Chapter 3   lipids
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  • 1. LIPIDS Chapter 3
  • 2. Classification of Lipids Characteristics: • insoluble in water but soluble in common organic solvents such as benzene, ether and chloroform • electron carriers, as substrate carriers in enzymic reactions, as components of biological membranes, and as sources and stores of energy • proximate analysis of foods they are included in the ether extract fraction
  • 3. Plant Lipids Plant lipids are of two main types: 1. Structural -- structural lipids are present as constituents of various membranes and protective surface layers and makeup about 7 per cent of the leaves of higher plants  surface lipids are mainly waxes, with relatively minor contributions from long-chain hydrocarbons, fatty acids and cutin.  membrane lipids present in mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membranes, are mainly glycolipids (40–50 per cent) and phosphoglycerides.
  • 4. 2. Storage--Plant storage lipids occur in fruits and seeds and are, predominantly, triacylglycerols. Over 300 different fatty acids have been isolated from plant tissues, but only about seven are of common occurrence. The most abundant is alpha-linolenic acid; the most common saturated acid is palmitic acid and the most common monounsaturated acid is oleic acid.
  • 5. Animal Lipids Animal lipids are the major form of energy storage, mainly as fat  may constitute up to 97 per cent of the adipose tissue of obese animals The yield of energy from the complete oxidation of fat is about 39 MJ/kg DM compared with about 17 MJ/kg DM from glycogen, the major carbohydrate form of stored energy  stored fat is almost anhydrous, whereas stored glycogen is highly hydrated Weight for weight, fat is, therefore, about six times as effective as glycogen as a stored energy source.
  • 6. Classification of Lipids
  • 7. structural lipids of animal tissues mainly phosphoglycerides muscle and adipose tissue— 0.5-1% liver – 2-3% The most important non-glyceride neutral lipid fraction of animal tissue is made up of cholesterol and its esters, which together make up 0.06–0.09 per cent of muscle and adipose tissue
  • 8. FATS AND OILS Fats and oils are constituents of both plants and animals and are important sources of stored energy. Both have the same general structure but have different physical and chemical properties Oils – liquid at ordinary room temperature; tend to be more chemically reactive compared to solid fats
  • 9. Functions of fats and oils: 1.Major function – energy source 2.Thermal insulator 3.In some warm-blooded animals, it is a source of heat for maintaining body temperature This is especially important for animals that are born hairless, those that hibernate, and those that are cold-adapted. • These animals have “brown fat” (special deposits in which oxidation is uncoupled from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production • all the energy is liberated as heat
  • 10. 4. fat has a vital role in providing individual fatty acids with specific nutritional roles within the animal body.
  • 11. Structures of Fats • Fats are esters of fatty acids with the trihydric alcohol glycerol • they are also referred to as glycerides or acylglycerols • Triacylglycerols differ in type according to the nature and position of the fatty acid residues. Those with three residues of the same fatty acid are termed simple triacylglycerols,
  • 12. • Triacylglycerols are named according to the fatty acids they contain • There is evidence that the configuration of the constituent triacylglycerols of fats can influence the extent to which they are digested. • The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols determines their physical nature. • Those with a high proportion of low-molecularweight (short-chain) and unsaturated acids have low melting points.
  • 13. Composition of Fats --Gas chromatography has made it possible for analysis of fats for individual fatty acids --plant and marine oils, especially those of fish, are more highly unsaturated than those of mammalian origin. This is because of the presence of varying amounts of linoleic and linolenic acids in addition to the monounsaturated oleic acid, which is quantitatively the major fatty acid in most natural fats.
  • 14. • fish oils have significant concentrations of highly unsaturated C20 and C22 acids. • In mammalian depot fat, the proportion of the more unsaturated acids is lower and there is a higher proportion of high-molecular-weight saturated acids such as palmitic and stearic acids, with smaller but significant contributions from lauric (dodecanoic) and myristic (tetradecanoic) acids. • For this reason, fats such as pig lard, and beef and mutton tallow are firm and hard, whereas fish and plant oils are softer and frequently are oils in the true sense.
  • 15. • Within individual animals, subcutaneous fats contain a higher proportion of unsaturated acids and are thus softer than deep-body fat. • The physical nature of fat varies between animals marine mammals have softer body fat than land mammals. The reason in both cases is that animal fat has to maintain a degree of malleability at the temperature of the tissue, which is influenced by ambient temperatures
  • 16. • This is the reason why the fats of the feet and ears, which are inclined to be colder than the interior of the body, tend to be unsaturated. • In ruminants, milk fats are characterised by their high content of low-molecularweight fatty acid. • As a result they are softer than the depot fats of the respective animals but not as soft as fats of vegetable and marine origin, being semi-solid at ordinary temperatures. • Milk fats of non-ruminants resemble the depot fat of the particular animal
  • 17. • In most commercially important edible plant oils, the dominant fatty acids are oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids. • Coconut oil is an exception in having the saturated 12:0 lauric acid as its major acid. Families of plants tend to produce characteristic oils that frequently contain unusual fatty acids. Examples are the erucic acid of rapeseed; ricinoleic acid, the 18-carbon, monoenoic, hydroxy acid of the castor bean; and vernolic acid, the 18-carbon, trienoic, epoxy acid of the Compositae.
  • 18. Essential Fatty Acids • • *Plant and marine oils(fish) are more highly unsaturated than those of mammalian origin because of varying amounts of linoleic and linolenic acids in addition to monounsaturated oleic which the major fatty acid in most natural fats. In mammalian depot fat, there is higher proportion of saturated acids like: palmitic and stearic, lauric and myristic.
  • 19. Fats like lard, beef and mutton tallow are firm and hard whereas fish and plant oils are softer and frequently are oils in the true sense.
  • 20. • *Linoleic and ᾳ-linolenic acids are essential fatty acids, they form part of various membranes and play a part in lipid transport and certain lipoprotein enzymes. They are the source materials for the synthesis of eicosanoids. They help regulate functions like blood clotting, blood pressure, smooth muscle contraction and immune response. Also involved in maintaining the fluidity of mammalian cell membranes.
  • 21. - Oil seeds are rich sources of linoleic acid and linseed is a good source of ᾳ-linolenic acids. • - Pigs and poultry having oil seed residues in their diet will have adequate supply of essential fatty acids unlike ruminants.
  • 22. Notes: Symptoms associated with EFA deficiencies •Growth retardation, increased permeability to water and increased water consumption, increased susceptibility to bacterial infections, sterility, less stable biomembranes, capillary fragility, kidney damage, haematuria and hypertension, decreased visual acuity, decreased myocardial contractility, decreased ATP synthesis in liver and heart, decreased nitrogen retention
  • 23. GLYCOLIPIDS The lipids of grasses and clovers (forms the major part of dietary fat of ruminants) are galactolipids. The fatty acids of the galactosides of grasses and clovers consist largely of Linoleic and ᾳ-linolenic acids. Rumen microorganisms are able to breakdown galactolipids to give galactose, fatty acids and glycerol. In animal tissues, glycolipids are present mainly in the brain and nerve fibers.
  • 24. PHOSPHOLIPIDS - primarily as constituents of the lipoprotein complexes of biological membranes. Abundant in the heart, kidneys and nervous tissues. Myelin of the nerve axons contains 55% of phospholipids. - Eggs are one of the best animal sources, soya beans in plants. - Contain phosphorus in addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Phosphoglycerides are surface active and play a role as emulsifying agents in biological systems (duodenum)
  • 25. WAXES - are simple non-popular lipids consisting of long chain fatty acid combined with a monohydric alcohol of high molecular weight. Usually solid at ordinary temperature. - Widely distributed in plants and animals where they often have protective function. The hydrophobic nature of the wax coating reduces water loss caused by transpiration in plants, and provides wool and feathers with water proofing in animals. Ex. Lanolin – obtained from wool and spermaceti, a product of marine animals.
  • 26. In plants, waxes are usually included in the cuticular fraction where they form a matrix in which cutin and suberin (surfaces of the underground part of plants and healed wound surfaces)are embedded
  • 27. STEROIDS Include such biologically important compounds : sterols, bile acids, adrenal and sex hormones a.Sterols – phytosterols in plants, mycosterols in fungi ( not absorb in the gut and not found in animal tissues), zoosterols in animal origin.
  • 28. b. Cholesterol – zoosterol present in animal cells, low solubility in water (0.2mg/100ml). -major sterol in human and is important as a constituent of various biological membranes. - is particularly important in the myelinated structures of the brain and CNS and may constitute up to 170 g/kg. It is the precursor of the steroid hormones and bile acids. - normal concentrations in the blood plasma range from 1200-2200mg/liter, 30% of free state and remainder being bound to lipoproteins.
  • 29. -very insoluble and prolonged high levels in blood result in its deposition on the walls of the blood vessels. These deposits eventually harden to atherosclerotic plaque. This narrows the blood vessel and serves as a site for clot formation and may precipitate myocardial infarction or heart attack.
  • 30. Notes: The risk of coronary heart disease is directly related to the plasma concentration of LDL-cholesterol and inversely related to that of HDLcholesterol, and that the risk is reduced significantly by lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels.
  • 31. b.1. 7-dehydrocholesterol – derived from cholesterol is important as the precursor of vitamin D3, which is produced when the sterol is exposed to ultraviolet light. b.2. Ergosterol – this phytosterol is widely distributed in brown algae, bacteria and higher plants. It is important as the precursor of ergocalciferol or vit. D2,into which it is converted by ultraviolet irradiation.
  • 32. b.3. bile acids – are synthesized from cholesterol and constitutes the major end point of cholesterol metabolism. Under physiological conditions the acids exist as salts. They are produced in the liver, stored in the gallbladder and secreted into the upper small intestines. *Importance of bile acids are the following: a. provide the major excretory pathway for cholesterol which cannot be catabolised to carbon dioxide and water by mammals. Bile contains high concentration of free cholesterol, about 390mg/100ml.
  • 33. -bile salts assist along with the detergent action of phospholipids in preventing the cholesterol in the bile fluid from crystallizing out of solution. -they act as emulsifying agents in preparing dietary triacylglycerols for hydrolysis by pancreatic lipase in the process of digestion -may have a role in activating pancreatic lipase -facilitate the absorption, from the digestive tract of the fat- soluble vitamins
  • 34. b.4.steroid hormones- include the female sex hormones (oestrogens), male sex hormones (androgens) and progesterone, as well as cortisol, aldosterone and corticosterone, which are produced in the adrenal cortex. *The adrenal hormones have an important role in the control of glucose and fat metabolism.
  • 35. TERPENES - found in plants, have strong characteristic odours and flavors and are components of essential oils such lemon or camphor oil. ex. phytol moiety of chlorophyll, the carotenoid pigments, plant hormones such as giberellic acid and vitamins A,E and K. - In animals, some of the coenzymes, including those of the coenzymes Q group, are terpenes.