Hanta Virus


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Hanta Virus

  1. 1. HANTA VIRUS Infections Dr.T.V.Rao MD
  2. 2. Hanta Viruses <ul><li>Hanta virus belong to family - Bunyaviridae </li></ul><ul><li>Found Globally </li></ul><ul><li>Causes serious diseases, can be fatal </li></ul><ul><li>It is estimated there are 100,000 to 200,000 infections occur worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  3. 3. Hanta Virus diseases <ul><li>Hantavirus infections are caused by a group of viruses known as hantaviruses. These viruses cause two serious illnesses in humans. They are hemorrhagic (pronounced heh-meh-RA-jik) fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hanta virus
  5. 5. Source of Hanta Virus Infections <ul><li>There are several distinct Hanta viruses, each associated with specific Rodent Host </li></ul><ul><li>The Infection in Rodents are life long without deleterious effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans get infected by inhaling aerosols of Rodent excreta. </li></ul><ul><li>( Urine, Feces, Saliva ) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Spread of Hanta Virus Infections
  7. 8. Breeding of Rodents have relation to spread of Infection
  8. 9. Diseases produced by Hanta virus Infections <ul><li>1 Hemorrhagic fever with Renal Syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>( HFR ) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Hanta virus pulmonary Syndrome ( HPS ) </li></ul><ul><li>Infection with Hanta virus is associated with Geographic distribution of Rodents and nature of the Virus. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome <ul><li>The virus were first isolated in 1976 in Korea from a Rodent Apodemus Agraris </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Rats are to be persistently infected with Hanta virus </li></ul><ul><li>Rats migrate on trading ships and disperse the virus world wide </li></ul><ul><li>Hanta virus infection has occurred in persons whose occupations place them in contact with Rats </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hemorrhagic Fever – Renal syndrome <ul><li>Acute Hanta viral infection causes a Interstitial nephritis </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to acute renal insufficiency and renal failure in severe form </li></ul><ul><li>Generalized hemorrhage and shock may occur with case fatalities upto 5 – 15 % </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  11. 12. Mangement <ul><li>Hemorrhagic fever, and renal failure are managed with supportive treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Rodent control </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from exposure to rodent droppings and contaminated material. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hanta virus – Pulmonary syndrome <ul><li>Caused by novel Hanta virus </li></ul><ul><li>( Sin Nombre virus ) </li></ul><ul><li>First case was reported from North America </li></ul><ul><li>Primarily an adult respiratory disease syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>The deer mouse ( Peromyscus maniculats) is the primary rodent for Sin Nombre virus </li></ul><ul><li>10 % of the deer mouse are infected. </li></ul><ul><li>Other viruses resembling novel Hantavirus can cause Hanta viral pulmonary syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao </li></ul>
  13. 14. Other viruses causing HPS <ul><li>New York virus </li></ul><ul><li>Black Creek canal virus </li></ul><ul><li>Bayou virus </li></ul><ul><li>and each type of virus has a different Rodent host </li></ul>
  14. 15. Clinical Manifestations <ul><li>Infections and subclinical infections are not common. </li></ul><ul><li>Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome is generally severe with reported mortality rate of > 30 % or greater. </li></ul><ul><li>Present with </li></ul><ul><li>Fever, Headache,Myalgia </li></ul><ul><li>Prolonged pulmonary edema </li></ul><ul><li>Leading to respiratory compromise </li></ul><ul><li>No signs of hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  15. 16. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Hanta viral antigens are found in endothelial cells. </li></ul><ul><li>In macrophages in lung, heart, Spleen,Lymphnodes </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to functional impairment of vascular endothelium </li></ul><ul><li>Person to person transmission is rare </li></ul>
  16. 17. Laboratory Diagnosis <ul><li>Detection of antigens by immuno histochemistry, </li></ul><ul><li>RT – PCR for viral antigen detection </li></ul><ul><li>Specific antibodies by recombinant proteins </li></ul><ul><li>A four fold rise of IgM antibody titer between acute and convalescent serum is diagnostic </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  17. 18. Management <ul><li>Maintenance of adequate O 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting homodynamic functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Antiviral drug Ribavirin is some benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  18. 19. Control and Prevention <ul><li>Rodent control </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding control of Rodents and Rodent droppings </li></ul><ul><li>Care must be taken to avoid inhaling aerolized dried excreta when cleaning Rodent infected structures. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr.T.V.Rao MD </li></ul>
  19. 20. Created for benefit of Health Care Workers Dr.T.V.Rao MD Email [email_address]