CLINICAL FINDINGS U SHOULD KNOW MUST              Term                                  Definitions"Bamboo spine" on x-ray...
Antineutrophil antibodies -- CF           VasculitisAntiplatelet antibodies -- CF             Idiopathic thrombocytopenic ...
carcinoma is the most common)Breast tumor (benign) -- MC            FibroadenomaBrutons disease -- CF                 X-li...
Congenital cardiac anomaly -- MC           VSDConstrictive pericarditis -- MC            TuberculosisContinuous machinery ...
Superior trunk (C5–C6) brachial plexus injuryErb-Duchenne palsy -- CF                                         ("waiters ti...
hemorrhagic urticaria and URIsHepatic cirrhosis -- MF cause         EtOH                                      Cirrhotic li...
Koplik spots -- CF                        MeaslesKrukenberg tumor -- CF                    Gastric adenocarcinoma with ova...
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss --                                          Alports syndromeCFNephrotic syndrome -- M...
Prolactinoma (2nd––somatotropic "acidophilic"Pituitary tumor -- MC                                         adenoma)Plummer...
PTH, ACTH)Rhomboid crystals, positively                                         Pseudogoutbirefringent -- CFRib notching -...
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-                                          Aortic valve stenosisdecrescendo) -- CFt(14;...
Malabsorption syndrome caused by TropherymaWhipples disease -- CF                                     whippeliiWilsons dis...
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High yield points - mci screening test


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Global institute of medical sciences

Dr.G.Bhanu Prakash

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High yield points - mci screening test

  1. 1. www.gims-org.com
  2. 2. CLINICAL FINDINGS U SHOULD KNOW MUST Term Definitions"Bamboo spine" on x-ray -- CF Ankylosing spondylitis"Blue bloater" -- CF Chronic bronchitis Hemorrhage causes brown color of osteolytic cysts:"Brown tumor" of bone -- CF 1. Hyperparathyroidism; 2. Osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghausens disease)"Chocolate cysts" -- CF Endometriosis (frequently involves both ovaries)"Lumpy-bumpy" appearance of Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritisglomeruli on immunofluorescence -- CF"Machine-like" murmur -- MF cause PDA"Orphan Annie" nuclei -- CF Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid Emphysema (centroacinar [smoking], panacinar [α1-"Pink puffer" -- CF antitrypsin deficiency])"Smudge cell" -- CF CLL"Strawberry tongue" -- CF Scarlet fever"Tram-track" appearance on LM -- CF Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis"Wire loop" appearance on LM -- CF Lupus nephropathy Berry aneurysm––associated with adult polycystic"Worst headache of my life" -- CF kidney diseaseActinic keratosis -- CF Often precedes squamous cell carcinoma Autoimmune (infection is the 2nd most commonAddisons -- MF cause cause)Addisons disease -- CF 1° adrenocortical deficiency Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia, precocious puberty,Albrights syndrome -- CF café-au-lait spots, short stature, young girls Guillain-Barré (incr protein in CSF with only modestAlbuminocytologic dissociation -- CF incr in cell count)Alports syndrome -- CF Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafnessAneurysm, dissecting -- MF cause HypertensionAnti–basement membrane antibodies -- Goodpastures syndromeCFAnticentromere antibodies -- CF Scleroderma (CREST)Anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies SLE (type III hypersensitivity)(ANA antibodies) -- CFAnti–epithelial cell antibodies -- CF Pemphigus vulgarisAntigliadin antibodies -- CF Celiac diseaseAntihistone antibodies -- CF Drug-induced SLEAnti-IgG antibodies -- CF Rheumatoid arthritisAntimitochondrial antibodies -- CF 1° biliary cirrhosis
  3. 3. Antineutrophil antibodies -- CF VasculitisAntiplatelet antibodies -- CF Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpuraAortic aneurysm, abdominal and Atherosclerosisdescending aorta -- MF causeAortic aneurysm, ascending -- MF cause3° syphilisArachnodactyly -- CF Marfans syndromeArgyll Robertson pupil -- CF NeurosyphilisArnold-Chiari malformation -- CF Cerebellar tonsillar herniationAschoff bodies -- CF Rheumatic feverAtrophy of the mammillary bodies -- CFWernickes encephalopathy Acute myelogenous leukemia (especially theAuer rods -- CF promyelocytic type)Autosplenectomy -- CF Sickle cell anemiaBabinskis sign -- CF UMN lesionBacteremia/pneumonia (IVDA) -- MC S. aureusBacteria associated with cancer -- MC H. pyloriBacteria found in GI tract -- MC Bacteroides (2nd most common is E. coli )Bacterial meningitis (adults) -- MF Streptococcus pneumoniaecauseBacterial meningitis (elderly) -- MF S. pneumoniaecauseBacterial meningitis (kids) -- MF cause S. pneumoniae or Neisseria meningitidisBacterial meningitis (newborns) -- MF Group B streptococcuscauseBakers cyst in popliteal fossa -- CF Rheumatoid arthritisBartters syndrome -- CF HyperreninemiaBasophilic stippling of RBCs -- CF Lead poisoningBeckers muscular dystrophy -- CF Defective dystrophin; less severe than DuchennesBells palsy -- CF LMN CN VII palsy Multiple myeloma (kappa or lambda Ig light chainsBence Jones proteins -- CF in urine), Waldenströms macroglobulinemia (IgM)Bergers disease -- CF IgA nephropathyBernard-Soulier disease -- CF Defect in platelet adhesionBilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis -- CF SarcoidosisBirbeck granules on EM -- CF Histiocytosis X (eosinophilic granuloma)Bloody tap on LP -- CF Subarachnoid hemorrhageBlue sclera -- CF Osteogenesis imperfectaBlue-domed cysts -- CF Fibrocystic change of the breastBoot-shaped heart on x-ray -- CF Tetralogy of Fallot; RVHBouchards nodes -- CF Osteoarthritis (PIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)Boutonnière deformity -- CF Rheumatoid arthritis Mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastomaBrain tumor (adults) -- MC multiforme) > meningioma > schwannomaBrain tumor (kids) -- MC Medulloblastoma (cerebellum)Brain tumor––supratentorial (kids) -- CraniopharyngiomaMCBranching rods in oral infection -- CF Actinomyces israelii Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the United States, 1Breast cancer -- MC in 9 women will develop breast cancer)Breast mass -- MC Fibrocystic change (in postmenopausal women,
  4. 4. carcinoma is the most common)Breast tumor (benign) -- MC FibroadenomaBrutons disease -- CF X-linked agammaglobulinemiaBudd-Chiari syndrome -- CF Posthepatic venous thrombosisBuergers disease -- CF Small/medium-artery vasculitisBug in debilitated, hospitalized Klebsiellapneumonia patient -- MC t8:14; associated with EBV; "starry sky" appearanceBurkitts lymphoma -- CF on histologyBurtons lines -- CF Lead poisoningCafé-au-lait spots on skin -- CF NeurofibromatosisCaisson disease -- CF Gas emboliCalf pseudohypertrophy -- CF Duchennes muscular dystrophyCall-Exner bodies -- CF Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovaryc-ANCA, p-ANCA -- CF Wegeners granulomatosis, microscopic polyangiitisCancer associated with AIDS -- MF Kaposis sarcomacauseCardiac 1° tumor (adults) -- MC Myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")Cardiac 1° tumor (kids) -- MC RhabdomyomaCardiac tumor (adults) -- MC MetsCardiomegaly with apical atrophy -- CF Chagas diseaseCardiomyopathy -- MC Dilated cardiomyopathyCerebriform nuclei -- CF Mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T-cell lymphoma)Chagas disease -- CF Trypanosome infectionChancre -- CF 1° syphilis (not painful)Chancroid -- CF Haemophilus ducreyi (painful) Multiple sclerosis (nystagmus, intention tremor,Charcots triad -- CF scanning speech), cholangitis (jaundice, RUQ pain, fever)Charcot-Leyden crystals -- CF Bronchial asthma (eosinophil membranes)Chédiak-Higashi disease -- CF Phagocyte deficiency Tay-Sachs, Niemann-Pick disease, central retinalCherry-red spot on macula -- CF artery occlusion respirations Central apnea in CHF and incrCheyne-Stokes -- CF intracranial pressure Down syndrome (associated with ALL, AlzheimersChromosomal disorder -- MC dementia, and endocardial cushion defects) Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk ofChronic arrhythmia -- MC emboli)Chronic atrophic gastritis -- CF Predisposition to gastric carcinomaChvosteks sign -- CF Hypocalcemia (facial muscle spasm upon tapping)Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure in utero-- CFClue cells -- CF Gardnerella vaginitisCodmans triangle on x-ray -- CF OsteosarcomaCold agglutinins -- CF Mycoplasma pneumoniae, infectious mononucleosisCold intolerance -- CF HypothyroidismCondylomata lata -- CF 2° syphilisCongenital adrenal hyperplasia -- MF 21-hydroxylase deficiencycause
  5. 5. Congenital cardiac anomaly -- MC VSDConstrictive pericarditis -- MC TuberculosisContinuous machinery murmur -- CF Patent ductus arteriosusCoris disease -- CF Debranching enzyme deficiencyCoronary artery involved in thrombosis LAD > RCA > LCA-- MCCotton-wool spots -- CF Chronic hypertensionCough, conjunctivitis, coryza + fever -- MeaslesCFCouncilman bodies -- CF Toxic or viral hepatitisCowdry type A bodies -- CF Herpes virusCrescents in Bowmans capsule -- CF Rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritisCretinism -- MF cause Iodine deficit/hypothyroidismCrigler-Najjar syndrome -- CF Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemiaCurlings ulcer -- CF Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burnsCurrant-jelly sputum -- CF KlebsiellaCurschmanns spirals -- CF Bronchial asthma (whorled mucous plugs) Corticosteroid therapy (2nd most common cause isCushings syndrome -- MF cause excess ACTH secretion by pituitary)Cushings ulcer -- CF Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels,Cyanosis (early; less common) -- MC truncus arteriosus VSD, ASD, PDA (close with indomethacin; openCyanosis (late; more common) -- MC with misoprostol)D-dimers -- CF DICDeath in CML -- MF cause Blast crisisDeath in SLE -- MF cause Lupus nephropathyDementia -- MF cause Alzheimers (2nd most common is multi-infarct)Demyelinating disease -- MC Multiple sclerosisDepigmentation of neurons substantia in Parkinsons disease (basal ganglia disorder––nigra -- CF rigidity, resting tremor, bradykinesia)Dermatitis, dementia, diarrhea -- CF Pellagra (niacin, vitamin B3 deficiency) Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications,DIC -- MF cause cancer, burn traumaDietary deficit -- MC IronDog or cat bite -- CF Pasteurella multocidaDonovan bodies -- CF Granuloma inguinaleDresslers syndrome -- CF Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (blackDubin-Johnson syndrome -- CF liver)Duchennes muscular dystrophy -- CF Deleted dystrophin gene (X-linked recessive) Osteoarthritis (polished, ivory-like appearance ofEburnation -- CF bone) Trisomy 18 associated with rocker-bottom feet, low-Edwards syndrome -- CF set ears, heart disease Late cyanosis shunt (uncorrected L -> R shuntEisenmengers complex -- CF becomes R -> L shunt)Ejection click -- MF cause Aortic/pulmonic stenosisElastic skin -- CF Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEpiglottitis -- MC Haemophilus influenzae type B
  6. 6. Superior trunk (C5–C6) brachial plexus injuryErb-Duchenne palsy -- CF ("waiters tip")Erythema chronicum migrans -- CF Lyme diseaseEsophageal cancer -- MC Squamous cell carcinomaFanconis syndrome -- CF Proximal tubular reabsorption defectFat, female, forty, and fertile -- CF Acute cholecystitisFatty liver -- CF AlcoholismFerruginous bodies -- CF AsbestosisFood poisoning -- MF cause S. aureusGardners syndrome -- CF Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumorsGauchers disease -- CF Glucocerebrosidase deficiencyGene involved in cancer -- MC p53 tumor suppressor geneGhon focus -- CF 1° TBGilberts syndrome -- CF Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemiaGlanzmanns thrombasthenia -- CF Defect in platelet aggregationGlomerulonephritis (adults) -- MF cause IgA nephropathy (Bergers disease) Autoantibodies against alveolar and glomerularGoodpastures syndrome -- CF basement membrane proteins Duchennes (use of patients arms to help legs pickGowers maneuver -- CF self off the floor) Caucasians (fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies, mucousGroup affected by cystic fibrosis -- MC plugs/lung infections)Guillain-Barré syndrome -- CF Idiopathic polyneuritisGynecologic malignancy -- MC Endometrial carcinomaHair-on-end (crew-cut) appearance on B-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia (extramedullaryx-ray -- CF hematopoiesis)Diabetes insipidus + exophthalmos + Hand-Schüller-christian diseaselesions of skull -- CFHand-Schüller-christian disease -- CF Chronic progressive histiocytosisHbF -- CF Thalassemia majorHbS -- CF Sickle cell anemia Choriocarcinoma, hydatidiform mole (occurs withhCG elevated -- CF and without embryo)Heart murmur -- MC Mitral valve prolapseHeart valve (rheumatic fever) -- MC Mitral valve (aortic is 2nd)Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis -- MitralMCHeart valve in bacterial endocarditis in TricuspidIVDA -- MCHeberdens nodes -- CF Osteoarthritis (DIP swelling 2° to osteophytes)Heinz bodies -- CF G6PD deficiency Enterobius vermicularis (Ascaris lumbricoides is 2ndHelminth infection (U.S.) -- MC most common) Rupture of middle meningeal artery (arterialHematoma––epidural -- MF cause bleeding is fast) Rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleedingHematoma––subdural -- MF cause is slow) Multiple blood transfusions (can result in CHF andHemochromatosis -- MF cause incr risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)Henoch-Schönlein purpura -- CF Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with
  7. 7. hemorrhagic urticaria and URIsHepatic cirrhosis -- MF cause EtOH Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B andHepatocellular carcinoma -- MF cause C)Hereditary bleeding disorder -- MC von WillebrandsHeterophil antibodies -- CF Infectious mononucleosis (EBV)High-output cardiac failure (dilated Wet beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)cardiomyopathy) -- CFHLA-B27 -- CF Reiters syndrome, ankylosing spondylitis DM type 1 (caused by autoimmune destruction of BHLA-DR3 or -DR4 -- CF cells)Holosystolic murmur -- MF cause VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitationHomer Wright rosettes -- CF NeuroblastomaHoneycomb lung on x-ray -- CF Interstitial fibrosisHorners syndrome -- CF Ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosisHowell-Jolly bodies -- CF Splenectomy (or nonfunctional spleen)Huntingtons disease -- CF Caudate degeneration (autosomal dominant)Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + Klüver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)hyperorality + hyperdocility -- CFHyperpigmentation of skin -- CF 1° adrenal insufficiency (Addisons disease)Hypersegmented neutrophils -- CF Macrocytic anemiaHypertension + hypokalemia -- CF Conns syndromeHypertension, 2° -- MF cause Renal diseaseHypochromic microcytosis -- CF Iron deficiency anemia, lead poisoningHypoparathyroidism -- MF cause ThyroidectomyHypopituitarism -- MF cause Adenoma Gout, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, myeloproliferativeIncreased uric acid levels -- CF disorders, loop and thiazide diureticsIncreased α-fetoprotein in amniotic Anencephaly, spina bifida (neural tube defects)fluid/maternal serum -- CFInfection in blood transfusion -- MF Hepatitis CcauseInfection in burn victims -- MF cause PseudomonasIntussusception -- CF Adenovirus (causes hyperplasia of Peyers patches)Janeway lesions -- CF Endocarditis Syphilis––overaggressive treatment of anJarisch-Herxheimer reaction -- CF asymptomatic patient that causes symptoms due to rapid lysisJobs syndrome -- CF Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormalityKaposis sarcoma -- CF AIDS in MSM (men who have sex with men)Kartageners syndrome -- CF Dynein defectKayser-Fleischer rings -- CF Wilsons diseaseKeratin pearls -- CF Squamous cell carcinoma Calcium = radiopaque (2nd most common is ammonium = radiopaque; formed by urease-positiveKidney stones -- MC organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus)Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules -- CF Diabetic nephropathyKlüver-Bucy syndrome -- CF Bilateral amygdala lesionsKoilocytes -- CF HPV
  8. 8. Koplik spots -- CF MeaslesKrukenberg tumor -- CF Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastasesKussmaul hyperpnea -- CF Diabetic ketoacidosisLens dislocation + aortic dissection + Marfans syndrome (fibrillin deficit)joint hyperflexibility -- CFLesch-Nyhan syndrome -- CF HGPRT deficiencyLeukemia (adults) -- MF cause AMLLewy bodies -- CF Parkinsons diseaseLibman-Sacks disease -- CF Endocarditis associated with SLELines of Zahn -- CF Arterial thrombusLisch nodules -- CF Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausens disease)Liver disease -- MC Alcoholic liver diseaseLocation of brain tumors (adults) -- MC SupratentorialLocation of brain tumors (kids) -- MC InfratentorialLow serum ceruloplasmin -- CF Wilsons diseaseLucid interval -- CF Epidural hematomaLysosomal storage disease -- MC Gauchers diseaseLytic bone lesions on x-ray -- CF Multiple myelomaMale cancer -- MC Prostatic carcinomaMalignancy associated with Hodgkins diseasenoninfectious fever -- MCMalignant skin tumor -- MC Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)Mallory bodies -- CF Alcoholic liver diseaseMallory-Weiss syndrome -- CF Esophagogastric lacerationsMcArdles disease -- CF Muscle phosphorylase deficiencyMcBurneys sign -- CF Appendicitis Down syndrome (fragile X is the 2nd most commonMental retardation -- MF cause cause)Mets to bone -- MC Breast, lung, thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cellMets to brain -- MC carcinoma), GI Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lungMets to liver -- MC carcinomasMI -- MF cause AtherosclerosisMitral valve stenosis -- MF cause Rheumatic heart diseaseMLF syndrome (INO) -- CF Multiple sclerosis Multiple myeloma (called the M protein; usually IgG or IgA), MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy ofMonoclonal antibody spike -- CF undetermined significance), Waldenströms (M protein = IgM) macroglobulinemiaMotor neuron disease -- MC ALSMyocarditis -- MF cause Coxsackie BMyxedema -- CF HypothyroidismNecrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and Wegeners and Goodpastures (hemoptysis andnecrotizing glomerulonephritis -- CF glomerular disease)Needle-shaped, negatively birefringent Goutcrystals -- CFNegri bodies -- CF Rabies ALL (2nd most common is cerebellarNeoplasm (kids) -- MC medulloblastoma)
  9. 9. Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss -- Alports syndromeCFNephrotic syndrome -- MC Membranous glomerulonephritisNephrotic syndrome (adults) -- MF Membranous glomerulonephritiscause Minimal change disease (associated withNephrotic syndrome (kids) -- MF cause infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)Neurofibrillary tangles -- CF Alzheimers diseaseNiemann-Pick disease -- CF Sphingomyelinase deficiencyNo lactation postpartum -- CF Sheehans syndrome (pituitary infarction)Nutmeg liver -- CF CHFObstruction of male urinary tract -- MC BPHOccupational exposure to asbestos -- CF Malignant mesotheliomaOpening snap -- MF cause Mitral stenosisOpportunistic infection in AIDS -- MC Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniaOrgan receiving mets -- MC Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)Organ sending mets -- MC Lung > breast, stomachOslers nodes -- CF EndocarditisOsteomyelitis -- MF cause S. aureusOsteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell Salmonelladisease -- MF causeOsteomyelitis with IVDA -- MF cause PseudomonasOvarian tumor (benign) -- MC Serous cystadenomaOvarian tumor (malignant) -- MC Serous cystadenocarcinomaOwls eye -- CF CMVPainless jaundice -- CF Pancreatic cancer (head)Palpable purpura on legs and buttocks -- Henoch-Schönlein purpuraCF Bronchogenic apical tumor associated with HornersPancoasts tumor -- CF syndromePancreatic tumor -- MC Adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)Pancreatitis (acute) -- MF cause EtOH and gallstonesPancreatitis (chronic) -- MF cause EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)Pannus -- CF Rheumatoid arthritisParkinsons disease -- CF Nigrostriatal dopamine depletionPatient with ALL/CLL/AML/CML -- ALL—child, CLL—adult > 60, AML—adult > 60,MC CML—adult 35–50Patient with Hodgkins -- MC Young male (except nodular sclerosis type––female)Patient with minimal change disease -- Young childMCPatient with Reiters -- MC MalePeau dorange -- MF cause Carcinoma of the breastPeriosteal elevation on x-ray -- CF Pyogenic osteomyelitisPeutz-Jeghers syndrome -- CF Benign polyposisPeyronies disease -- CF Penile fibrosisPhiladelphia chromosome (bcr-abl ) -- CML (may sometimes be associated with AML)CFPick bodies -- CF Picks diseasePicks disease -- CF Progressive dementia, similar to AlzheimersPID -- MF cause Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
  10. 10. Prolactinoma (2nd––somatotropic "acidophilic"Pituitary tumor -- MC adenoma)Plummer-Vinson syndrome -- CF Esophageal webs with iron deficiency anemiaPneumonia in cystic fibrosis, burn Pseudomonas aeruginosainfection -- MF causePneumonia, hospital-acquired -- MF KlebsiellacausePodagra -- CF Gout (MP joint of hallux)Podocyte fusion -- CF Minimal change diseasePolyneuropathy preceded by GI or Guillain-Barré syndromerespiratory infection -- CFPolyneuropathy, cardiac pathology, and WET beriberi (thiamine, vitamin B1 deficiency)edema -- CF Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency associated withPompes disease -- CF cardiomegalyPort-wine stain -- CF HemangiomaPositive anterior "drawer sign" -- CF Anterior cruciate ligament injuryPotts disease -- CF Vertebral tuberculosisPreventable blindness -- MF cause ChlamydiaPreventable cancer -- MC Lung cancerPrimary amenorrhea -- MF cause Turners (XO)Primary bone tumor (adults) -- MC Multiple myelomaPrimary hyperaldosteronism -- MF Adenoma of adrenal cortexcause Adenomas (followed by hyperplasia, thenPrimary hyperparathyroidism -- MC carcinoma)Primary hyperparathyroidism -- MF AdenomacausePrimary liver tumor -- MC HepatomaPseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement Glioblastoma multiforme-- CFPseudorosettes -- CF Ewings sarcomaPtosis, miosis, anhidrosis -- CF Horners syndrome (Pancoasts tumor)Pulmonary hypertension -- MF cause COPDRash on palms and soles -- CF 2° syphilis, Rocky Mountain spotted feverRaynauds syndrome -- CF Recurrent vasospasm in extremitiesRBC casts in urine -- CF Acute glomerulonephritisRecurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and Cystic fibrosisS. aureus infections -- CFRed urine in the morning -- CF Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuriaReed-Sternberg cells -- CF Hodgkins lymphomaReid index (increased) -- CF Chronic bronchitisReinke crystals -- CF Leydig cell tumorReiters syndrome -- CF Urethritis, conjunctivitis, arthritisRenal cell carcinoma + cavernous von Hippel–Lindau diseasehemangiomas + adenomas -- CFRenal epithelial casts in urine -- CF Acute toxic/viral nephrosis Renal cell carcinoma––associated with von Hippel–Renal tumor -- MC Lindau and acquired polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin,
  11. 11. PTH, ACTH)Rhomboid crystals, positively Pseudogoutbirefringent -- CFRib notching -- CF Coarctation of aortaRight heart failure due to a pulmonary Cor pulmonalecause -- MF causeRight-sided heart failure -- MF cause Left-sided heart failureRoths spots in retina -- CF EndocarditisRotors syndrome -- CF Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemiaRouleaux formation (RBCs) -- CF Multiple myeloma Left-to-right shunt (VSD, PDA, ASD), mitralS3 -- CF regurgitation, LV failure (CHF)S4 -- CF Aortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosisSchiller-Duval bodies -- CF Yolk sac tumorSecondary hyperparathyroidism -- MC Hypocalcemia of chronic renal failureSenile plaques -- CF Alzheimers diseaseSexually transmitted disease -- MC ChlamydiaSézary syndrome -- CF Cutaneous T-cell lymphomaSheehans syndrome -- CF Postpartum pituitary necrosisSheehans syndrome -- MF cause Postpartum pituitary infarction 2° to hemorrhageShwartzman reaction -- CF Neisseria meningitidisSIADH -- MF cause Small cell carcinoma of the lungSignet-ring cells -- CF Gastric carcinomaSimian crease -- CF Down syndromeSipples syndrome -- CF MEN type IIaSite of diverticula -- MC Sigmoid colonSite of metastasis -- MC Regional lymph nodesSite of metastasis (2nd most common) -- LiverMCSites of atherosclerosis -- MC Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotidSjögrens syndrome -- CF Dry eyes, dry mouth, arthritisSkin cancer -- MC Basal cell carcinomaSkip lesions -- CF CrohnsSlapped cheeks -- CF Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease)Smith antigen -- CF SLESoap bubble on x-ray -- CF Giant cell tumor of boneSpike and dome on EM -- CF Membranous glomerulonephritisSpitz nevus -- CF Benign juvenile melanomaSplinter hemorrhages in fingernails -- EndocarditisCFStarry-sky pattern -- CF Burkitts lymphomaStomach cancer -- MC AdenocarcinomaStreaky ovaries -- CF Turners syndromeString sign on x-ray -- CF Crohns diseaseSubepithelial humps on EM -- CF Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritisSuboccipital lymphadenopathy -- CF RubellaSulfur granules -- CF Actinomyces israelii Scurvy (ascorbic acid, vitamin C deficiency)––Swollen gums, bruising, poor wound vitamin C is necessary for hydroxylation of prolinehealing, anemia -- CF and lysine in collagen synthesis
  12. 12. Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo- Aortic valve stenosisdecrescendo) -- CFt(14;18) -- CF Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)t(8;14) -- CF Burkitts lymphoma (c-myc activation)t(9;22) -- CF Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)Tabes dorsalis -- CF 3° syphilisTendon xanthomas (classically Familial hypercholesterolemiaAchilles) -- CFTesticular tumor -- MC SeminomaThumb sign on lateral x-ray -- CF Epiglottitis (Haemophilus influenzae)Thyroid cancer -- MC Papillary carcinomaThyroidization of kidney -- CF Chronic bacterial pyelonephritisTophi -- CF Gout Lower esophagus joins trachea/upper esophagus––Tracheoesophageal fistula -- MC blind pouch Visceral cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinomaTrousseaus sign -- CF (migratory thrombophlebitis), hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)Tumor in men -- MC Prostate carcinomaTumor in women -- MC Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)Tumor of infancy -- MC HemangiomaTumor of the adrenal medulla (adults) -- Pheochromocytoma (benign)MCTumor of the adrenal medulla (kids) -- Neuroblastoma (malignant)MC Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocyticType of Hodgkins -- MC predominance, lymphocytic depletion)Type of non-Hodgkins -- MC Follicular, small cleavedType of pituitary adenoma -- MC ProlactinomaUTI -- MF cause E. coliUTI (young women) -- MF cause E. coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus Temporal arteritis (risk of ipsilateral blindness due toVasculitis -- MC thrombosis of ophthalmic artery)Viral encephalitis -- MC HSV Left supraclavicular node enlargement fromVirchows node -- CF metastatic carcinoma of the stomach Pulmonary embolism (triad = blood stasis,Virchows triad -- CF endothelial damage, hypercoagulation) Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; bodyVitamin deficiency (U.S.) -- MC stores only 3- to 4-month supply)von Recklinghausens disease -- CF Neurofibromatosis with café-au-lait spotsvon Recklinghausens disease of bone -- Osteitis fibrosa cystica ("brown tumor")CFWallenbergs syndrome -- CF PICA thrombosisWaterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome -- Adrenal hemorrhage associated withCF meningococcemiaWaxy casts -- CF Chronic end-stage renal diseaseWBC casts in urine -- CF Acute pyelonephritisWBCs in urine -- CF Acute cystitisWermers syndrome -- CF MEN type I
  13. 13. Malabsorption syndrome caused by TropherymaWhipples disease -- CF whippeliiWilsons disease -- CF Hepatolenticular degenerationXanthochromia (CSF) -- CF Subarachnoid hemorrhageXerostomia + arthritis + Sjögrens syndromekeratoconjunctivitis sicca -- CFZenkers diverticulum -- CF Upper GI diverticulumZollinger-Ellison syndrome -- CF Gastrin-secreting tumor associated with ulcersDefic of CD55 and CD59, decayaccelerating factor (DAF) and dx of Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)membrane attack complex inhibitingfactor (MACIF)