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RESEARCH SEMINAR 3 SEP 2012 Adjunct Prof Dr Ahmad Faisal UPPER IOWA UNIVERSITY (MALAYSIA)
Expected Learning Outcome Able to conduct research for the Senior Project Papers
re-search / rē, sərCH/Noun: The systematic investigation into and study ofmaterials and sources in order to establish facts and reachnew conclusions.Verb: Investigate systematically.Synonyms:noun. investigation - exploration - search - study – inquiryverb. explore - investigate - search - study - inquire
TYPE BASIC APPLIEDPURPOSE Expand knowledge Improve understanding of a particular Business & [business & management Processes] management problem Outcomes are universal Principles Outcomes are solutions to problems Findings create values to society in general Findings are only relevant to organisationsCONTEXT Undertaken by people based in an organisation Undertaken by people based in universities [normally Commercial concerns] Researcher determines Choice of topics & Originator or Department determines choice of objectives topics & objectives Flexible time scale Tight time scale
why we go through this?want to make sense of a particular situation
Theory Hypothesis Deductive Observations Confirmationmaking sense Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001; Sekaran, 2003; Wellman & Kruger 1999 Theory Tentative Hypothesis Inductive Patterns Observations
Research METHOD"Research methods are the particular strategiesresearchers use to collect the evidence necessary forbuilding and testing theories" Frey, Botan, Friedman, & Kreps (1991)
Precise quantitative data and value rigorous, exact measures, statistical analysis and verifiable truth. QUANTITATIVE Hypothesis are tested by carefully analysing the data using statistics. Usually deductive logical reasoning.Approaches Cavana, Delahaye & Sekaran, 2001to Research Method of inquiry appropriated in many different academic disciplines, traditionally in the social sciences QUALITATIVE studies and market research. The aim is to gather an in-depth understanding of human behaviour and the reasons that govern such behaviour.
Begin with a BROAD questionHOURGLASS | notion of research NARROW down | FOCUS in OPERATIONALISE OBSERVE COLLECT data ANALYZE data Reach CONCLUSION GENERALISE back to question
You must choose your research topic with care! You must choose one area that is best understood by you and that you are capable to handle and gain access to any data that you want to collectCHOOSING TOPIC LETS REVIEW YOUR TOPICS
PRIMARY SECONDARY TERTIARYLITERATURE REVIEWS Reports, Theses Indexes, Abstracts, Newspapers, Books, e-mails, Conference Catalogues, Journals, Internet reports, Company Encyclopaedias, Postings, White reports, Government Dictionaries, Papers, Published publications, Bibliographies, Works Manuscripts Citation References increasing level of details
UPDATE & WRITE CRITICAL REVISE DRAFT REVIEW OF LITERATURE CONDUCTLITERATURE REVIEW LOOP RE-DEFINE SEARCH START PARAMETERS DRAFTING PROFILING OBTAIN CONDUCT LITERATURE EVALUATE RE-DEFINE SEARCH PARAMETERS LITERATURE PROFILING OBTAIN EVALUATE LITERATURE LITERATURE DEFINE PARAMETERS [WHAT COVERAGE & SCOPE YOU WANTED DEVELOP RESEARCH QUESTIONS TO REVIEW] & RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
• Constructs – General ideas created for theory-building – Used to build conceptual/causal model •RESEARCH MODEL Variables – Types • Independent • Dependent • Moderating • Intervening • Extraneous – That have some type of relationship
VARIABLE RELATIONSHIPS • Is there an association between two variables (correlation and prediction). • Is there a causal relationship between two variables (does X cause Y). • Under what conditions are X and Y associated or X causes Y (moderation). • Why is X associated with Y or why does X cause Y (mediation).
Operational level: An empirical relationship between two variables that are made operational by the measures used to obtain scores from cases or subjects studied.OPERATIONALISATION Example: • Education is related to job performance. • How do you operationalise (i.e., measure) education?
Independent Hypothesis Dependent (Predictor) (Outcome)CAUSAL MODEL Variables Variables Smoking …………….. Causes ………………… Cancer
INDEPENDENT Hypothesis DEPENDENT (Predictor) (Outcome) Variables VariablesCAUSAL MODEL MODERATING (Conditional) (Interaction) Variables Smoking …………….. Causes ………………… Cancer by people with special gene
INDEPENDENT Hypothesis MEDIATING DEPENDENT (Predictor) (Intervening) (Outcome) Variables Variables VariablesCAUSAL MODEL MODERATING (Conditional) (Interaction) Variables cells to mutate that causes Smoking …………….. Causes ………………… Cancer by people with special gene NOTE |Some variables can be manipulated, some cannot be manipulated
Variable: Any observation that can take different values [example: Sex; gender]VARIABLES | Language Attribute: A specific value on a variable [Male; Female]
Variable: Agreement [How much do you agree or disagree to the idea?]VARIABLES | Language Attribute: 1 = strongly disagree 2 = disagree 3 = neutral [no opinion] 4 = agree 5 = strongly agree
YOU CAN’T SURVEY EVERYTHING OR TALK TO EVERYONE So SAMPLING is necessary Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g., people, organisations) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample we may fairly generalise our results back to the population from which they were chosen.SAMPLING In social research we usually want to generalise about our findings
WHAT METHODS SHOULD I USE TO GET INFORMATION FROM MY SAMPLE?DATA COLLECTION Do I need a little information from many organisations, people? SURVEY: QUESTIONNAIRES OR Do I need a lot of information from a few organisations/systems/individuals? CASE STUDY: INTERVIEWS
• Excellent for collecting quantitative data • Can yield an elementary level of qualitative data • Allows you to reach a large sample • Economical | Allows you to collect a lot of data. • Flexible | Respondents can complete questionnaire in their own timeQUESTIONNAIRES • distortion caused by ambiguous wording or question order (with no opportunity to clarify). • difficulty of clarifying ambiguous responses. Can’t ask ‘What do you mean?’ • absence of non-verbal cues, The longer the questionnaire the lower the response rate. • Expense of photocopying.
1. Closed Questions Do you use the Internet? Yes/No 2. Options Do you use the internet? A lot Sometimes Not at allQUESTIONNAIRES 3. Likert Scale Do you use the internet ? Never All the time 1 2 3 4 5
SEMI-STRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE Semi-structured: Includes open-ended answers, e.g.: Do you use the Internet? Yes/NoQUESTIONNAIRES If No, please say what prevents you from using the Internet
Structured | The structured interview is often little more than verbal and personally administered questionnaire. But: clarification of questions and responses is possible. Semi-structured | Open ended as well as structured questions. Most freedom = Interview Guide. Interview guide | ‘list of issues to be explored that can be reviewed and expanded as more is learned about the research topic.INTERVIEWS WHY USE INTERVIEWS? • Greater depth and involvement of responses. • Opportunity to clarify any ambiguities. • Responses can be queried and clarified • Availability of non-verbal cues i.e. body language.