Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Bournemouth24 november
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Bournemouth24 november

865

Published on

Published in: News & Politics, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
865
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. The entrepreneur as heroThe entrepreneur as hero and jester: enacting theand jester: enacting the entrepreneurial discourseentrepreneurial discourse Dr Lorraine WarrenDr Lorraine Warren Bournemouth, 24 November,Bournemouth, 24 November, 20102010
  • 2. Identity play?Identity play? ► Accepted for publication in ISBJ [3*]Accepted for publication in ISBJ [3*] ► http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYRHMckJPhUhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYRHMckJPhU ► Entrepreneurs have a distinctive presence inEntrepreneurs have a distinctive presence in societysociety ► Rhetoric and rationalityRhetoric and rationality ► Tension between distinctiveness <->stereotypeTension between distinctiveness <->stereotype ► Amplification in the mediaAmplification in the media ► Used for strategic advantageUsed for strategic advantage
  • 3. Conflicts!Conflicts! ►Secondary airports: Charleroi caseSecondary airports: Charleroi case ►Other airlines: Aer Lingus takeoverOther airlines: Aer Lingus takeover ►Unions: Dublin baggage handlers disputeUnions: Dublin baggage handlers dispute ►Government: second terminal at DublinGovernment: second terminal at Dublin airportairport ►Passengers! (wheelchair users, refundPassengers! (wheelchair users, refund policy)policy)
  • 4. Growth of Ryanair: contextGrowth of Ryanair: context ►A low cost, no frills airlineA low cost, no frills airline ►Single Market in Air TransportSingle Market in Air Transport ►Full cabotage: the right of an EU-basedFull cabotage: the right of an EU-based airline to operate out of any country in theairline to operate out of any country in the communitycommunity ►1998-2002, low cost capacity grew 5-fold1998-2002, low cost capacity grew 5-fold ►On-going shift in market behaviourOn-going shift in market behaviour
  • 5. Success?Success? ►By 2002/03, Ryanair had become Europe’sBy 2002/03, Ryanair had become Europe’s 8th largest airline as measured by8th largest airline as measured by passenger numbers.passenger numbers. ►industry-leading net margins, improving inindustry-leading net margins, improving in 2002/03 by 4% to 28%, the fifth consecutive2002/03 by 4% to 28%, the fifth consecutive year of improvementyear of improvement
  • 6. Ryanair todayRyanair today ►““World’s favourite airline”World’s favourite airline” ►43 bases and 1100+ low fare routes across43 bases and 1100+ low fare routes across 26 countries, connecting 155 destinations.26 countries, connecting 155 destinations. ►operates a fleet of 250 new Boeing 737-800operates a fleet of 250 new Boeing 737-800 aircraft with firm orders for a further 64 newaircraft with firm orders for a further 64 new aircraftaircraft ► a team of more than 7,000 people anda team of more than 7,000 people and expects to carry approximately 73.5 millionexpects to carry approximately 73.5 million passengers in the current fiscal year.passengers in the current fiscal year.
  • 7. Michael O’LearyMichael O’Leary ► Video – highly combative styleVideo – highly combative style ► http://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/hi/front_page/newsidhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/panorama/hi/front_page/newsid_ ► Joined the company in 1988 (accountant)Joined the company in 1988 (accountant) ► Fortune Magazine’s European Businessman of theFortune Magazine’s European Businessman of the Year in 2000Year in 2000 ► Skytrax Airline Personality of the Year in 2003Skytrax Airline Personality of the Year in 2003 ► European Business Leaders Entrepreneur of theEuropean Business Leaders Entrepreneur of the Year, 2005Year, 2005
  • 8. Literature backgroundLiterature background ►Growing interest in interpretive approachesGrowing interest in interpretive approaches to entrepreneurship [move from econ/psy]to entrepreneurship [move from econ/psy] ►Dodd and Anderson, 2007, Neergaard,Dodd and Anderson, 2007, Neergaard, 2005;Shaw, 2006; Jack et al, 2008;Cope et2005;Shaw, 2006; Jack et al, 2008;Cope et al, 2007; Fletcher, 2006al, 2007; Fletcher, 2006 ►Narratives Johansson, 2004; Warren, 2004Narratives Johansson, 2004; Warren, 2004 ►Discourse, Ogbor, 2000Discourse, Ogbor, 2000 ►Media, Radu and Redien-Collet, 2008)Media, Radu and Redien-Collet, 2008)
  • 9. Entrepreneurial identityEntrepreneurial identity ► Down and Reveley, 2004 “the social formation ofDown and Reveley, 2004 “the social formation of the entrepreneurial self”the entrepreneurial self” ► Atherton, 2004 -> stereotypes [Goffman]Atherton, 2004 -> stereotypes [Goffman] ► Paradox of identities: sameness and othernessParadox of identities: sameness and otherness (Hjorth and Johannisson)(Hjorth and Johannisson) ► Entrepreneurial crusade -> licence to challengeEntrepreneurial crusade -> licence to challenge ► Legitimisation (Lounsbury and Glyn, 2004)Legitimisation (Lounsbury and Glyn, 2004) ► New cultural hero of the Western world (now?)New cultural hero of the Western world (now?)
  • 10. MethodologyMethodology ►Newspaper articles between 2001 <-> 2005Newspaper articles between 2001 <-> 2005
  • 11. Michael O’Leary Stelios Haji Ioannou James Dyson Richard Branson Jan-June 2001 170 138 184 2052 Jul-Dec 2001 460 292 143 1830 Jan-June 2002 449 455 255 1526 Jul-Dec 2002 331 338 188 1407 Jan-June 2003 473 226 283 1627 Jul-Dec 2003 539 203 234 1492 Jan-June 2004 614 258 93 1522 Jul-Dec 2004 414 377 184 1687 Jan-Dec 2005 360 284 193 1295 Jul-Dec 2005 403 241 124 1325 TOTAL 4213 2812 1881 15763 Table I Mentions of leading entrepreneurs (All UK newspapers including regionals and the Irish News tabloid)
  • 12. Michael O’Leary Stelios Haji Ioannou James Dyson Richard Branson Jan-June 2001 98 73 66 1027 Jul-Dec 2001 239 155 63 874 Jan-June 2002 267 266 93 776 Jul-Dec 2002 213 174 60 683 Jan-June 2003 317 122 91 767 Jul-Dec 2003 351 131 67 732 Jan-June 2004 377 146 33 719 Jul-Dec 2004 257 189 81 819 Jan-Dec 2005 227 178 92 633 Jul-Dec 2005 249 148 61 711 TOTAL 2595 1582 707 7741 Table 2 Mentions of leading entrepreneurs in all UK national newspapers
  • 13. Michael O’Leary Stelios Haji Ioannou James Dyson Richard Branson Jan-June 2001 0 0 2 11 Jul-Dec 2001 0 2 0 13 Jan-June 2002 40 2 0 1 Jul-Dec 2002 26 2 1 4 Jan-June 2003 52 1 0 6 Jul-Dec 2003 50 2 0 7 Jan-June 2004 73 1 0 3 Jul-Dec 2004 58 2 3 10 Jan-Dec 2005 76 0 3 8 Jul-Dec 2005 50 1 0 7 TOTAL 425 13 9 70 Table 3 Mentions of leading entrepreneurs in the Irish Times
  • 14. Themes?Themes? ► We had found a multifaceted, contradictory bricolage of style, contentWe had found a multifaceted, contradictory bricolage of style, content and processes including:and processes including: ► Entrepreneurial business pronouncements typical of a high profile CEOEntrepreneurial business pronouncements typical of a high profile CEO of a fast-growing innovative company;of a fast-growing innovative company; ► Incisive analyses of complex legal and financial situations;Incisive analyses of complex legal and financial situations; ► High profile media ‘stunts’ often aimed at competitors, such as turningHigh profile media ‘stunts’ often aimed at competitors, such as turning up in a military tank at Luton airport to jest with low-cost competitorup in a military tank at Luton airport to jest with low-cost competitor Easyjet; but also-Easyjet; but also- ► Vituperative, highly personalised, long running feuds with powerfulVituperative, highly personalised, long running feuds with powerful figures such as Bertie Ahern; but oddly, also an enthusiasm forfigures such as Bertie Ahern; but oddly, also an enthusiasm for aggressively confronting Ryanair’s customers.aggressively confronting Ryanair’s customers. ► A willingness to actively engage the public in his jests.A willingness to actively engage the public in his jests. ► A verbal style peppered not only with humour, sometimes backed upA verbal style peppered not only with humour, sometimes backed up by scathing (yet comical) cartoon attacks on individuals, but oftenby scathing (yet comical) cartoon attacks on individuals, but often couched in profane and uncouth language.couched in profane and uncouth language.
  • 15. Diverse, contradictory and distinctively individualDiverse, contradictory and distinctively individual playful elements.playful elements. ►As Barbara Cassani, the founder of low-costAs Barbara Cassani, the founder of low-cost airline Go, (Calder, 2003, p. 96) had noted:airline Go, (Calder, 2003, p. 96) had noted: ►““It’s interesting that Michael O’Leary has thisIt’s interesting that Michael O’Leary has this image as a rough-and-tumble profane Irishimage as a rough-and-tumble profane Irish farm boy. He’s a trained accountant whofarm boy. He’s a trained accountant who went to one of the finest universities inwent to one of the finest universities in Ireland”.Ireland”.
  • 16. Ahern/O’Leary Interchanges Aer Rianta & Terminal 2 issues Type of articles about the airport issues Jan-June 2001 1 0 0 Jul-Dec 2001 29 13 Business analysis (1) News reports (12) Jan-June 2002 12 6 Business analysis (3) News (3) Jul-Dec 2002 9 2 Business analysis (2) Jan-June 2003 17 11 News reports (7) Business analysis (4) Jul-Dec 2003 41 28 Business analysis (16) News reports (10) Quote of the week (1) Company report/meeting (1) Jan-June 2004 30 20 Business analysis (11) News reports (6) Self penned piece by O’Leary (1) Quote of the week/year compilations (2) Jul-Dec 2004 25 10 Business analysis (6) News reports (4) Jan-June 2005 63 56 Business analysis (26) News report (27) Private letter from O’Leary (3 appearances) Jul-Dec 2005 16 7 Letter from member of public General business analysis (3) Piece penned by O’Leary News report (2) TOTAL 243 153
  • 17. Use of rhetoricUse of rhetoric ► Ahearne always the bureaucrat, “Ahearne always the bureaucrat, “Bertie’s BlunderlandBertie’s Blunderland,, queuing to getqueuing to get in and out”in and out” ► ““Passengers would have a choice of airlines, terminal facilities and carPassengers would have a choice of airlines, terminal facilities and car parks. Competition would have delivered these facilities by 2006,parks. Competition would have delivered these facilities by 2006, reduced costs to passengers, and improved services. Competitionreduced costs to passengers, and improved services. Competition works. Ryanair works. Ahern's transport policy clearly doesn't. Fromworks. Ryanair works. Ahern's transport policy clearly doesn't. From the M50, where the cars don't fit, to the port tunnel, where trucks don'tthe M50, where the cars don't fit, to the port tunnel, where trucks don't fit, to Dublin airport, where sadly nothing fits, this government hasfit, to Dublin airport, where sadly nothing fits, this government has repeatedly failed the Irish people. We have a first-rate workforcerepeatedly failed the Irish people. We have a first-rate workforce suffering a Third World transport system. Unless we get rid of thesesuffering a Third World transport system. Unless we get rid of these clowns and end the protected civil-service monopolies in the transportclowns and end the protected civil-service monopolies in the transport sector, then we will be doomed to long queues and higher costs forsector, then we will be doomed to long queues and higher costs for many years to comemany years to come” Sunday Times, September 25, 2005” Sunday Times, September 25, 2005
  • 18. Jesting and BullyingJesting and Bullying ►Subversive tactic of humourSubversive tactic of humour ►InversionInversion ►Emotional contagion and enlistmentEmotional contagion and enlistment
  • 19. Purposeful use of identityPurposeful use of identity ► we see O’Leary’s transformation from a privately educatedwe see O’Leary’s transformation from a privately educated accountant to an entrepreneurial hero ostentatiouslyaccountant to an entrepreneurial hero ostentatiously championing air travellers’ rights as deliberate. Charliechampioning air travellers’ rights as deliberate. Charlie Clifton, an executive at Ryanair is cited in Ruddock (2007,Clifton, an executive at Ryanair is cited in Ruddock (2007, p. 194),p. 194), “…..who’s gonna run it? Are you trying to say,“…..who’s gonna run it? Are you trying to say, we’re really like Southwest, but we’ve got a dull accountantwe’re really like Southwest, but we’ve got a dull accountant running the company?” It wouldn’t have washed. Michaelrunning the company?” It wouldn’t have washed. Michael knew he had to lead from the front”.knew he had to lead from the front”. Boru (2006) also picksBoru (2006) also picks up on the influence of Southwest’s CEO Herb Kelleher,up on the influence of Southwest’s CEO Herb Kelleher, though O’Leary claims to have modelled himself onthough O’Leary claims to have modelled himself on Richard Branson (The Observer, June 15, 2003)Richard Branson (The Observer, June 15, 2003): “As: “As Branson demonstrated, the way to punch above yourBranson demonstrated, the way to punch above your weight is to shoot your mouth off”.weight is to shoot your mouth off”.
  • 20. Entrepreneurial identity as a licence?Entrepreneurial identity as a licence? ►A strategic tool, not just read off theA strategic tool, not just read off the discoursediscourse ►MobilisationMobilisation ►Emotional contagionEmotional contagion ►Creative destructionCreative destruction

×