependent on isolation of Organisms in cultures obtained on CSF, Blood, and other fluids DR.T.V.RAO MD 30
  • 31. TREATMENT •Ampicillin •Erythromycin •Intravenous Trimethoprim – Sulphmethoxazole •Cephalosporins and Fluroquinoles are not active against l.monocytogens •A commination of Gentamycin and Ampicillin on clinical basis DR.T.V.RAO MD 31
  • 32. FOODS TO AVOID • Hot dogs, especially straight from the package without further heating. The fluid within hot dog packages may contain more Listeria than the hot dogs. • Avoid spreading fluid from packages onto other foods, cutting boards, utensils, dishes and food preparation surfaces. Wash your hands after handling hot dogs. DR.T.V.RAO MD 32
  • 33. WHY IMPORTANT IN HUMAN INFECTIONS •Can cause meningitis and Meingoenphalitis •In particularly in neonates and elderly •Pregnant women - abortions, and still birth •Asymptomatic colonization in vagina produces infertilityDR.T.V.RAO MD 33
  • 34. IDEAL WAY TO PREVENT LISTERIOSIS •Completely cook all meats and eggs. •Carefully wash raw vegetables before eating. •Keep raw meat away from raw vegetables and prepared foods. After cutting raw meat, wash the cutting board with detergent before using it for vegetables. •Avoid drinking unpasteurized milk or foods made from such milk. •Wash hands thoroughly after handling raw meat. DR.T.V.RAO MD 34
  • 35. DR.T.V.RAO MD 35
  • 36. •Programme Created and Designed by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Medical and Paramedical students for global Education on Infectious Diseases •Email •doctortvrao@gmail.com DR.T.V.RAO MD 36

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