CHALLENGES IN MEDICINE                  NEED FOR        E –LEARNING SOLUTIONS                  Dr.T.V.Rao MDDR.T.V.RAO MD ...
MEDICAL EDUCATION• Medical education had as its foundation a     combination of didactic instruction in the classroom and ...
Educating a Medical Student     Not a Easy JOB ???• Transmmiting knowledge- To know- Intellectual Component• Acquire skill...
TODAYS MEDICINE A CHALLENGE TO               TEACHERS• Todays medical educators  are facing different  challenges than the...
E-LEARNING SERVICES CAN SUPPORT• Shortage of trained faculty and increase  in number of medical students and  colleges in ...
WHAT IS E-LEARNING                          • E-learning is also                            called Web-based              ...
WHAT IS E-LEARNING?   The use of Internet technologies to                                         E-learning is Internet-e...
New ParadigmsInternet       Health  Electronic Health      eHealth                      Dr.T.V.Rao MD   8
COMPONENTS OF E-LEARNING• Two common e-learning modes: distance learning  and computer-assisted instruction. Distance lear...
WHY TEACHERS NEED E-RESOURCES• E-learning refers to the use of Internet technologies to  deliver a broad array of solution...
E-learning: Blended modeChalk-and-board has long            Interactive Digital Content:ruled the classrooms              ...
PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING• Problem-based learning stems from an appreciation  that the application of static knowledge serves...
KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER• Effective knowledge transfer is of paramount  importance for the maintenance and advancement of  our h...
E-LEARNING ADDS …. MANY                       SOLUTIONS• E-learning adds many     dimensions to the educational     proces...
IN E-LEARNING LEARNER CHOOSES THE                    CONTENTDR.T.V.RAO MD                             15
BENEFIT OF E-LEARNING                           • One benefit of e-learning                             allows students to...
INCREASED POTENTIALS OF                   INTERNET• With new and improved  technology, the web has  become much more  dyna...
WEB-BASED LEARNING PLATFORMS• The development of sophisticated, web-based learning  platforms that are easy to use from a ...
EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION                     TECHNOLOGYIMPACT                                      Internet:                ...
WEB LEARNING ELIMINATES GEOGRAPHIC              CONSTRAINS• The ability to harness the  expertise and time of numerous  ed...
MULTIMEDIA EDUCATION CHANGES THE              FACE OF LEARNING                       •   The ability to engage many facets...
INTEGRATING E-LEARNING INTO MEDICAL                 EDUCATION• The integration of e-learning into existing medical  curric...
Is there an information problem in                     medicine?                 Yes it is SEVERE• Information explosion  ...
TRADITIONAL & E-LEARNING                   APPROACH                     Traditional and E-learning approaches             ...
DELIVERY MODE WILL CHANGE                             Delivery Mode                               100 : 0 (F/T)           ...
TEACHING AIDS WILL CHANGE                                   LCDBlackboard       OHP   TV/VHS       PC                     ...
E-LEARNING IS MORE INTERACTIVE• In an on-line multimedia learning  environment:      – teaching & learning is ‘one-to-one’...
BUILDING AN E-LEARNING CULTURE                                  Teacher:                                  Develop knowledg...
MANAGING THE UNDERGRADUATE                 EDUCATION• In undergraduate medical education, e-learning offers learners  mate...
E-LEARNING GAINING THE ACCEPTANCE OF        STUDENTS AND TEACHERS• There is evidence for the effectiveness and  acceptance...
CREATING FACULTY FOR PEER REVIEWING                CONTENTS• The evaluation of e-learning  should include a peer-review  p...
INTEGRATION OF E-LEARNING IN               MEDICAL EDUCATION                         • The integration of e-              ...
Emerging Paradigm• Education and training along the whole  life• Without barriers of time or place• Access to best knowled...
PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVEPlan to Develop an e-learning module for the respective subject domain in your college,Collaborate wi...
ISSUES FOR CONTENTTeaching strategies should be creatively blended,using methods like instructional units, casestudies, si...
BENEFITS E-EDUCATION• Convenient      – self-service (mix and match)      – on-demand (anytime, anywhere)      – private l...
BENEFITS• Cost-effective  – Virtual learning environment  – Share lessons among schools  – Reduce material cost  – Reduce ...
BENEFITS• Consistent      –Central control of content      –Same quality of content for all      –Same quality of educatio...
BENEFITS• media-rich      – Easier to understand & more engaging• repeatable      – As many times as you like• easier to m...
BUILDING AN E-LEARNING CULTURE                                  Teacher:                                  Develop knowledg...
HOW TO MAKE AN EFFECTIVE ELEARNING                MODULE     I want to make a module that will be an effective learning   ...
E-LEARNING FILLS SEVERAL GAPS    eLearning modules aim to fill several gaps:Provide health-care students and front-line he...
WISH TO REAP THE BENEFITS OF ICT –                  E-LEARNING• ICT and e-learning offers opportunity to raise  educationa...
NOTE  • I request all the New Generation of Medical Professionals and       Paramedical staff to realize the importance of...
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Challenges in medicine e-learning solutions

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Challenges in medicine e-learning solutions

  1. 1. CHALLENGES IN MEDICINE NEED FOR E –LEARNING SOLUTIONS Dr.T.V.Rao MDDR.T.V.RAO MD 1
  2. 2. MEDICAL EDUCATION• Medical education had as its foundation a combination of didactic instruction in the classroom and integrated, hands-on "Socratic Method" learning in the clinical setting. Of late, there has been an increase in the use of problem-based learning discussions (PBLDs) in an effort to integrate basic science knowledge and clinical decision making with a goal of teaching critical decision making skills to upcoming physicians and other health care providers.DR.T.V.RAO MD 2
  3. 3. Educating a Medical Student Not a Easy JOB ???• Transmmiting knowledge- To know- Intellectual Component• Acquire skills and abilities- To know how- Operative Component• Acquire and develope attitudes- “Hows” and “Whys”- Emotional and Moral Component Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3
  4. 4. TODAYS MEDICINE A CHALLENGE TO TEACHERS• Todays medical educators are facing different challenges than their predecessors in teaching tomorrows physicians. In the past few decades, changes in health care delivery and advances in medicine have increased demands on academic faculty, resulting in less time for teaching than has previously been the caseDR.T.V.RAO MD 4
  5. 5. E-LEARNING SERVICES CAN SUPPORT• Shortage of trained faculty and increase in number of medical students and colleges in India.• Detoriating standards in Medical education ???• Online resources can reach out across time and space barriers. Can be a substitute in few areas.DR.T.V.RAO MD 5
  6. 6. WHAT IS E-LEARNING • E-learning is also called Web-based learning, online learning, distributed learning, computer- assisted instruction, or Internet-based learning.DR.T.V.RAO MD 6
  7. 7. WHAT IS E-LEARNING? The use of Internet technologies to E-learning is Internet-enabled deliver a broad array of solutions learning that enhance knowledge and performance http://www.cisco.com Rosenberg, 2001DR.T.V.RAO MD 7
  8. 8. New ParadigmsInternet Health Electronic Health eHealth Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8
  9. 9. COMPONENTS OF E-LEARNING• Two common e-learning modes: distance learning and computer-assisted instruction. Distance learning uses information technologies to deliver instruction to learners who are at remote locations from a central site. Computer-assisted instruction (also called computer-based learning and computer-based training) uses computers to aid in the delivery of stand-alone multimedia packages for learning and teaching. These two modes are subsumed under e-learning as the Internet becomes the integrating technology.DR.T.V.RAO MD 9
  10. 10. WHY TEACHERS NEED E-RESOURCES• E-learning refers to the use of Internet technologies to deliver a broad array of solutions that enhance knowledge and performance-learning can be used by medical educators to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of educational interventions in the face of the social, scientific, and pedagogical challenges noted above. It has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical colleges and appears to be more common in basic science courses than in clinical practiceDR.T.V.RAO MD 10
  11. 11. E-learning: Blended modeChalk-and-board has long Interactive Digital Content:ruled the classrooms • more emphasis• will not be eliminated • on demand learning• Less emphasis • interactive DR.T.V.RAO MD 11
  12. 12. PROBLEM-BASED LEARNING• Problem-based learning stems from an appreciation that the application of static knowledge serves as a rich source of learning about dynamic and important clinical decisions that are made everyday in the medical arena. Problem-based learning is not the only modality for education and we are unlikely to ever get rid of standard lectures for the delivery of information or the Socratic Method to engage students to develop their critical thinking skills.DR.T.V.RAO MD 12
  13. 13. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER• Effective knowledge transfer is of paramount importance for the maintenance and advancement of our health care system. In any discipline, effective knowledge transfers consists of delivery of factual knowledge about the topic and exposure to tools and thinking processes required to make critical decisions about the information at hand. Traditional didactic lectures address the delivery of factual knowledge; however one can question both the effectiveness as well as efficiency of this mode of education.DR.T.V.RAO MD 13
  14. 14. E-LEARNING ADDS …. MANY SOLUTIONS• E-learning adds many dimensions to the educational process and if utilized well, has the potential to enhance both the students and instructors educational experience . One of the problems with traditional didactic lectures is that they often present information that targets one of the many learning style of the students involvedDR.T.V.RAO MD 14
  15. 15. IN E-LEARNING LEARNER CHOOSES THE CONTENTDR.T.V.RAO MD 15
  16. 16. BENEFIT OF E-LEARNING • One benefit of e-learning allows students to access the lectures and other material when they are most attentive. In addition, students have the ability to review the material to the degree they feel necessary. It is my hope this article touches the surface of some of the current web tools available for use in the area of education.DR.T.V.RAO MD 16
  17. 17. INCREASED POTENTIALS OF INTERNET• With new and improved technology, the web has become much more dynamic allowing for targeted delivery of information as well as an increased amount of interactivity on the part of the user. The remainder of this article will focus on some of the available technologies that can enhance the educational experience.DR.T.V.RAO MD 17
  18. 18. WEB-BASED LEARNING PLATFORMS• The development of sophisticated, web-based learning platforms that are easy to use from a student and a teacher prospective, medical education is beginning to embrace a new modality of knowledge transfer. Web- based, multimedia learning platforms bring about numerous possibilities not easily met with traditional didactic instruction, however, many of the studies looking to e-learning as a replacement for more traditional classroom education have not shown a significant improvement.DR.T.V.RAO MD 18
  19. 19. EVOLUTION OF EDUCATION TECHNOLOGYIMPACT Internet: TIME Greatest impact TIMEDR.T.V.RAO MD 19
  20. 20. WEB LEARNING ELIMINATES GEOGRAPHIC CONSTRAINS• The ability to harness the expertise and time of numerous educators has the potential to lead to an ever evolving knowledge base that can morph to meet the needs of the students. By using web-based tools, we are no longer constrained to a given time or location to deliver information and interact with students on a given topicDR.T.V.RAO MD 20
  21. 21. MULTIMEDIA EDUCATION CHANGES THE FACE OF LEARNING • The ability to engage many facets of a student using multimedia material has the added advantage of covering the many learning styles present in the diverse student population in the medical fields. The use of multimedia coupled with the tracking of effectiveness and collaboration of both students and faculty leads to a platform that continues to evolve in both effectiveness and effi ciencyDR.T.V.RAO MD 21
  22. 22. INTEGRATING E-LEARNING INTO MEDICAL EDUCATION• The integration of e-learning into existing medical curricula should be the result of a well-devised plan that begins with a needs assessment and concludes with the decision to use e-learning. Although some institutions have tried to use e-learning as a stand- alone solution to updating or expanding their curricula, we believe it is best to begin with an integrated strategy that considers the benefits and burdens of blended learning before revising the curriculumDR.T.V.RAO MD 22
  23. 23. Is there an information problem in medicine? Yes it is SEVERE• Information explosion -15 million “facts” must a medical student learn -1990-91 = 50,000 articles in gastroenterology -250,000 art. Every 2 years, 342 / day, 4.2 /min.• “Facts” that are not facts p.e. apendicitis and pain localization• The imprecission of medical language F. T. de Dombal, 1993
  24. 24. TRADITIONAL & E-LEARNING APPROACH Traditional and E-learning approaches Traditional Classroom E-Learning Classroom • Physical – limited size • Unlimited • Synchronous • Anytime, anywhere Content • PowerPoint/transparency/etc • Multimedia / simulation • Textbooks/library • Digital library • Video • On demand • Collaboration • Syn & Asyn. Communication Personalisation • One learning path • Learning path and pace determined by learnerDR.T.V.RAO MD 24
  25. 25. DELIVERY MODE WILL CHANGE Delivery Mode 100 : 0 (F/T) 80 : 20 (F/T) 20 : 80 (DE)Growing student population More virtual universities Increase in tuition fee Cost effective solutions (e.g. e-learning) Lack of facilities and Privatisation of funding education DR.T.V.RAO MD 25
  26. 26. TEACHING AIDS WILL CHANGE LCDBlackboard OHP TV/VHS PC Whiteboard DR.T.V.RAO MD 26
  27. 27. E-LEARNING IS MORE INTERACTIVE• In an on-line multimedia learning environment: – teaching & learning is ‘one-to-one’ (individual) – more interactivity (in normal classroom, it varies with the class size) – learner-centred – Learner monitoring & grading systemDR.T.V.RAO MD 27
  28. 28. BUILDING AN E-LEARNING CULTURE Teacher: Develop knowledge & skills Understand learning and its need Facilitate learningLearner: Create learning opportunitiesSelf-directedSelf-motivated Building anSelf-regulating E-learningLifelong learning Culture Administrator: Create Learning environment Provide ICT infrastructure Resources for lifelong learningDR.T.V.RAO MD 28
  29. 29. MANAGING THE UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION• In undergraduate medical education, e-learning offers learners materials for self-instruction and collaborative learning. In graduate medical educa. E-learning materials suited for each of these competencies can be integrated into the education of residents and fellows, replacing lectures and other synchronous methods of instruction. Asynchronous e-learning can be effectively used during demanding clinical care rotations, especially when duty hours are limited yet curriculum requirements remain high. In continuing medical education, physicians with daily clinical obligations can attend medical e- conferences using e-learning.DR.T.V.RAO MD 29
  30. 30. E-LEARNING GAINING THE ACCEPTANCE OF STUDENTS AND TEACHERS• There is evidence for the effectiveness and acceptance of e-learning within the medical education community, especially when combined with traditional teacher-led activities in a blended-learning educational experience. Several digital repositories of e-learning materials exist, some with peer review, where instructors or developers can submit materials for widespread use or retrieve them for creating new materials.DR.T.V.RAO MD 30
  31. 31. CREATING FACULTY FOR PEER REVIEWING CONTENTS• The evaluation of e-learning should include a peer-review process and an assessment of outcomes such as learner satisfaction, content usability, and demonstration of learning. Faculty skills in creating e- learning may differ from those needed for traditional teaching; faculty rewards for scholarly activity must recognize this difference and should be commensurate with effort.DR.T.V.RAO MD 31
  32. 32. INTEGRATION OF E-LEARNING IN MEDICAL EDUCATION • The integration of e- learning into undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education will promote a shift toward adult learning in medical education, wherein educators no longer serve solely as distributors of content, but become facilitators of learning and assessors of competency.DR.T.V.RAO MD 32
  33. 33. Emerging Paradigm• Education and training along the whole life• Without barriers of time or place• Access to best knowledge whereever it is located• Possibility for all to be readers and writers, students and teachers• Utilization of all technologies available, at present or in the future, for accessing contents and learning experiences Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33
  34. 34. PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVEPlan to Develop an e-learning module for the respective subject domain in your college,Collaborate with other colleges,Make the best of resources available resources to everyoneDR.T.V.RAO MD 34
  35. 35. ISSUES FOR CONTENTTeaching strategies should be creatively blended,using methods like instructional units, casestudies, simulations, video units and other Webbased resources to encourage learners. Thesecourses should enable learners to see therelevance of the material, respect the expertiselearners bring to the course, allow learners tocontrol their own learning paths throughmeaningful exercise and activities and, last but notthe least, emphasize clearly and continually theconnections between what is being learnt and thereal world applications.DR.T.V.RAO MD 35
  36. 36. BENEFITS E-EDUCATION• Convenient – self-service (mix and match) – on-demand (anytime, anywhere) – private learning – self-paced – Flexibility: (modular package)DR.T.V.RAO MD 36
  37. 37. BENEFITS• Cost-effective – Virtual learning environment – Share lessons among schools – Reduce material cost – Reduce travel/accommodation costs DR.T.V.RAO MD 37
  38. 38. BENEFITS• Consistent –Central control of content –Same quality of content for all –Same quality of education for allDR.T.V.RAO MD 38
  39. 39. BENEFITS• media-rich – Easier to understand & more engaging• repeatable – As many times as you like• easier to monitor progress – less administrative work – can be more preciseDR.T.V.RAO MD 39
  40. 40. BUILDING AN E-LEARNING CULTURE Teacher: Develop knowledge & skills Understand learning and its need Facilitate learningLearner: Create learning opportunitiesSelf-directedSelf-motivated Building anSelf-regulating E-learningLifelong learning Culture Administrator: Create Learning environment Provide ICT infrastructure Resources for lifelong learningDR.T.V.RAO MD 40
  41. 41. HOW TO MAKE AN EFFECTIVE ELEARNING MODULE I want to make a module that will be an effective learning resource. But …Where do I start? How can eLearning make the content more interesting? How will the learner track their progress – so that they will be confident that they have achieved something? If you would like help with these questions, this module is for you!
  42. 42. E-LEARNING FILLS SEVERAL GAPS eLearning modules aim to fill several gaps:Provide health-care students and front-line health Take advantage of digital technology andworkers in resource poor countries with learning copyright-free content to:resources that will be effective in improving healthoutcomes • develop short learning modules that actively engage the learnerInvolve health staff in resource-poor countries in • include formative assessment so that themaking “home-grown” learning resources so that learner can track their progress • the resources are directly familiar to “real-life”, day-to-day health care in their own setting • use simple, widely available software so that • they build their expertise in developing effective others can adapt the materials for teaching other resources for adult learners target groupsThe modules are usually designed to be studied mainly by a single learner sitting at acomputer screen. However, they can be used to generate discussion topics or exercisesthat can be suitable for groups of learners.
  43. 43. WISH TO REAP THE BENEFITS OF ICT – E-LEARNING• ICT and e-learning offers opportunity to raise educational standards in schools• Large range of ICT tools are available for teaching and learning• Closes the gap of “Digital Divide”• Involvement of teachers and parents is important• Schools will need funding, access and trainingDR.T.V.RAO MD 43
  44. 44. NOTE • I request all the New Generation of Medical Professionals and Paramedical staff to realize the importance of our attitude change towards e-learning in creating the resources and teaching the young medical students in new emerging modalities. Medical profession in many developing countries heading towards major professional crisis due to lack of resources, reluctance of several professionals accepting that e- education is the need of the hour • Dr.T.V.Rao MD Professor of Microbiology • Email- doctortvrao@gmail.comDR.T.V.RAO MD 44
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