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INFECTION CONTROL                     Dr.T.V.Rao MD                Professor of MicrobiologyDR.T.V.RAO MD                 ...
A TRIBUTE TO       IGNAZ SEMMELWEISS (1818-1865) Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818-1865) •    Obstetrician, practised in      Vienna...
HOSPITAL INFECTIONS ARE EMERGING     CHALLENGES IN HEALTH CARE • Hospital-associated infections represent a   serious and ...
WHAT IS INFECTION CONTROL• Infection control is the discipline concerned with  preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associa...
BEGINNING OF HOSPITAL INFECTION               PROGRAMME• Modern hospital infection control  programs first began in the 19...
BEGINNING OF ACCREDITATION• In 1969, the Joint  Commission for  Accreditation of Hospitals--  later to become the Joint  C...
CDC INITIATES HOSPITAL INFECTION             BRANCH                 • In 1972, the Hospital                   Infections B...
INFECTION CONTROL CHALLENGES      OF HEALTHCARE IN 2000 • Decreasing reimbursement • Increasing emerging infections • Incr...
WHY EVERYONE CONCERNED WITH      HOSPITAL INFECTIONS• The Centers for Disease  Control (CDC) estimates  that 2 million U.S...
DEVELOPING INFECTION CONTROL                   PROGRAMME• Every infection control program should develop a well-  defined ...
SURVEILLANCE• The surveillance is the cornerstone of the  infection control practice because it allows  to identify the ar...
KEY ELEMENTS OF                    SURVEILLANCE• Defining as precisely as possible the event to be  surveyed (case definit...
SURVEILLANCE• The key to ongoing  monitoring is surveillance  for nosocomial infections.  Various techniques for  surveill...
AREAS OF INTEREST TO AHEALTHCARE EPIDEMIOLOGIST • Surveillance for        • Employee health   nosocomial infection    • Di...
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY• Most difficult part of infection control practioners is  overcome the reluctance of humans to chan...
STAFF TRAINING IN ICP• Education programs for employees  and volunteers are one method to  ensure competent infection cont...
ORGANIZING FOR                INFECTION CONTROL• Requires cooperation, understanding and  support of hospital administrati...
DOCUMENT ANTIBIOGRAMS WITH                WHONET• WHONET is a free  Windows-based  database software  developed for the  m...
ANTIBIOTIC STEWARDSHIP• It carries  considerable interest  in implementing and  monitoring  interventions to  optimize pre...
DR.T.V.RAO MD   20
CAN WE CHANGE THE SITUATION?• Antibiotic policies may  be introduced  primarily to reduce  total Antibiotic use to  reduce...
USE OF ANTIBIOTIC POLICIES• It has been estimated that up to 50 % of  the antimicrobial prescribing is  inappropriate in t...
ALERT MICROBES• Hospital acquired alert organisms generally  those organisms that have resistance to a range  of antibioti...
ALL ISOLATES• All positive isolates clinical isolates from high  risk areas Intensive care areas Intensive care  areas spe...
ESKAPE - BACTERIA• ESKAPE bacteria—  Enterococcus faecium,  Staphylococcus aureus,  Klebsiella species,  Acinetobacter bau...
ESKAPE  BACTERIA ARE MAJOR NOSOCOMIAL AGENTS• According to the latest  data from the Centers  for Disease Control and  Pre...
WHAT IS BEST FOR HAND HYGIENE• A single application of 60 – 70 % Ethanol or  Isopropanol with emolument and with or with o...
HOW YOU RUB YOUR HANDS• A volume of 3  ml is pored  into cupped  hands and  rubbed to  drynessDR.T.V.RAO MD            28
IF YOUR HANDS ARE SOILED• Do not forget to a  preliminary wash  with soap or  detergent and  water is required  before the...
WHY WE NEED COMPUTERS• The use of technology rather than manual system  should enable data to be Analysed more easily and ...
INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAMME AND                DOCUMENTATION • Goals of the infection   control program need to be   incor...
GOOD HOUSE KEEPING A BOON TO       INFECTION CONTROLDR.T.V.RAO MD                    32
BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTIONS • 1. Organisms that can      cause infection are      subject to risk      assessment under ...
THE INFECTION CONTROL TEAM• Consist of at least an  infection control  practitioner who should  be trained for the  purpos...
INVOLVEMENT OF PHYSICIANS MORE              IMPORTANT Physicians to be more involved and lead quality improvement efforts ...
MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF I C P • The major responsibilities for ICPs to oversee include   surveillance, specific environm...
INVOLVEMENT OF PHYSICIANS              MORE IMPORTANT Physicians to be more involved and lead quality improvement efforts ...
GUIDELINES AND                RECOMMENDATIONS• Hand washing and  Hospital Environmental  Control  * Immunization  * Infect...
SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTATION     REDUCES HOSPITAL INFECTIONS• Researchers evaluated the effect  of an electronic medical recor...
A SAYING APPLIES TO ALL ACTIVITIES         INCLUDING HOSPITAL SURVEILLANCE                • If you are not        measurin...
• Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD       for Health awareness on Hospital              acquired Infections              ...
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Infection control, Hospital Infections

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Infection control, Hospital Infections

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  1. 1. INFECTION CONTROL Dr.T.V.Rao MD Professor of MicrobiologyDR.T.V.RAO MD 1
  2. 2. A TRIBUTE TO IGNAZ SEMMELWEISS (1818-1865) Ignaz Semmelweiss (1818-1865) • Obstetrician, practised in Vienna • Studied puerperal (childbed) fever • Established that high maternal mortality was due to failure of doctors to wash hands after post-mortems • Reduced maternal mortality by 90% • Ignored and ridiculed by colleaguesDR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  3. 3. HOSPITAL INFECTIONS ARE EMERGING CHALLENGES IN HEALTH CARE • Hospital-associated infections represent a serious and growing health problem. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 2 million people acquire hospital-associated infections each year and that 90 000 of these patients die as a result of their infections. A variety of hospital-based strategies aimed at preventing such infections have been proposed.DR.T.V.RAO MD 3
  4. 4. WHAT IS INFECTION CONTROL• Infection control is the discipline concerned with preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infection. As such, it is a practical (rather than an academic) sub-discipline of epidemiology. It is an essential (though often under-recognized and under- supported) part of the infrastructure of health care. Infection control and hospital epidemiology are akin to public health practice, practiced within the confines of a particular health-care delivery system rather than directed at society as a whole.DR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  5. 5. BEGINNING OF HOSPITAL INFECTION PROGRAMME• Modern hospital infection control programs first began in the 1950s in England, where the primary focus of these programs was to prevent and control hospital-acquired staphylococcal outbreaks. In 1968, the American Hospital Association published "Infection Control in the Hospital," the first and only standards available for many years. DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  6. 6. BEGINNING OF ACCREDITATION• In 1969, the Joint Commission for Accreditation of Hospitals-- later to become the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)-- first required hospitals to have organized infection control committees and isolation facilities.DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  7. 7. CDC INITIATES HOSPITAL INFECTION BRANCH • In 1972, the Hospital Infections Branch at the CDC was formed and the Association for Practitioners in Infection Control was organized. By the close of the decade, the first CDC guidelines were written to answer frequently asked questions and establish consistent practice.DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  8. 8. INFECTION CONTROL CHALLENGES OF HEALTHCARE IN 2000 • Decreasing reimbursement • Increasing emerging infections • Increasing resistant organisms • Increasing drug costs • Institute of Medicine Report--healthcare-associated infections • Nursing shortage • OSHA safety legislation • Multiple benchmark systems • FDA legislation on reuse of single-use devicesDR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  9. 9. WHY EVERYONE CONCERNED WITH HOSPITAL INFECTIONS• The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) estimates that 2 million U.S. patients a year acquire hospital- related infections. These infections cost an average of $47,000 per patient to treat and cause 90,000 deaths each year. The added cost to hospitals is $4.8 billion annually in extended care and treatment.DR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  10. 10. DEVELOPING INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAMME• Every infection control program should develop a well- defined written plan outlining the organizational philosophy regarding infection prevention and control. The plan should take into account the goals, mission statement, and an assessment of the infection control program. It should include a statement of authority, and should review patient demographics including geographic locations of patients served by the healthcare system DR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  11. 11. SURVEILLANCE• The surveillance is the cornerstone of the infection control practice because it allows to identify the areas where the outcomes are below expectations and we can improve.• Examples of centrally driven surveillance include MRSA bacteraemia surveillanceDR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  12. 12. KEY ELEMENTS OF SURVEILLANCE• Defining as precisely as possible the event to be surveyed (case definition)• Collecting the relevant data in a systematic, valid way• Consolidating the data into meaningful arrangements• Analyzing and interpreting the data• Using the information to bring aboutR. Haley adapted from change DR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  13. 13. SURVEILLANCE• The key to ongoing monitoring is surveillance for nosocomial infections. Various techniques for surveillance have been described and evaluated including total house surveillance, targeted surveillance, Kardex, or laboratory-base DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  14. 14. AREAS OF INTEREST TO AHEALTHCARE EPIDEMIOLOGIST • Surveillance for • Employee health nosocomial infection • Disinfection and • Patterns of sterilization transmission of • Hospital engineering nosocomial infections and environment • Outbreak • water supply investigation • air filtration • Isolation precautions • Reviewing policies and • Evaluation of procedures for exposures patient careDR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  15. 15. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY• Most difficult part of infection control practioners is overcome the reluctance of humans to change their behaviour• Every one knows importance of hand hygiene and sterile technique• However hand hygiene compliance is poor among health care workers and even after intensive education and improved marginallyDR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  16. 16. STAFF TRAINING IN ICP• Education programs for employees and volunteers are one method to ensure competent infection control practices. It is a unique challenge since employees represent a wide range of expertise and educational background. The ICP must become knowledgeable in adult education principles and use educational tools and techniques that will motivate and sustain behavioral change. DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  17. 17. ORGANIZING FOR INFECTION CONTROL• Requires cooperation, understanding and support of hospital administration and medical/surgical/nursing leadership• There is no simple formula: • Every facility is different • Every facility’s problems are different • Every facility’s personnel are different• The facility must develop its own unique programDR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  18. 18. DOCUMENT ANTIBIOGRAMS WITH WHONET• WHONET is a free Windows-based database software developed for the management and analysis of microbiology laboratory data with a special focus on the analysis of antimicrobial susceptibility test results. DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  19. 19. ANTIBIOTIC STEWARDSHIP• It carries considerable interest in implementing and monitoring interventions to optimize prescribing of antimicrobial drugsDR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  20. 20. DR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  21. 21. CAN WE CHANGE THE SITUATION?• Antibiotic policies may be introduced primarily to reduce total Antibiotic use to reduce in appropriate prescribing• Many using the most broad spectrum drugs in the first line ?DR.T.V.RAO MD 21
  22. 22. USE OF ANTIBIOTIC POLICIES• It has been estimated that up to 50 % of the antimicrobial prescribing is inappropriate in terms of choice, duration and indication of treatment.• The coordination of clinician and microbiologist to reduce in implementation of antibiotic guidelines carries a higher importance.DR.T.V.RAO MD 22
  23. 23. ALERT MICROBES• Hospital acquired alert organisms generally those organisms that have resistance to a range of antibiotics and are capable of spreading• Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus• Gram negative bacilli resistant to gentamicin, extended spectrum beta lactamases• Vancomycin resistant EnterococciDR.T.V.RAO MD 23
  24. 24. ALL ISOLATES• All positive isolates clinical isolates from high risk areas Intensive care areas Intensive care areas special care baby units• Positive clinical isolates from sites of interest to infection control team ( catheter related infections,• Urinary and Intravascular operative samples• Removed prosthesis, heart valves , artificial joints.DR.T.V.RAO MD 24
  25. 25. ESKAPE - BACTERIA• ESKAPE bacteria— Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella species, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species—are among the biggest threat of infectious diseases physicians face today, DR.T.V.RAO MD 25
  26. 26. ESKAPE BACTERIA ARE MAJOR NOSOCOMIAL AGENTS• According to the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the six ESKAPE bacteria are responsible for two thirds of all health care- associated infections (HAIs). DR.T.V.RAO MD 26
  27. 27. WHAT IS BEST FOR HAND HYGIENE• A single application of 60 – 70 % Ethanol or Isopropanol with emolument and with or with out antiseptic like• 1 Chlorhexidine• 2 Povidone –iodine• Triclosan• Proved to be more effective than soap and waterDR.T.V.RAO MD 27
  28. 28. HOW YOU RUB YOUR HANDS• A volume of 3 ml is pored into cupped hands and rubbed to drynessDR.T.V.RAO MD 28
  29. 29. IF YOUR HANDS ARE SOILED• Do not forget to a preliminary wash with soap or detergent and water is required before the application of Alcoholic solutionDR.T.V.RAO MD 29
  30. 30. WHY WE NEED COMPUTERS• The use of technology rather than manual system should enable data to be Analysed more easily and encouraged.• So many soft wares in market• But should be compatible with clinical laboratory system and integrate with hospital information technology patient management system in order to obtain with meaningful data with minimal effort.DR.T.V.RAO MD 30
  31. 31. INFECTION CONTROL PROGRAMME AND DOCUMENTATION • Goals of the infection control program need to be incorporated into the mission statement of the facility. A mission statement should tell who you are, what you do, and should communicate a clear view of purpose and set a strategy for accomplishing the goalDR.T.V.RAO MD 31
  32. 32. GOOD HOUSE KEEPING A BOON TO INFECTION CONTROLDR.T.V.RAO MD 32
  33. 33. BREAK THE CHAIN OF INFECTIONS • 1. Organisms that can cause infection are subject to risk assessment under the COSHH regulations and Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulation 1992.DR.T.V.RAO MD 33
  34. 34. THE INFECTION CONTROL TEAM• Consist of at least an infection control practitioner who should be trained for the purpose; carry out the surveillance programme; develop and disseminate infection control policies; monitor and manage critical incidents; coordinate and conduct training activities.DR.T.V.RAO MD 34
  35. 35. INVOLVEMENT OF PHYSICIANS MORE IMPORTANT Physicians to be more involved and lead quality improvement efforts in their respective healthcare settings. Drs. Pronovost and Marsteller suggest that even though quality improvement efforts exist, there is not enough data supporting the notion that quality improvement efforts are actually enhancing patient outcomes. One of the reasons for this lack of progress, they say, is inadequate physician engagement and leadership in quality improvement work. Peter Pronovost, MD, PhD, and Jill Marsteller, PhD, MPDR.T.V.RAO MD 35
  36. 36. MAJOR RESPONSIBILITIES OF I C P • The major responsibilities for ICPs to oversee include surveillance, specific environmental monitoring, continuous quality improvement, consultation, committee involvement, outbreak and isolation management, regulatory compliance and education. To plan, coordinate, and succeed in fulfilling these responsibilities, many ICPs have to redefine their roles. More ICPs are becoming managers by creating multidisciplinary support teams to carry out many of the functions.DR.T.V.RAO MD 36
  37. 37. INVOLVEMENT OF PHYSICIANS MORE IMPORTANT Physicians to be more involved and lead quality improvement efforts in their respective healthcare settings. Drs. Pronovost and Marsteller suggest that even though quality improvement efforts exist, there is not enough data supporting the notion that quality improvement efforts are actually enhancing patient outcomes. One of the reasons for this lack of progress, they say, is inadequate physician engagement and leadership in quality improvement work. Peter Pronovost, MD, PhD, and Jill Marsteller, PhD, MPDR.T.V.RAO MD 37
  38. 38. GUIDELINES AND RECOMMENDATIONS• Hand washing and Hospital Environmental Control * Immunization * Infectious Diseases Control * Intravascular Device- Related Infections and its control * Isolation PrecautionsDR.T.V.RAO MD 38
  39. 39. SCIENTIFIC DOCUMENTATION REDUCES HOSPITAL INFECTIONS• Researchers evaluated the effect of an electronic medical record on the use of antimicrobial agents and infection rates of Clostridium difficile and MRSA. Results showed that implementation of an EMR significantly increased chart reviews and antimicrobial recommendations, leading to a decrease in antimicrobial use and MRSA as well as C. difficile infection rates.DR.T.V.RAO MD 39
  40. 40. A SAYING APPLIES TO ALL ACTIVITIES INCLUDING HOSPITAL SURVEILLANCE • If you are not measuring it, you are not managing it.DR.T.V.RAO MD 40
  41. 41. • Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Health awareness on Hospital acquired Infections • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 41
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