ESBL Producers Therapeutic options
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ESBL Producers Therapeutic options



ESBL Producers Therapeutic options

ESBL Producers Therapeutic options



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ESBL Producers Therapeutic options Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ESBL PRODUCING BACTERIA Therapeutic Options Dr.T.V.Rao MD Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
  • 2. Beginning of ESBL Producers• ESBL producing organisms were first described in the 1980s and first reported in the UK in 2000 affecting in Klebsiella spp; Gram negative / “coliform” organisms. Resistance is genetically encoded and may be passed from one species to another; even between species.• They also confer resistance to penicillins and are often linked with resistance mechanisms to other classes of antimicrobials thus limiting the range of options available for their treatment. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2
  • 3. Drug Resistance associated with ESBL and AmpC• ESBL and AmpC are enzymes produced by certain Gram negative bacteria that confer resistance to 3rd generation or “extended spectrum” cephalosporins e.g. ceftazidime and cefotaxime Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3
  • 4. Is ESBL a life Threating or Just Coloniser ???Infections with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative bacilli can beserious and life-threatening. Examples includebloodstream infection, meningitis, peritonitis andhospital-acquired pneumonia.• At the other extreme, ESBL-producing organisms may be associated with colonization rather than true infection.• A common example is urinary tract colonization, especially associated with indwelling urinary catheters Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4
  • 5. ESBL’s can be Life threating• Bloodstream infection with ESBL- producing Gram negative bacilli is typically associated with a portal of entry such as a central venous catheter, urinary tract infection, pneumonia or an intra-abdominal infection. Meningitis due to ESBL-producing organisms usually follows neurosurgical procedures Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5
  • 6. Resistant bacteria ( coliforms ) colonised in the large Intestine• These resistance mechanisms affect the facultatively anaerobic Gram negative organisms (“coliforms”). These organisms are found in very high numbers colonizing the large intestine and are most commonly implicated in infections of the gastrointestinal, hepato-biliary and genitor-urinary systems. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6
  • 7. ESBL and Urinary Tract Infections • The majority of ESBL and AmpC related infections are of the urinary tract. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7
  • 8. ESBL detection in Laboratory• ESBLs were detected using the disc approximation and double-disc synergy methods and confirmed with cefotaxime and ceftazidime Etest ESBL strips (AB Biodisk). For the disc approximation test, clavulanate diffusion from an amoxicillin–clavulanate (AMC30) disc was used to test for synergy with cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, cefepime and cefixime (Oxoid) as described by (Sonnevend et al., 2006). Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8
  • 9. Performing Double disc Synergy test• For the double-disc synergy test, a ceftazidime disc (30 μg) was placed 30 mm away from a disc containing amoxicillin–clavulanate (60/10 μg). ESBL production was considered positive when an enhanced zone of inhibition was visible between the β-lactam and β- lactamase inhibitor-containing discs (Cormican et al., 1996; Livermore & Yuan, 1996). Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9
  • 10. Performing E-test for ESBL Detection• the Etest, ESBL strips containing ceftazidime and ceftazidime–clavulanate and strips containing cefotaxime and cefotaxime– clavulanate were used to determine the MIC ratio according to the manufacturers instructions (AB Bio disk). Cultures were incubated aerobically at 37 °C for 18–24 h. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10
  • 11. ESBL infection occurs due to Poor Hygienic Practices in the Hospitals• These organisms are part of the faecal flora and as such are of particular relevance to urinary catheters and faecally contaminated items. Transmission occurs due to poor hand hygiene and contaminated fomites in the clinical setting. Hand hygiene is of paramount importance and alcohol hand gel is very effective against ESBL and AmpC producing organisms. Adherence to good infection control practice regarding urinary catheter care and personal hygiene are vital. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11
  • 12. Shall we use Cephalosporins in ESBL Producers or Not ??? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12
  • 13. Does the ESBL’s have different sensitivities to different Cephalosporins• How frequently are ESBL producing organisms “susceptible” to third generation cephalosporins? The answer to this question depends on which breakpoints are used. Differences between different organizations are quite considerable. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13
  • 14. CLSI and EUCAST guidelines differ• The CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) denotes third and fourth generation cephalosporin susceptibility as a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 8 μg/mL whereas EUCAST denotes a cephalosporin MIC of ≤ 1 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14
  • 15. Review studies show Cephalosporin resistance in ESBL’s to evaluated Individually• The review of studies which have evaluated collections of ESBL producing organisms using standard CLSI disk diffusion or MIC breakpoints,13-49% of isolates were cefotaxime “susceptible”, 36-79% ceftriaxone “susceptible”, 11- 52% ceftazidime “susceptible” and 10- 67% aztreonam “susceptible Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15
  • 16. Why Cephalosporin Resistance differ Individually• The reasons for this apparent susceptibility to some cephalosporins is the result of varying degrees of hydrolysis of cephalosporins by different β-lactamases and enhance penetration through the bacterial outer membrane of some cephalosporins compared to others. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16
  • 17. Enzymatic mechanisms of Resistance Make Difference• Regardless, extended-spectrum cephalosporin MICs of 2-8 μg/mL are 4-8 dilutions higher than those seen in the same strain producing only the parent TEM-1, TEM-2 or SHV-1 β-lactamase (0.03-0.25 μg/mL) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17
  • 18. Use of Cephamycins in ESBL Producers• Cephamycins (for example, cefoxitin and cefotetan) are also stable to hydrolysis by ESBLs. Various other cephalosporins are sometimes partially stable to hydrolysis by certain ESBLs, but in general are not recommended for treatment of ESBL-producing organisms. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18
  • 19. Considering other Drug Options• In vitro, the carbapenems (including imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) have the most consistent activity against ESBL producing organisms, given their stability to hydrolysis by ESBLs. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19
  • 20. Available options in Treating ESBL Producers• Infections with ESBL-producing organisms can be life threatening. In vitro studies would suggest that Carbapenems or non-beta- lactam antibiotics should be optimal therapy for ESBL-producers since they are not hydrolysed by ESBLs• Non-beta-lactam antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tigecycline and polymyxins round out the armamentarium against ESBL-producers Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20
  • 21. Newer Options in Dealing with ESBL Infected Patients• Colistin and polymyxin B also have activity against most ESBL producing strains but dosing regimens are not well-established for these antibiotics, especially in critically ill individuals with renal failure. There are case reports of success with colistin or polymyxin B for treating serious infections with multiply resistant Gram negative infections. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21
  • 22. ESBL’s increases Morbidity and Mortality• ESBL-producing organisms have the capability to be associated with infections that have high underlying mortality. Inadequate treatment of such infections may increase the mortality still further. At the present time, Carbapenems are regarded as the treatment of choice for serious infections due to ESBL producers Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
  • 23. Poor Infection Control Measures in the Hospital raises Multidrug resistant Pathogens• However, the spread of carbapenemase producing organisms (mainly as a result of poor infection control) threatens the long-term utility of this drug class. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23
  • 24. Updating Laboratory• All the Laboratories are requested to Update the Antibiograms interpretation as per current CLSI guidelines. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24
  • 25. Use of WHONETStrengthens our Microbiology Laboratory Reporting Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25
  • 26. Hand Washing Can Still Reduce Spread of ESBL Producers Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26
  • 27. • The Programme Created byDr T.V.Rao MD for Clinical and Laboratory Professionals • Email • Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27