1. Weather and Climate Weather and ClimateDavid Fernández Expósito David Fernández Expósito 5ºB 5ºB
2. 1.Weather and Climate• Weather: refers to atmospheric conditions at a specific moment.• Climate: refers to the typical atmospheric conditions in an area over a long period of time.
3. Atmospheric conditions• Temperature is the amount of heat in the atmosphere. We can measure temperature with a thermometer.• Precipitation is water that falls from the sky as rain,snow or hail. We can measure precipitation with a pluviometer.• Wind is the movement of air in the atmosphere. We can use a weather vane to check the wind´s direction and we can use an anenometer to measure its velocity.• Atmospheric pressure is caused by the weight of the air in the atmosphere. We can measure this pressure with a barometer.
4. Factors that influence climate• Latitude: climate zones that are near the Equator are usually warm. The Sun shines more directly on these zones ,so they receive more light and heat.• Distance from bodies of water: temperatures are less extreme near large bodies of water,like seas or oceans.• Altitude: places at higher altitudes are usually colder than places at lower altitudes. A change in altitude of only 160 meters can cause a change in temperature of 1ºC.
5. 2.The Earth´s climate zones• The Earth has got many climate zones, but we can classify all of them into three general categories: – hot climates – temperate climates – cold climates
6. Hot climates• Equatorial climates have high temperatures and lots of precipitation all year long.• Tropical climates have high temperatures all year long. They recive lots of precipitation in summer, but the weather is dry in the winter.• Desert climates receive very little precipitation all year long. They can also have very extrene temperatures.
7. Desert climate
8. Equatorial climate
9. Tropical climate
10. Temperate climates• Oceanic climates have mild temperatures all year long. They receive a lot of precipitation, especially in winter.• Mediterranean climates have mild winters and hot summers. Summers are usually dry.• Continental climates have cold winters and hot summers. They don´t receive very much precipitation.
11. Oceanic climate
12. Mediterranean climate
13. Continental climate
14. Cold climates• Mountain climates are cold.There is more precipitation at high altitudes.• Polar climates have very low temperatures.They receive very little precipitation.
15. Mountain climate
16. Polar climate
17. 3.Climate zones in Spain• Spain has got a variety of climate zones. All of them are influenced by differences in latitude, distance from bodies of water and altitude.• Climates in Spain: – Oceanic – Mountain – Continental mediterranean – Mediterranean – Subtropical*.*Temperatures are high all year long and there isn´t a lot of precipitation.
18. 4.Climate change• Climate change is caused by increase in the Earth´s temperature.• Today, most scientist believe that the Earth´s climate is changing. The main cause of this change is an increase in waste gases, like carbon dioxide, in the Earth´s atmosphere.• Higher sea levels: the ice in polar zones is melting.• More severe weather: are going to cause more violent storms.• Drought: some regions are going to receive less precipitation, so they won´t have enough water.• Extincion: some animal species are going to disapear.
19. Melting in polar zones
20. 5.Climate and natural disasters• Strong winds can cause serious damage to buildings eand trees.• A hurricane is a large tropical storm that can be hundreds kilometres across. Can produce winds of 250 kilometres per hour.• A tornado is a column of air that comes down from a storm cloud and rotates violently.• Torrential rains can cause dangerous floods. Rivers can overflow and cause serious damage.• Droughts are long periods of time with little or no rain. They can cause serious problems, especially for farmers.• High temperatures can cause fores fires.