HOSPITAL INFECTIONS       FACTS, CONCERNS, AND PREVENTION                  • Dr.T.V.Rao MDDR.T.V.RAO MD                   ...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial   comes from the Greek word  nosokomeion meaning hospital (nosos  = disease, komeo = to ...
WHAT ARE HOSPITAL ACQUIRED             INFECTIONSAn infection acquired in hospital by a patient  who was admitted for a r...
NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS ON             PUBLIC HEALTH   Nosocomial infections    are widespread. They    are important    co...
CROWDING A MAJOR FACTOR Increasing numbers    and crowding of    people. More    frequent impaired    immunity (age,    i...
WHEN THE NOSOCOMIAL            INFECTIONS MANIFEST         Majority of such infections    become evident during their sta...
HOW AND WHEN HOSPITAL    ACQUIRED INFECTIONS OCCUR. Nosocomial infections are infections  which are a result of treatment...
COMMONLY OCCURRING       MICROORGANISMS IN      HOSPITAL INFECTIONSDR.T.V.RAO MD               8
MICROORGANISMS AND                NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS   The patient is exposed    to a variety of    microorganisms    ...
URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Escherichia coli Klebsiella,  Serratia,Proteus spp Pseudomonas  aeruginosa Enterococcus spp ...
RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS                     Hemophilus influenzae                     Streptococcus                      ...
SKIN SEPSIS AND WOUNDS   Staph aureus   Streptococcus pyogenes   E.Coli   Proteus spp   Anaerobic bacteria   Enteroc...
GASTRO INTESTINAL INFECTIONS                 Salmonella                  serotypes                 Clostridium          ...
DRUG RESISTANCE – NOSOCOMIAL                INFECTION   The likelihood of    exposure leading to    infection depends par...
PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Withinhours of admission, colonies of hospital strains of bacteria develop in the patients skin, respirat...
IATROGENIC RISK   Iatrogenic risk factors    include pathogens on    the hands of medical    personnel, invasive    proce...
ORGANIZATIONAL Organizational risk  factors include  contaminated air-  conditioning systems,  contaminated water  system...
PATIENT ASSOCIATED Patient risk factors  include the severity of  illness, underlying  immunocompromised  state, and leng...
ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION OF                 INFECTION A susceptible host  and appropriate  inoculum of  infecting  microorg...
AIR – BORNE ROUTE From respiratory tract via  talking, coughing,  sneezing From the skin by natural  shedding of the ski...
CONTACT SPREAD In direct contact spread  from person to person By indirect contact  spread via  contaminated hands or  e...
FOOD BORNE SPREAD From hospital  kitchen, or in special  diets, infant feeds,  kitchen, or  commercial supplies Mechanic...
BLOOD BORNE SPREAD The accidental  transmission of  infections as HIV,  HBV,and HCV by  needle stick injuries  is documen...
SELF INFECTIONS AND CROSS            INFECTIONS Lower bowel surgery, Self infection may occur  due to flora from nose,  ...
OTHER CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Surgeons punctured surgical gloves, or moistened gown, imperfectly sterilized surgical instrum...
PATIENTS OWN FLORA TOO INFECTIVE Self   infection    from patient’s    own flora from    Bowel can be    major contributo...
OTHER SOURCE OF HOSPITAL                 INFECTIONS Hospital environment,  includes defective  constructions, People the...
CROSS INFECTION   Many different bacteria,    viruses, fungi and    parasites may cause    Nosocomial infections.    Infe...
USED/CONTAMINATED SYRINGES AGREAT THREAT IN DEVELOPING WORLD Some organisms    may be acquired    from an inanimate    ob...
CHANGING TRENDS IN INFECTION             ETIOLOGY With advances in more elaborate surgery and  intensive care, with combi...
EMERGING INFECTIOUS AGENTS A group of Microbes  that played no role in  the past have emerged. 1 Coagulase negative  Sta...
MICROBES FROM ENVIRONMENT The dissemination from  environment such as  cooling towers and hot  water system is proving  a...
VIRUS TOO PLAY A IMPORTANT ROLE                 Awareness on risk of                 Blood born viruses                 in...
IATROGENIC SPREAD A CONCERN The possible risk of iatrogenic spread of Prions causing Creuzfeldt-Jacob disease is a concer...
COMMON SITES ASSOCIATED WITH          ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS     Urinary tract     Surgical wounds     Respiratory tract  ...
COLLECTION OF DATA IN CROSS                 INFECTIONS   Always collect information and document information    on     1 ...
PREVENTION AND CONTROL   The basic responsibility    of any good hospital    remain with    establishment of good    infe...
INFECTION CONTROL COMMITTEE   Should meet regularly    to formulate and    update policies for the    whole hospital on a...
INFECTION CONTROL TEAM Which will function  under the guidance of  Infection control  Doctor. A Medically qualified  Mic...
THE FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMITTEE To do surveillance and  infection monitoring of  hygiene practices. Educate the Medical  ...
INFECTION CONTROL NURSE Is  the key member of    the team   Maintain the close    working relations    between Microbiol...
ALL ARE CAMPAIGNERS OF SAFE              PRACTICES It is the minimal   responsibility of the   members to   campaign on i...
DECONTAMINATION AND STERILIZATION Fundamental  importance lies with  supply of sterile  instruments, dressings  and fluid...
ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES                    A no touch technique when                     dealing with sterile equipment       ...
CLEANING AND DISINFECTION Basic cleaning, waste  disposal, and laundry carry  priority. The use of chemical  disinfectan...
CARE OF MOP HEADS AND OTHER               ITEMS All the Mop heads and  cloths used in crucial  areas should be heat  disi...
SKIN DISINFECTION AND                 ANTISEPTICS   Hand washing is a most    important procedure    which should be    p...
HAND WASHING                       Thorough hand washing                        after any procedure                      ...
WEARING A GLOVE   Gloves may be worn for    any dirty contact    procedure such as    emptying a urinary    cans, or bed ...
DISINFECTION POLICIES All the hospitals should create disinfection  policies which suit circumstances and  economic resou...
IMPORTANCE OF STAFF Staff  should have  well understood  responsibilities. Effective  implementation of  policy requires...
PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS                    Wide spread and haphazard                     use of antibiotics hasten      ...
PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Different activities  within the hospital  require different  degrees of protection to  staff and pat...
BARRIER NURSING                          Barrier nursing is highly                           essential when soiling      ...
OTHER MEASURES Gloves, face mask, and  goggles are indicated in  specific procedures. The use of the above  should confi...
ISOLATION IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES                     Practiced as    a source                      isolation and to prote...
CUBICLE ISOLATION In which patient nursed  alone in a room separated  by door and corridor from  other patients confers a...
CRITICAL SITUATIONS   In some critical    situations such as bone    marrow transplant units,    where air borne    conta...
TREXLER ISOLATOR Stringent  isolation such as a plastic tent or Trexler isolator, is required only for patients with high...
HOSPITAL BUILDING AND DESIGN                   Routine maintenance of the                    Hospital building is importa...
LEGIONNAIRES’ DISEASE                  PREVENTION The risk of  Legionnaires’ disease  is reduced by regular  flushing all...
EQUIPMENT                     All the equipment in                      contact with patients need                      d...
PERSONNEL CARE OF HEALTH            CARE WORKERS All health care workers  should screened for  possible communicable  dis...
NEEDLE STICK INJURIES Who sustain needle  stick injuries from  potentially  contaminated sources  should have access to  ...
MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENT ?                   Routine                    Microbiological                    monitorin...
SCREENING OF STAFF OR PATIENTS   Microbiological screening    of staff and patients not    undertaken routinely but    it...
SURVEILLANCE AND ROLE OF         MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORIES   The detection and    identification of hospital    infection...
SURVEILLANCE Identification of  MRSA   & ESBL and timely   information to   clinicians will help the   ongoing events in ...
PRACTICAL TEACHING TO STAFF Regular visits to wards  are also important to  record data on infected  patients from whom n...
EFFICACY OF INFECTION CONTROL The Following measures will   certainly control the  infections       1 Sterilization      ...
MEASURES PROVED TO BE INEFFECTIVE Chemical disinfection  of floors, walls, and  sinks Routine  environmental  monitoring...
WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT Effective surveillance  and action by the  infection control team  have shown to reduce  infection...
SAVING THE COSTS IN PREVENTION IF             INFECTIONS With raising    economic costs in    running safe    hospitals e...
• Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD        for Health care workers in the              Developing World                  ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Hospital infections, Infection Prevention

10,031

Published on

Hospital infections, Infection Prevention

Published in: Health & Medicine
12 Comments
17 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
10,031
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,319
Comments
12
Likes
17
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hospital infections, Infection Prevention

  1. 1. HOSPITAL INFECTIONS FACTS, CONCERNS, AND PREVENTION • Dr.T.V.Rao MDDR.T.V.RAO MD 1
  2. 2. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial comes from the Greek word nosokomeion meaning hospital (nosos = disease, komeo = to take care of). This type of infection is also known as a hospital-acquired infection (or more generically healthcare-associated infectionsDR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  3. 3. WHAT ARE HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONSAn infection acquired in hospital by a patient who was admitted for a reason other than that infection . An infection occurring in a patient in a hospital or other health care facility in whom the infection was not present or incubating at the time of admission. This includes infections acquired in the hospital but appearing after discharge, and also occupational infections among staff of the facilityDR.T.V.RAO MD 3
  4. 4. NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS ON PUBLIC HEALTH Nosocomial infections are widespread. They are important contributors to morbidity and mortality. They will become even more important as a public health problem with increasing economic and human impactDR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  5. 5. CROWDING A MAJOR FACTOR Increasing numbers and crowding of people. More frequent impaired immunity (age, illness, treatments). New microorganisms. Increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotics contributed as emerging problemDR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  6. 6. WHEN THE NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS MANIFEST Majority of such infections become evident during their stay in the Hospital or some times only after their discharge from the patient.DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  7. 7. HOW AND WHEN HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS OCCUR. Nosocomial infections are infections which are a result of treatment in a hospital or a healthcare service unit, but secondary to the patients original condition. Infections are considered Nosocomial if they first appear 48 hours or more after hospital admission or within 30 days after discharge. DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  8. 8. COMMONLY OCCURRING MICROORGANISMS IN HOSPITAL INFECTIONSDR.T.V.RAO MD 8
  9. 9. MICROORGANISMS AND NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS The patient is exposed to a variety of microorganisms during hospitalization. Contact between the patient and a microorganisms does not by itself necessarily result in the development of clinical disease — other factors influence the natureDR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  10. 10. URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS Escherichia coli Klebsiella, Serratia,Proteus spp Pseudomonas aeruginosa Enterococcus spp Candida albicansDR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  11. 11. RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS  Hemophilus influenzae  Streptococcus pneumonia  Staphylococcus aureus  Enterobacteriaceae  Respiratory viruses  Fungi, Candida spp  Aspergilluss sppDR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  12. 12. SKIN SEPSIS AND WOUNDS Staph aureus Streptococcus pyogenes E.Coli Proteus spp Anaerobic bacteria Enterococcus spp Coagulase negative Staphylococcus DR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  13. 13. GASTRO INTESTINAL INFECTIONS Salmonella serotypes Clostridium difficile Norwalk like virusesDR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  14. 14. DRUG RESISTANCE – NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION The likelihood of exposure leading to infection depends partly on the characteristics of the microorganisms, including resistance to antimicrobial agents, intrinsic virulence, and amount (inoculum) of infective material.DR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  15. 15. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY Withinhours of admission, colonies of hospital strains of bacteria develop in the patients skin, respiratory tract, and genitourinary tract. Risks factors for the invasion of colonizing pathogens can be categorized into 3 areas: iatrogenic, organizational, and patient-related DR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  16. 16. IATROGENIC RISK Iatrogenic risk factors include pathogens on the hands of medical personnel, invasive procedures (eg, incubation and extended ventilation, indwelling vascular lines, urine catheterization), and antibiotic use and prophylaxis.DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  17. 17. ORGANIZATIONAL Organizational risk factors include contaminated air- conditioning systems, contaminated water systems, and staffing and physical layout of the facility (eg, nurse- to-patient ratio, open beds close together). DR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  18. 18. PATIENT ASSOCIATED Patient risk factors include the severity of illness, underlying immunocompromised state, and length of stay. Prolonged stay in the hospital is a Major contributing factor DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  19. 19. ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION A susceptible host and appropriate inoculum of infecting microorganism with an appropriate route of transmission contributed in majority of casesDR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  20. 20. AIR – BORNE ROUTE From respiratory tract via talking, coughing, sneezing From the skin by natural shedding of the skin scales during would dressing or bed making. From aerosols from equipment, respiratory apparatus, air- conditioning plants. DR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  21. 21. CONTACT SPREAD In direct contact spread from person to person By indirect contact spread via contaminated hands or equipment. Clothing of staff, Urinary catheters, contaminated with hands of the operator may introduce organisms, or patients own flora from urethra may contribute toDR.T.V.RAO MD 21
  22. 22. FOOD BORNE SPREAD From hospital kitchen, or in special diets, infant feeds, kitchen, or commercial supplies Mechanical vectors flies, cockroaches or insects, or rodents act as carriers of infection. DR.T.V.RAO MD 22
  23. 23. BLOOD BORNE SPREAD The accidental transmission of infections as HIV, HBV,and HCV by needle stick injuries is documented Syphilis and malaria a concern in high prevalence areasDR.T.V.RAO MD 23
  24. 24. SELF INFECTIONS AND CROSS INFECTIONS Lower bowel surgery, Self infection may occur due to flora from nose, Staphylococcus may be introduced into wounds. Cross infection between patients occur due to spread of Staphylococcus or coli formsDR.T.V.RAO MD 24
  25. 25. OTHER CONTRIBUTING FACTORS Surgeons punctured surgical gloves, or moistened gown, imperfectly sterilized surgical instruments, or by airborne theatre dust. Faulty wound dressings may cause infections. DR.T.V.RAO MD 25
  26. 26. PATIENTS OWN FLORA TOO INFECTIVE Self infection from patient’s own flora from Bowel can be major contributor of infections in bowel surgery.DR.T.V.RAO MD 26
  27. 27. OTHER SOURCE OF HOSPITAL INFECTIONS Hospital environment, includes defective constructions, People their behavior has great impact. Objects, food, water, Air in the hospital too contribute to infections. DR.T.V.RAO MD 27
  28. 28. CROSS INFECTION Many different bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites may cause Nosocomial infections. Infections may be caused by micro organism acquired from another person in the hospital (cross-infection) or may be caused by the patient’s own flora (endogenous infection).DR.T.V.RAO MD 28
  29. 29. USED/CONTAMINATED SYRINGES AGREAT THREAT IN DEVELOPING WORLD Some organisms may be acquired from an inanimate object or substances recently contaminated from another human source (environmental infection). 29DR.T.V.RAO MD
  30. 30. CHANGING TRENDS IN INFECTION ETIOLOGY With advances in more elaborate surgery and intensive care, with combined use of broad spectrum antibiotics and immunosuppressive drugs, Gram Negative bacteria increased in importance Pseudomonas aeruginosa gained importance in causing infection in compromised patients. They exhibit natural resistance to antibiotics and antiseptics DR.T.V.RAO MD 30
  31. 31. EMERGING INFECTIOUS AGENTS A group of Microbes that played no role in the past have emerged. 1 Coagulase negative Staphylococci 2 Acinetobacterbaumanii DR.T.V.RAO MD 31
  32. 32. MICROBES FROM ENVIRONMENT The dissemination from environment such as cooling towers and hot water system is proving a threat with Legionella pneumophila causing infections of respiratory systems DR.T.V.RAO MD 32
  33. 33. VIRUS TOO PLAY A IMPORTANT ROLE Awareness on risk of Blood born viruses including Hepatitis B, C and HIV essential CMV virus in association with organ and cellular transmission DR.T.V.RAO MD 33
  34. 34. IATROGENIC SPREAD A CONCERN The possible risk of iatrogenic spread of Prions causing Creuzfeldt-Jacob disease is a concern DR.T.V.RAO MD 34
  35. 35. COMMON SITES ASSOCIATED WITH ETIOLOGICAL AGENTS Urinary tract Surgical wounds Respiratory tract Skin (especially burns) Blood (bacteraemia) Gastrointestinal tract Central nervous systemDR.T.V.RAO MD 35
  36. 36. COLLECTION OF DATA IN CROSS INFECTIONS Always collect information and document information on 1 Patient details 2 Site and extent of infection 3 Date of admission – operative procedure first recognition of infection 4 Specimen and laboratory isolates and typing results 5 Ward and staff details.DR.T.V.RAO MD 36
  37. 37. PREVENTION AND CONTROL The basic responsibility of any good hospital remain with establishment of good infection control policies, which can always be achieved with 1 An infection control committee· 2 An Infection teamDR.T.V.RAO MD 37
  38. 38. INFECTION CONTROL COMMITTEE Should meet regularly to formulate and update policies for the whole hospital on all matter which have bearing on infection control and to mange outbreaks of Nosocomial infectionDR.T.V.RAO MD 38
  39. 39. INFECTION CONTROL TEAM Which will function under the guidance of Infection control Doctor. A Medically qualified Microbiologist, who will take responsibility of day to day for the policies formulated DR.T.V.RAO MD 39
  40. 40. THE FUNCTIONS OF THE COMMITTEE To do surveillance and infection monitoring of hygiene practices. Educate the Medical and Paramedical staff on policies relating to prevention of infection, and safe proceduresDR.T.V.RAO MD 40
  41. 41. INFECTION CONTROL NURSE Is the key member of the team Maintain the close working relations between Microbiology Laboratory, different clinical services and supportive services like laundry, pharmacy and engineeringDR.T.V.RAO MD 41
  42. 42. ALL ARE CAMPAIGNERS OF SAFE PRACTICES It is the minimal responsibility of the members to campaign on issues related to safe practices including Hand washing DR.T.V.RAO MD 42
  43. 43. DECONTAMINATION AND STERILIZATION Fundamental importance lies with supply of sterile instruments, dressings and fluids. A availability of single use syringes, needles, catheters and drainage bags to be assured and planned for the regular supplies .DR.T.V.RAO MD 43
  44. 44. ASEPTIC TECHNIQUES  A no touch technique when dealing with sterile equipment coupled with strict personal hygiene.  A strict rules laid when dealing the patients in the operation theatre and other procedures such as wound dressing and insertion of IV and urinary catheters.DR.T.V.RAO MD 44
  45. 45. CLEANING AND DISINFECTION Basic cleaning, waste disposal, and laundry carry priority. The use of chemical disinfectants for wall floors, and furniture is warranted in special circumstances, such as spillages, of body fluids from patients with blood born viral infections DR.T.V.RAO MD 45
  46. 46. CARE OF MOP HEADS AND OTHER ITEMS All the Mop heads and cloths used in crucial areas should be heat disinfected and stored in dry places after use. Bed pans washers and disinfectants and dishwashers should be monitored to ensure reliable performanceDR.T.V.RAO MD 46
  47. 47. SKIN DISINFECTION AND ANTISEPTICS Hand washing is a most important procedure which should be practiced by health care worker, gram – ve bacteria on the hands of the staff is an important factor in the spread of hospital infectionDR.T.V.RAO MD 47
  48. 48. HAND WASHING  Thorough hand washing after any procedure involving nursing care or close contact with the patient is essential.  Alchool based hand antiseptics gaining importance where washing with water and soap are not practicable.DR.T.V.RAO MD 48
  49. 49. WEARING A GLOVE Gloves may be worn for any dirty contact procedure such as emptying a urinary cans, or bed pans, however it should not be forgotten gloved hand may also become colonized by transient hospital flora.DR.T.V.RAO MD 49
  50. 50. DISINFECTION POLICIES All the hospitals should create disinfection policies which suit circumstances and economic resources. The procedures and products should have a limited range of options, and chemicals to be used only in desired circumstances. The policies should take into consideration surgical instruments, heat disinfection, Laundry, crockery and cleaning of floors and furniture. DR.T.V.RAO MD 50
  51. 51. IMPORTANCE OF STAFF Staff should have well understood responsibilities. Effective implementation of policy requires , motivated staff, with training, Regular updating as new methods become available DR.T.V.RAO MD 51
  52. 52. PROPHYLACTIC ANTIBIOTICS  Wide spread and haphazard use of antibiotics hasten emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria.  Rational antibiotic prophylaxis plays an important role in infection control  Antibiotic policy limits the use of broad spectrum agents, and is important in both prophylaxis and treatment.DR.T.V.RAO MD 52
  53. 53. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING Different activities within the hospital require different degrees of protection to staff and patients. In operation theatre the wearing of sterile gowns, gloves, head gear and face mask minimizes the shedding of microorganisms.DR.T.V.RAO MD 53
  54. 54. BARRIER NURSING  Barrier nursing is highly essential when soiling of clothing is anticipated, and dealing with communicable diseases, eg in EBOLA and MARBURG infections.DR.T.V.RAO MD 54
  55. 55. OTHER MEASURES Gloves, face mask, and goggles are indicated in specific procedures. The use of the above should confirm to international standards and the staff should be trained in their proper use and disposal DR.T.V.RAO MD 55
  56. 56. ISOLATION IN INFECTIOUS DISEASES  Practiced as a source isolation and to protect the susceptible or immunocompromised.  It needs a highly disciplined approach by all staff to ensure that none of the barriers to transmission are breached.DR.T.V.RAO MD 56
  57. 57. CUBICLE ISOLATION In which patient nursed alone in a room separated by door and corridor from other patients confers a substantial measures of protection. Desirable to supply clean, filtered air is supplied to room with facilities for own toilet and washing facilities DR.T.V.RAO MD 57
  58. 58. CRITICAL SITUATIONS In some critical situations such as bone marrow transplant units, where air borne contamination with environmental fungal spores is a problem the efficiency of an air filtration may be increased and laminar airflow maintained as barrier around the patientDR.T.V.RAO MD 58
  59. 59. TREXLER ISOLATOR Stringent isolation such as a plastic tent or Trexler isolator, is required only for patients with highly contagious infections. DR.T.V.RAO MD 59
  60. 60. HOSPITAL BUILDING AND DESIGN  Routine maintenance of the Hospital building is important, ensuring that surfaces wherever possible are smooth, impervious and easy to clean.  All constructions around the existsting Hospitals generate fungal spores and bacterial spores with have impact on specialized units serving immunocompromised patientsDR.T.V.RAO MD 60
  61. 61. LEGIONNAIRES’ DISEASE PREVENTION The risk of Legionnaires’ disease is reduced by regular flushing all outlets and installing water supplies that circulate below 200c for the0 cold and above 60 c for the hot circuit DR.T.V.RAO MD 61
  62. 62. EQUIPMENT  All the equipment in contact with patients need decontamination and sterilization  Heat is a preferred method.  However heat sensitive to the sterilized with chemical and other newer emerging methodsDR.T.V.RAO MD 62
  63. 63. PERSONNEL CARE OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS All health care workers should screened for possible communicable diseases before employment, and offered immunization against Hepatitis B Viral infection. An education on Universal Health Precautions is highly essentialDR.T.V.RAO MD 63
  64. 64. NEEDLE STICK INJURIES Who sustain needle stick injuries from potentially contaminated sources should have access to advise and post exposure prophylaxis with antiviral agents or immunization.DR.T.V.RAO MD 64
  65. 65. MONITORING OF THE ENVIRONMENT ?  Routine Microbiological monitoring of the environment is of little benefit,  But monitoring of the Air conditioning plants, and machinery used for disinfection and sterilization is essential ”DR.T.V.RAO MD 65
  66. 66. SCREENING OF STAFF OR PATIENTS Microbiological screening of staff and patients not undertaken routinely but it may be needed for specific purpose to detect carriers or MRSA and Hepatitis viruses in those performing some types of surgery or where transmission to patients has occurred.DR.T.V.RAO MD 66
  67. 67. SURVEILLANCE AND ROLE OF MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORIES The detection and identification of hospital infection incidents or outbreaks rely on the laboratory data that alert the infection control team to unusual cluster of infection, called as ‘alert organism’ system.DR.T.V.RAO MD 67
  68. 68. SURVEILLANCE Identification of MRSA & ESBL and timely information to clinicians will help the ongoing events in the Hospital warrant to track the events on source of outbreaks and action to control the similar situations in future DR.T.V.RAO MD 68
  69. 69. PRACTICAL TEACHING TO STAFF Regular visits to wards are also important to record data on infected patients from whom no specimens have been received and to respond to problems as they occur. Such visits will bring in grater human interaction with paramedical staff and deliver the practical teaching.DR.T.V.RAO MD 69
  70. 70. EFFICACY OF INFECTION CONTROL The Following measures will certainly control the infections 1 Sterilization 2 Hand washing 3 Closed drainage systems for urinarycatheters.” 4 Intravenous catheter care 5 Peri operative antibiotic prophylaxis for contaminated wounds, and care of equipment used in respiratory therapy. DR.T.V.RAO MD 70
  71. 71. MEASURES PROVED TO BE INEFFECTIVE Chemical disinfection of floors, walls, and sinks Routine environmental monitoring is losing its concerns.”DR.T.V.RAO MD 71
  72. 72. WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT Effective surveillance and action by the infection control team have shown to reduce infection rates. One important role of the team is to monitor compliance and practices known to be effective.DR.T.V.RAO MD 72
  73. 73. SAVING THE COSTS IN PREVENTION IF INFECTIONS With raising economic costs in running safe hospitals eliminate the many rituals or less effective practices that they may even increase the incidence or cost of cross infection.DR.T.V.RAO MD 73
  74. 74. • Programme created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for Health care workers in the Developing World • Email • doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 74
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×