0
A BEGINNING TO
MEDICAL
MICROBIOLOGY
Dr.T.V.Rao MD
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
What is Microbiology?
Microbes, or microorganisms are minute living
things that are usually unable to be viewed with the
n...
Microbiology defined as the study
of organisms too small to be seen with
the naked eye. These organisms include
viruses, b...
What is Microbiology
•Study of different
Microorganisms
•Can be
Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
Fungus
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4
Microbial World is
Fascinating
•Viruses
•Bacteria (Eubacteria) and
Archaeabacteria
•Fungi (Yeasts and Molds)
•Protozoa
•Mi...
What are
Microorganisms
•Microbes are
products of
evolution, Consequ
ence of Natural
selection operating
upon vast array o...
History of Microbiology
1673-1723, Antoni
van Leeuwenhoek
(Dutch) described
live microorganisms
that he observed in
teeth ...
Scientific History of Microbiology
The Germ Theory of Disease
1835: Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm
disease was caused by...
The Germ Theory of Disease
• 1860s: Joseph Lister used a
chemical disinfectant to prevent
surgical wound infections after
...
Pioneers of
Microbiology
•Robert Hooke, UK (1665)
•Proposed the Cell Theory
•Observed cork with crude microscope
•All livi...
Pioneers of
Microbiology
• Antoni van
Leeuwenhoek, DE (1673)
• First observed live
microorganisms (animalcules)
• Schleide...
Pioneers of
Microbiology
•Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), Chemist
•Fermentation (1857)
•Pasteurization: heat liquid enough to k...
Pioneers of
Microbiology
•Joseph Lister, UK (1867)
•Used phenol (carbolic acid) to disinfect wounds
•First aseptic techniq...
History of microbiology
 Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723): was the first
microbiologist and the first person to observe ...
Joseph Lister
•1860s: Joseph Lister
used a chemical
disinfectant to
prevent surgical
wound infections
after looking at
Pas...
Learning Objectives
•To teach the basic
immunological
principles
•Immunological
methods for the
study
immunological
disord...
We all should be Familiar
with
•General
Microbiology
•Bacteriology
•Mycology
•Virology
•Immunology
•Parasitology
Dr.T.V.Ra...
Microbes in Our
Lives
•Microorganisms
are organisms that
are too small to be
seen with the
unaided eye.
•“Germ” refers to ...
Microbes make the
Universe
•There are > 5 x 1030
types Microbes in
the world
•Humans have
intimate relation
with Microbes ...
Classification of
Microorganisms
•Three domains
•Bacteria
•Archaea
•Eukarya
•Protists
•Fungi
•Plants
•Animals
Dr.T.V.Rao M...
Naming and Classifying
Microorganisms
•Carolus Linnaeus (1735)
established the system
of scientific
nomenclature.
•Each or...
Edward Jenner
Vaccinating a
Child
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
Louis Pasteur
1922 - 1995
•Contributed best in
Microbiology
•Sterilization
•Hot Air oven
•Autoclave
•Anthrax vaccine
•Rabi...
Louis Pasteur
•Vacca – Cow cow pox
virus are given for the
prevention of Small Pox
•Louis Pasteur
considered the father
of...
Robert Koch
1843 - 1910
•A German scientist
•Formulated the
Bacteriological
techniques
•Staining Methods
•Discovered the
M...
Koch's Postulates
1. Microorganisms are isolated from dead animals
2. Microorganisms are grown in pure culture
2b. Microor...
Koch’s
Postulates
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27
Figure 14.3, steps 1–2
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28
Figure 14.3, steps 3–4
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29
Figure 14.3, step 5
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30
Exceptions to Koch’s
Postulates
• Microorganisms that are
unable to be cultured on
artificial media
• (example: Treponema
...
Biological Principles illustrated by
Microbiology
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32
Microbiology
Biochemistry
Molecular
Biology
Genetics
Microorganisms
Non-cellular organism
Prokaryotes
Eukaryotes
Others Prions Viroid
Fungi
Bacterium
Virus
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33
Organisms included in the study
of Microbiology
1. Bacteria
2. Protozoans
3. Algae
4. Parasites
5. Yeasts and Molds
Fungi
...
How to Study Medical
Microbiology?
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 35
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Bacteriology
Virology
Mycology
•Biologica...
Basic Classification of
Microorganism
•Eukaryotes
Large in size
Mitochondria Present
Membrane bound Nucleus
Eg Algae
Proto...
Prokaryotic Cell
Structure
Prokaryotic cells are about 10 times smaller
than eukaryotic cells. A typical Escherichia coli
...
Bacteria
•Prokaryotes
•Peptidoglycan cell
walls
•Binary fission
•For energy, use
organic
chemicals, inorganic
chemicals, o...
Bacterial Cell Wall
The structure of bacterial cell walls is quite different from
the relatively simple structure of eukar...
Figure 1-9: Gram
StainDr.T.V.Rao MD 40
Figure 3-1. Various forms of bacteria, including single
cocci, diplococci, tetrads, octads, streptococci, staphylococci, s...
Capsule stain. The capsule stain is an example of a negative staining technique. The
bacterial cells and the background st...
. Flagellar arrangement. The four basic types of flagellar arrangement on bacteria:
peritrichous, flagella all over the su...
Binary fission. Note that DNA replication must occur before the actual
splitting (fission) of the parent cell.
Dr.T.V.Rao ...
Pathogenic Prokaryotes
Mycoplasma
Bacteria
Spirochetes
Rickettsia
Chlamydiae
Actinomyces
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 45
Viruses
Viruses lack many of the attributes of cells, including the ability to
replicate. Only when it infects a cell does...
Discovery of Virus
•Iwanovski
•a Russian
chemist, 1892
•Tobacco Mosaic
Disease
•Beijerinck confirmed
•Walter Reed, USA
•Ye...
Viruses
•A virus is not a cell!
•Viruses are replicated
only when they are in a
living host cell
•Consist of DNA or RNA
co...
What are Viruses
• Viruses Dependent on
Host cells for necessary
functions and
Multiplication
•Intracellular
parasites
•Co...
Prion
A kind of infectious protein that can resist the digestion of proteinase
The cellular form of the prion protein (PrP...
Viroid
Small, single-stranded, covalently closed circular RNA molecules
existing as highly base-paired
rod-like structures...
1928: Alexander
Fleming discovered
the first antibiotic.
He observed that
Penicillium fungus
made an antibiotic,
penicilli...
Discovery of
Antibiotics• Alexander Fleming (1881-1955)
Sir Alexander Fleming Ernst Boris Chain Sir Howard Walter Florey
D...
Microbes are used to
produce Antibiotics
Penicillin
Penicillin
•Mold
• Pencillium notatum
•1928 Alexander Fleming
Dr.T.V.R...
How to Study Medical
Microbiology?
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 55
Fundamentals of Microbiology
Bacteriology
Virology
Mycology
•Biologica...
Bacteria - what comes to
mind?
•Diseases
•Infections
•Epidemics
•Food Spoilage
•Only 1% of all known bacteria cause
human ...
•Staphylococcus aureus
•Staphylococcus
epidermidis
•Streptococcus
pneumonia
•Vibrio cholera
•Rhodospirillium rubrum
•Bacil...
Microbes Benefit Humans
1.Bacteria are primary decomposers -
recycle nutrients back into the
environment (sewage treatment...
Microbes are also
capable of causing
many diseases
Pneumonia Whooping Cough
Botulism Typhoid Fever Measles
Cholera Scarlet...
Progress of Hepatitis
Viruses
• 1947, concepts of hepatitis A and serum-
transmitted hepatitis
• 1970, Dane particle was o...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus & AIDS
•1981, the first cases
report about AIDS
•1983, HIV was isolated
•1990s, HAART (cockta...
HIV – AIDS•Luc Montaigner
and Robert Gallo
announce their
discovery of the
immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)
believed to cause
...
Parasitology
•Parasitology is the study of
parasites .and their
interactions with their
hosts. The science of
parasitology...
Taxonomic classification of
parasitic organisms
•The classification of parasites is controversial -
there is no universall...
What Are Fungi
•Considerable variation in
size.
•Internal Molecular
system
•Well defined cell wall
composed of
polysacchar...
Zoonotic Diseases
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 66
How Humans Respond to
Infections
Study of Immunology
•In spite of Infection
we survive with our
ability to protect
with a ...
Modern Developments in
Microbiology
•Immunology is the study of
immunity. Vaccines and
interferons are being
investigated ...
Pathogenesis
Immunity
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 69
Why we should learn
Medical Microbiology
•We study the
Microbes which
infects and causes
Diseases
•We study their
Diagnosi...
Modern Developments in
Microbiology
• Immunology is the study of
immunity. Vaccines and
interferons are being investigated...
Must learn
•Natural History of the Disease
•Etiology
•Pathogenesis
•Laboratory Diagnosis
•Treatment and Control and
Preven...
We must be familiar with
Knowledge On ….
•Names of the Microbes
•Names of the diseases
•Mode of transmission
•Pathogenic M...
The Birth of Modern
Chemotherapy
•Treatment with chemicals is chemotherapy.
•Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infecti...
Commonly Used
Antibiotics
•Penicillin
•Cephalosporins,
•Tetracycline's
•Quinolones
•Vancomycin
•Chloramphenicol
•Drugs for...
Vaccines Produce Immunity
and Prevents Several
Infections
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 76
Commonly used
Vaccines
•Small pox eradicated
•BCG,
•MMR
•Polio oral Vaccine
•Triple Antigen
•Hepatitis B Vaccine
Dr.T.V.Ra...
Course objectives
•To provide the student with the
basic knowledge of micro-organisms
in general
•To study the main charac...
What Skills You should
Develop
Able to identify the Infective
Conditions
Timely Diagnosis
Choosing appropriate tests
Selec...
Protect Yourself from
Infections
•Certain infections
can infect you
•Eg HIV, Hepatitis
B
infections,Tubercu
losis,Many
res...
Working In the Hospital
•Hospitals are not safe
•Follow Universal
precaution protect
yourself as our
patients can be
sourc...
Medical Microbiology advanced Beyond
our Imagination
Can we handle it ???
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 82
Major Selected Nobel Prizes in Physiology
or Medicine
* The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Dr.T.V.Rao MD 83
...
Students requirement for the
course
•Timetable
•Literature – books, etc
•Practical manual
•Laboratory coat
•Attendance and...
•The Programme Created by
Dr.T.V.Rao MD for medical and
paramedical Students in the
Developing World
•Email
•doctortvrao@g...
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  1. 1. A BEGINNING TO MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY Dr.T.V.Rao MD Dr.T.V.Rao MD 1
  2. 2. What is Microbiology? Microbes, or microorganisms are minute living things that are usually unable to be viewed with the naked eye. What are some examples of microbes? Bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, viruses are examples! Some are pathogenic Many are beneficial as Commensal bacteria Dr.T.V.Rao MD 2
  3. 3. Microbiology defined as the study of organisms too small to be seen with the naked eye. These organisms include viruses, bacteria, algae, fungi, and protozoa. Microbiologists are concerned with characteristics and functions such as morphology, cytology, physiology, ecolog y, taxonomy, genetics, and molecular biology. Defining Microbiology Dr.T.V.Rao MD 3
  4. 4. What is Microbiology •Study of different Microorganisms •Can be Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungus Dr.T.V.Rao MD 4
  5. 5. Microbial World is Fascinating •Viruses •Bacteria (Eubacteria) and Archaeabacteria •Fungi (Yeasts and Molds) •Protozoa •Microscopic Algae Dr.T.V.Rao MD 5
  6. 6. What are Microorganisms •Microbes are products of evolution, Consequ ence of Natural selection operating upon vast array of genetically diverse organisms Dr.T.V.Rao MD 6
  7. 7. History of Microbiology 1673-1723, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek (Dutch) described live microorganisms that he observed in teeth scrapings, rain water, and peppercorn infusions. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 7
  8. 8. Scientific History of Microbiology The Germ Theory of Disease 1835: Agostino Bassi showed a silkworm disease was caused by a fungus. 1865: Pasteur believed that another silkworm disease was caused by a protozoan. 1840s: Ignaz Semmelweis advocated handwashing to prevent transmission of puerperal fever from one OB patient to another. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 8
  9. 9. The Germ Theory of Disease • 1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteur’s work showing microbes are in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 9
  10. 10. Pioneers of Microbiology •Robert Hooke, UK (1665) •Proposed the Cell Theory •Observed cork with crude microscope •All living things are composed of cells •Spontaneous generation •Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from non-living matter •Francesco Redi, IT (1668) •Redi’s experiments first to dispprove S.G.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 10
  11. 11. Pioneers of Microbiology • Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, DE (1673) • First observed live microorganisms (animalcules) • Schleiden and Schwann, DE • Formulated Cell Theory: cells are the fundamental units of life and carry out all the basic functions of living things • Pasteur, FR and Tyndall, UK (1861) • Finally disproved S.G. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 11
  12. 12. Pioneers of Microbiology •Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), Chemist •Fermentation (1857) •Pasteurization: heat liquid enough to kill spoilage bacteria (1864) •Vaccine development – rabies •Proposed the germ theory of disease •Proposed aseptic techniques (prevent contamination by unwanted microbes) •Director of Pasteur Institute, Paris (1894) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 12
  13. 13. Pioneers of Microbiology •Joseph Lister, UK (1867) •Used phenol (carbolic acid) to disinfect wounds •First aseptic technique in surgery •Robert Koch, DE (1876) •Postulates – Germ theory (1876) •Identified microbes that caused anthrax (1876), tuberculosis (1882) and cholera (1883) •Developed microbiological media & streak plates for pure culture (1881) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 13
  14. 14. History of microbiology  Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723): was the first microbiologist and the first person to observe bacteria using a single-lens microscope of his own design.  Louis Pasteur (1822–1895): Pasteur developed a process (today known as pasteurization) to kill microbes. pasteurization is accomplished by heating liquids to 63 to 65 C for 30 minutes or to 73 to 75 C for 15 seconds.  Robert Koch (1843–1910): was a pioneer in medical microbiology and worked in cholera, anthrax and tuberculosis. He was awarded a Nobel prize in 1905 (Koch's postulates) he set out criteria to test.  Alexander Fleming (1929): Discovered penicillin. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 14
  15. 15. Joseph Lister •1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant to prevent surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteur’s work showing microbes are in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 15
  16. 16. Learning Objectives •To teach the basic immunological principles •Immunological methods for the study immunological disorders Dr.T.V.Rao MD 16
  17. 17. We all should be Familiar with •General Microbiology •Bacteriology •Mycology •Virology •Immunology •Parasitology Dr.T.V.Rao MD 17
  18. 18. Microbes in Our Lives •Microorganisms are organisms that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. •“Germ” refers to a rapidly growing cell. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 18
  19. 19. Microbes make the Universe •There are > 5 x 1030 types Microbes in the world •Humans have intimate relation with Microbes > 90% of the cells in our Body are Microbes Dr.T.V.Rao MD 19
  20. 20. Classification of Microorganisms •Three domains •Bacteria •Archaea •Eukarya •Protists •Fungi •Plants •Animals Dr.T.V.Rao MD 20
  21. 21. Naming and Classifying Microorganisms •Carolus Linnaeus (1735) established the system of scientific nomenclature. •Each organism has two names: the genus and specific epithet. •Are italicized or underlined. The genus is capitalized and the specific epithet is lower case.Dr.T.V.Rao MD 21
  22. 22. Edward Jenner Vaccinating a Child Dr.T.V.Rao MD 22
  23. 23. Louis Pasteur 1922 - 1995 •Contributed best in Microbiology •Sterilization •Hot Air oven •Autoclave •Anthrax vaccine •Rabies vaccine •Built the Pasteur Institute Dr.T.V.Rao MD 23
  24. 24. Louis Pasteur •Vacca – Cow cow pox virus are given for the prevention of Small Pox •Louis Pasteur considered the father of Modern Microbiology •Pasteur coined the word Vaccine Dr.T.V.Rao MD 24
  25. 25. Robert Koch 1843 - 1910 •A German scientist •Formulated the Bacteriological techniques •Staining Methods •Discovered the Mycobacterium and Vibrio cholera Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25
  26. 26. Koch's Postulates 1. Microorganisms are isolated from dead animals 2. Microorganisms are grown in pure culture 2b. Microorganisms are identified 3. Microorganisms are injected into healthy animals 4. Disease is reproduced in second animal 5. Microorganisms are grown in pure culture 5b. Identification of identical microorganism. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 26
  27. 27. Koch’s Postulates Dr.T.V.Rao MD 27
  28. 28. Figure 14.3, steps 1–2 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 28
  29. 29. Figure 14.3, steps 3–4 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 29
  30. 30. Figure 14.3, step 5 Dr.T.V.Rao MD 30
  31. 31. Exceptions to Koch’s Postulates • Microorganisms that are unable to be cultured on artificial media • (example: Treponema pallidum) • More organism work in synergy to cause a disease. • Symptoms and diseases can be causes by any one of several microbes. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 31
  32. 32. Biological Principles illustrated by Microbiology Dr.T.V.Rao MD 32 Microbiology Biochemistry Molecular Biology Genetics
  33. 33. Microorganisms Non-cellular organism Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Others Prions Viroid Fungi Bacterium Virus Dr.T.V.Rao MD 33
  34. 34. Organisms included in the study of Microbiology 1. Bacteria 2. Protozoans 3. Algae 4. Parasites 5. Yeasts and Molds Fungi 6. Viruses Bacteriology Protozoology Phycology Parasitology Mycology Virology Dr.T.V.Rao MD 34
  35. 35. How to Study Medical Microbiology? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 35 Fundamentals of Microbiology Bacteriology Virology Mycology •Biological Properties •Morphology, identification, •Antigenic structure •Pathogenesis and Pathology •Clinical findings •Diagnostic Laboratory Tests •Immunity •Treatment & Prevention •Epidemiology & Control
  36. 36. Basic Classification of Microorganism •Eukaryotes Large in size Mitochondria Present Membrane bound Nucleus Eg Algae Protozoa Fungi Slime Moulds Contains all enzymes for production of metabolic energy Prokaryotes Small in Size DNA not separated from cytoplasm Mitochondria absent Eg Bacteria Contains all enzymes like Eukaryotes Dr.T.V.Rao MD 36
  37. 37. Prokaryotic Cell Structure Prokaryotic cells are about 10 times smaller than eukaryotic cells. A typical Escherichia coli cell is about 1 μm wide and 2 to 3 μm long. Structurally, prokaryotes are very simple cells when compared with eukaryotic cells, and yet they are able to perform the necessary processes of life. Reproduction of prokaryotic cells is by binary fission, the simple division of one cell into two cells, after DNA replication andDr.T.V.Rao MD 37
  38. 38. Bacteria •Prokaryotes •Peptidoglycan cell walls •Binary fission •For energy, use organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, or photosynthesis Dr.T.V.Rao MD 38
  39. 39. Bacterial Cell Wall The structure of bacterial cell walls is quite different from the relatively simple structure of eukaryotic cell walls, although they serve the same functions, providing rigidity, strength, and protection. The main constituent of most bacterial cell walls is a complex macromolecular polymer known as peptidoglycan (murein), consisting of many polysaccharide chains linked together by small peptide (protein) chains. Peptidoglycan is only found in bacteria. The thickness of the cell wall and its exact composition vary with the species of bacteria. The cell walls of “Gram-positive bacteria” have a thick layer of peptidoglycan combined with teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid molecules. The cell walls of “Gram-negative bacteria” have a much thinner layer of peptidoglycan, but this layer is covered with a complex layer of lipid macromolecules, usually referred to as bacteria capsule. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 39
  40. 40. Figure 1-9: Gram StainDr.T.V.Rao MD 40
  41. 41. Figure 3-1. Various forms of bacteria, including single cocci, diplococci, tetrads, octads, streptococci, staphylococci, single bacilli, diplobacilli, streptobacilli, branching bacilli, loosely coiled spirochetes, and tightly coiled spirochetes. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 41
  42. 42. Capsule stain. The capsule stain is an example of a negative staining technique. The bacterial cells and the background stain, but the capsules do not. The capsules are seen as unstained “halos” around the bacterial cells. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 42
  43. 43. . Flagellar arrangement. The four basic types of flagellar arrangement on bacteria: peritrichous, flagella all over the surface; lophotrichous, a tuft of flagella at one end; amphitrichous, one or more flagella at each end; monotrichous, one flagellum. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 43
  44. 44. Binary fission. Note that DNA replication must occur before the actual splitting (fission) of the parent cell. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 44
  45. 45. Pathogenic Prokaryotes Mycoplasma Bacteria Spirochetes Rickettsia Chlamydiae Actinomyces Dr.T.V.Rao MD 45
  46. 46. Viruses Viruses lack many of the attributes of cells, including the ability to replicate. Only when it infects a cell does a virus acquire the key attribute of a living system: reproduction A viral particle consists of a nucleic acid molecule, either DNA or RNA, enclosed in a protein coat, or capsid Viruses are known to infect all cells, including microbial cells. Host-virus interactions tend to be highly specific Dr.T.V.Rao MD 46
  47. 47. Discovery of Virus •Iwanovski •a Russian chemist, 1892 •Tobacco Mosaic Disease •Beijerinck confirmed •Walter Reed, USA •Yellow fever virus •Ist human virus Dr.T.V.Rao MD 47 Tobacco mosaic disease, caused by the tobacco mosaic virus
  48. 48. Viruses •A virus is not a cell! •Viruses are replicated only when they are in a living host cell •Consist of DNA or RNA core •Core is surrounded by a protein coat •Coat may be enclosed in a lipid envelope Dr.T.V.Rao MD 48
  49. 49. What are Viruses • Viruses Dependent on Host cells for necessary functions and Multiplication •Intracellular parasites •Contain either DNA or RNA never both. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 49
  50. 50. Prion A kind of infectious protein that can resist the digestion of proteinase The cellular form of the prion protein (PrPc) is encoded by the host’s chromosomal DNA An abnormal isoform of this protein (PrPres) is the only known component of the prion and is associated with transmissibility. Kuru, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann- Sträussler-Scheinker disease, fatal familial insomnia , and Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 50
  51. 51. Viroid Small, single-stranded, covalently closed circular RNA molecules existing as highly base-paired rod-like structures; they do not possess capsids They range in size from 246 to 375 nucleotides in length. The extracellular form of the viroid is naked RNA—there is no capsid of any kind The RNA molecule contains no protein-encoding genes, and the viroid is therefore totally dependent on host functions for its replication The RNAs of viroids have been shown to contain inverted repeated base sequences at their 3' and 5' ends, a characteristic of transposable elements and retroviruses. Thus, it is likely that they have evolved from transposable elements or retroviruses by the deletion of internal sequences Dr.T.V.Rao MD 51
  52. 52. 1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic. He observed that Penicillium fungus made an antibiotic, penicillin, that killed S. aureus. 1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced. Scientific era of Antibiotics Dr.T.V.Rao MD 52
  53. 53. Discovery of Antibiotics• Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) Sir Alexander Fleming Ernst Boris Chain Sir Howard Walter Florey Dr.T.V.Rao MD 53
  54. 54. Microbes are used to produce Antibiotics Penicillin Penicillin •Mold • Pencillium notatum •1928 Alexander Fleming Dr.T.V.Rao MD 54
  55. 55. How to Study Medical Microbiology? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 55 Fundamentals of Microbiology Bacteriology Virology Mycology •Biological Properties •Morphology, identification, •Antigenic structure •Pathogenesis and Pathology •Clinical findings •Diagnostic Laboratory Tests •Immunity •Treatment & Prevention •Epidemiology & Control
  56. 56. Bacteria - what comes to mind? •Diseases •Infections •Epidemics •Food Spoilage •Only 1% of all known bacteria cause human diseases •About 4% of all known bacteria cause plant diseases •95% of known bacteria are non-pathogens Dr.T.V.Rao MD 56
  57. 57. •Staphylococcus aureus •Staphylococcus epidermidis •Streptococcus pneumonia •Vibrio cholera •Rhodospirillium rubrum •Bacillus subtilis •Micrococcus luteus •Escherichia coli •Bacillus anthrasis •Salmonella enteridis •Streptococcus pyogenes •Steptococcus lactis •Streptococcus faecalis •Erlichia canis •Campylobacter jujuni •Helicobacter pylori •Enterobacter aerogenes Dr.T.V.Rao MD 57
  58. 58. Microbes Benefit Humans 1.Bacteria are primary decomposers - recycle nutrients back into the environment (sewage treatment plants) 2. Microbes produce various food products •cheese, pickles, sauerkraut, green olives •yogurt, soy sauce, vinegar, bread •Beer, Wine, Alcohol Dr.T.V.Rao MD 58
  59. 59. Microbes are also capable of causing many diseases Pneumonia Whooping Cough Botulism Typhoid Fever Measles Cholera Scarlet Fever Mumps Syphilis Gonorrhea Herpes 1 Chlamydia Tuberculosis Herpes 2 Meningitis Tetanus RMSV Strep Throat Lyme Disease AIDS Black Plague Diarrhea Gangrene Dr.T.V.Rao MD 59
  60. 60. Progress of Hepatitis Viruses • 1947, concepts of hepatitis A and serum- transmitted hepatitis • 1970, Dane particle was observed (hepatitis B virus) • 1973, hepatitis A virus • 1978, non-A, non-B hepatitis viruses (NANBV) • 1989, hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis E virus (HEV) • 1990-1994, non A-E hepatitis viruses • 1995, hepatitis G virus (HGV) • 1997, TT virus (TTV) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 60
  61. 61. Human Immunodeficiency Virus & AIDS •1981, the first cases report about AIDS •1983, HIV was isolated •1990s, HAART (cocktail therapy) was employed •So far, no effective vaccine available Dr.T.V.Rao MD 61
  62. 62. HIV – AIDS•Luc Montaigner and Robert Gallo announce their discovery of the immunodeficiency virus (HIV) believed to cause AIDS. (American Society for Microbiology Archives)Dr.T.V.Rao MD 62
  63. 63. Parasitology •Parasitology is the study of parasites .and their interactions with their hosts. The science of parasitology has a long history and has its roots in zoology, with its emphasis on the identification and classification of parasites and of life cycles, Dr.T.V.Rao MD 63
  64. 64. Taxonomic classification of parasitic organisms •The classification of parasites is controversial - there is no universally accepted system •Parasites form part of the animal kingdom which comprises some 800,000 identified species categorised into 33 phyla (but it is estimated that there may be ~10m species in total) •The parasitic organisms that are of importance for human health are eukaryotes - they have a well defined chromosome in a nuclear membrane (as opposed to prokaryotes which have no nuclear membrane, e.g. bacteria) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 64
  65. 65. What Are Fungi •Considerable variation in size. •Internal Molecular system •Well defined cell wall composed of polysaccharides •Gaining importance in Immunosupressed patients and increased use of Antibiotics Dr.T.V.Rao MD 65
  66. 66. Zoonotic Diseases Dr.T.V.Rao MD 66
  67. 67. How Humans Respond to Infections Study of Immunology •In spite of Infection we survive with our ability to protect with a system inherent in our Body •Called the Immune response comprises the Medical Immunology Dr.T.V.Rao MD 67
  68. 68. Modern Developments in Microbiology •Immunology is the study of immunity. Vaccines and interferons are being investigated to prevent and cure viral diseases. •The use of immunology to identify some bacteria according to serotypes (variants within a species) was proposed by Rebecca Lancefield in 1933. Figure 1.4 (3 of 3) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 68
  69. 69. Pathogenesis Immunity Dr.T.V.Rao MD 69
  70. 70. Why we should learn Medical Microbiology •We study the Microbes which infects and causes Diseases •We study their Diagnosis Prevention Treatment Dr.T.V.Rao MD 70
  71. 71. Modern Developments in Microbiology • Immunology is the study of immunity. Vaccines and interferons are being investigated to prevent and cure viral diseases. • The use of immunology to identify some bacteria according to serotypes (variants within a species) was proposed by Rebecca Lancefield in 1933. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 71
  72. 72. Must learn •Natural History of the Disease •Etiology •Pathogenesis •Laboratory Diagnosis •Treatment and Control and Prevention Dr.T.V.Rao MD 72
  73. 73. We must be familiar with Knowledge On …. •Names of the Microbes •Names of the diseases •Mode of transmission •Pathogenic Microbes •Commensal Organisms •Identify wether Bacteria, Virus, Parasite or Fungi •Treating and Preventing Dr.T.V.Rao MD 73
  74. 74. The Birth of Modern Chemotherapy •Treatment with chemicals is chemotherapy. •Chemotherapeutic agents used to treat infectious disease can be synthetic drugs or antibiotics. •Antibiotics are chemicals produced by bacteria and fungi that inhibit or kill other microbes. •Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat malaria. •1910: Paul Ehrlich developed a synthetic arsenic drug, salvarsan, to treat syphilis. •1930s: Sulfonamides were synthesized. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 74
  75. 75. Commonly Used Antibiotics •Penicillin •Cephalosporins, •Tetracycline's •Quinolones •Vancomycin •Chloramphenicol •Drugs for Tuberculosis eg Streptomycin Dr.T.V.Rao MD 75
  76. 76. Vaccines Produce Immunity and Prevents Several Infections Dr.T.V.Rao MD 76
  77. 77. Commonly used Vaccines •Small pox eradicated •BCG, •MMR •Polio oral Vaccine •Triple Antigen •Hepatitis B Vaccine Dr.T.V.Rao MD 77
  78. 78. Course objectives •To provide the student with the basic knowledge of micro-organisms in general •To study the main characteristics of Microbes of medical importance •To teach aseptic techniques •To provide an understanding of antimicrobial agents Dr.T.V.Rao MD 78
  79. 79. What Skills You should Develop Able to identify the Infective Conditions Timely Diagnosis Choosing appropriate tests Selection of Antibiotics Implement measures to prevent diseases in patients and Society Dr.T.V.Rao MD 79
  80. 80. Protect Yourself from Infections •Certain infections can infect you •Eg HIV, Hepatitis B infections,Tubercu losis,Many respiratory infections Dr.T.V.Rao MD 80
  81. 81. Working In the Hospital •Hospitals are not safe •Follow Universal precaution protect yourself as our patients can be source of Infection if you don't handle the matters with scientific knowledge. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 81
  82. 82. Medical Microbiology advanced Beyond our Imagination Can we handle it ??? Dr.T.V.Rao MD 82
  83. 83. Major Selected Nobel Prizes in Physiology or Medicine * The first Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. Dr.T.V.Rao MD 83 1901* von Behring Diphtheria antitoxin 1902 Ross Malaria transmission 1905 Koch TB bacterium 1908 Metchnikoff Phagocytes 1945 Fleming, Chain, Florey Penicillin 1952 Waksman Streptomycin 1969 Delbrück, Hershey, Luria Viral replication 1987 Tonegawa Antibody genetics 1997 Prusiner Prions
  84. 84. Students requirement for the course •Timetable •Literature – books, etc •Practical manual •Laboratory coat •Attendance and active participation •Seek advice timely Dr.T.V.Rao MD 84
  85. 85. •The Programme Created by Dr.T.V.Rao MD for medical and paramedical Students in the Developing World •Email •doctortvrao@gmail.com Dr.T.V.Rao MD 85
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