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Brain Tumours

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Brain Tumours Brain Tumours Presentation Transcript

  • BRAIN TUMOURS NEW STAFF DAYS April 29 th 2005
  • BRAIN TUMOURS
    • Brain tumours are the most common solid tumour in children.
    • About 300 new cases are diagnosed each year. We see about 30 – 40 new cases a year.
  • 4 Main Types Of Tumours Found In Children
    • Astrocytoma
    • Ependomoma
    • PNET
    • Craniopharingyoma
  • Brain Cells
    • Brain cells are made up of two main types of cells
    • NEURONES – nerve cells
    • GLIAL – supporting cells and structures
  • Glial Cells
    • 3 main types of glial cell giving 3 types of tumour -
    • Astrocytes – Astrocytomas
    • Ependyma - Ependomoma
    • Oligodendracytes - Oligodendroglioma
  • Tumour Grading
    • Most tumours – all types are graded 1- 4 (benign – malignant).
    • Grading takes in tendency to spread, growth rate and similarity to normal cells.
  • Astrocytoma Astrocytoma’s grow from astrocytes, a star shaped cell found throughout the brain. Therefore the tumours can be found all over the brain, supra and infra-tentorial, and the spinal column.
  • Astrocytomas
      • Low grade astrocytomas include
      • Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma
      • - Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas.
      • These tumours would be treated with surgery and follow up scans.
  • Astrocytoma
    • High grade tumours include.
    • Anaplastic astrocytoma.
    • Glioblastoma multiforme.
    • These invade local tissue and are much harder to excise.
    • They would be treated with surgery and follow up radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Ependymoma
    • Growing from the ependymal cells found lining the ventricles and central canal of the spinal cord.
    • Low grade – subependymoma (4 th ventricle)
    • High grade – anaplastic ependymoma
    • Treatment – surgery and radiation
  • PNET ( PRIMITIVE NEUROECTODERMAL TUMOUR)
    • They develop from primitive underdeveloped cells left over from foetal development.
    • All these tumours are all highly malignant they are also called
    • Medulloblastoma
    • Pineal tumours (pinealblastoma)
    • Treatment is surgery followed by radiation. These tumours are very difficult to treat and cure.
  • Craniopharingyoma
    • These are benign, cystic tumours often involving the 3 rd ventricle, optic nerve and pituitary gland. Leading to diabetes insipidus and long term hormone problems.
  • Craniopharingyoma
    • Treatment involves surgery followed by radiation and long term endocrinology involvement.
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • Post fossa tumours
    • - Headaches and early morning
    • vomiting (caused by hydrocephalus)
    • - Papilloedema
    • - Ataxia
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • Brain stem tumours
    • - headaches and early morning
    • vomiting
    • - Ataxia
    • - Dysphasia
    • - Visual problems, squint, cross eyed
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • Frontal tumours
    • - Hemiplegia
    • - Seizures
    • - Defective memory
    • - Personality changes
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • Parietal tumours
    • - Seizures
    • - Speech disturbances
    • - Spatial disorders
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • Occipital tumours
    • - Seizures
    • - Blindness in one direction
    • Temporal tumours
    • - Often silent
    • -Occasional seizures
  • SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
    • Spinal cord tumours
    • - limb/back/neck pain
    • - weakness of limb
    • - Decrease in bladder/bowel
    • control/function
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  • ? AND ANSWERS (HOPEFULLY)