Dissertation slide show 1.3


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  • mtwentulan@ukzn.ac.za
  • End this session with the aims and objectivesThen methodology
  • Why am I using this theoryMust be clear that this theory fits in with the ideas must have a practical value and be linked to the research-relevanceWhat is aesthetic exactly and how has it been used in other research
  • Do people want to look different/ have their own stylesIs it more conforming to what we see if they are different do they think they will be not fit in or is it cool to be different (matter of belonging/acceptance) and whyDo I have the elements of theory in my questions
  • Why did we use each of these
  • Fits into lit review
  • Includedreds and braids
  • Do not see much of this trend. Researcher anticipates that this trend will come about in the immediate future.Would they wear something like this and why not
  • mtwentulan@ukzn.ac.za
  • Dissertation slide show 1.3

    1. 1. Wannabe’s Understanding the impacts of Black American media on Black South African adolescent girls’constructions of beauty and hair preferencesBy Diamond Rileydnr7b@virginia.edu
    2. 2. Introduction Role of the media. Globalization
    3. 3. Introduction- The Paradox The Paradox
    4. 4. Hair as an assimilationsist accessory  A piece of clothing, speech pattern, or hairstyle, which is used in an attempt to demonstrate equality within the dominant group. These “accessories” can be removed at will and illustrate in an attempt to fit in with and adhere to the standards proscribed by the dominant group.
    5. 5. Theory Social Comparison Theory suggests that consumers make automatic comparisons to what they see, and as a result, those comparisons become what consumers strive for (Botta 1999
    6. 6. Research Problem and Objectives The objective of this study is to focus on the ways in which globalized Black America media impacts Black South African women’s constructions of beauty and hair preferences Questions that will be asked include:  How are your ideas formed about what is considered beautiful  How would you describe the influence of the Black American media on the way South Africans see beauty?  What is the impact of South African media on your hair choice?  How would you respond to the statement: Young South African women want to emulate the ways in which Black American young women in dress and beauty?  Who do you identify with?
    7. 7. Research Design Qualitative study  Conducted using semi-structured interviews within a constructivist paradigm. Convenient sampling  Benefits
    8. 8. Research Instruments Interview ScheduleHow are your ideas formed about what is considered beautifulHow would you describe the influence of the Black American media onthe way South Africans see beauty?What is the impact of South African media on your hair choice?How would you respond to the statement: Young South African womenwant to emulate the ways in which Black American young women indress and beauty?Who do you identify with?
    9. 9. Data Collection and Procedures Black African students within the Discipline of Psychology Time and venue Quiet environment Interviews will last one hour Informed Consent Form. Audio Taped using a laptop. The researcher will conduct the interview in two sessions.  Session 1  Session 2
    10. 10. Data Analysis English transcription Thematic analysis. Data driven coding  Themes
    11. 11. Limitations Positionality  Differential degrees of power.
    12. 12. Hair Trends Seen In South Africa Short Hair Style Long Luxurious Hairstyle  Most often in black  Also seen in Blond Thick hair braided to the side Natural Curly Style High Pony Tail
    13. 13. Short Hair Styles
    14. 14. Long Luxurious Hair Style
    15. 15. Curly Natural Hair Style Thick Braid to the Side
    16. 16. High Pony Tail
    17. 17. Future Prediction
    18. 18.  Examples of photos used during Session 1 discussion starter
    19. 19. ReferencesArnett, J. J. (1995). Adolescents use of media for self-socialization. Journal of Youth and Asolescence , 24, 519-533. Milkie, M. A. (1999). Social Comparisons, Reflected Appraisals, and Mass Media: The Impact of Pervasive Beauty ImagesBotta, R. A. (1999). Television images and adolescent girls body image disturbance. Journal of Communication , 49 (2), on Black and White Girls Self-Concepts. Social Psychology Quaterly , 62 (2).22-41. Mottier, V. (2005). The Interpretive Turn: History, Memory, and Storage in Qualitative Research. Fourm: QualitativeBraun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology , 3, 77-101. Social Research , 6 (2).Clark, K. B., & Clark, M. P. (1950). Racial Identification and Preference in Negro Children. Myers, D. (2008). Social Psychology (9th edition ed.). Holland, Michigan, USA.Crocker, J., & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protection properties of stigma. Psychological Naigle, D. (2005, February). Literature Review of Media Messages to Adolescent Females. Retrieved September 2, 2012,Review , 96, 608-630. from University of Saskatchewan: www.uask.ca/education/coursework/802papers/naigle/index.htmlDavis, J. L., & Gandy, O. H. (1999). Racial Identity and Media Orientation: Exploring the Nature of Constraint. Journal of Nair, S. (2007). Beauty and the Beast of Advertising: The impact of idealizing images of physical attractiveness onBlack Studies , 29, 367-397. consumer behavior and well-being. Nottingham.Davis, K. (Writer), & Davis, K. (Director). (2006). Girl Like Me [Motion Picture]. USA. Neal, L. A. (2000). Nappy edges and Goldy Locks- African American Women and the Politics of Hair. The Lion and theEngeln-Maddox, R. (2006). Buying a Beauty Standard or Dreaming of a New Life? Expectation Assoicated with Media Unicorn , 24 (2), 201-224.Ideals. Psychology of Women Quarterly , 30, 258-266. Patton, M. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and research methods, second edition. Sage .Families, A. A. (2008). Stages of Adolescent Development. Patton, T. O. (2006). hey girl, am I more than my hair: African American Women and Their Struggles with Beauty, BodyFestinger, L. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations , 7, 117-140. Image, and Hair. NWSA Journal , 18 (2), 24-51.Finucane, M. L., Slovic, P., Mertiz, C., Flynn, J., & Satterfield, T. A. (2002). Gender, race, and perceived risk: the "white Sabini, J. (1995). Social Psychology (2nd Edition ed.). W.W. Norton & Company.male" effect. Health, Risk and Society , 2 (2). Samantha , S. (2012, August). Head Notes. Marie Claire: South Africa .Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding womens lived experiences and The Levin Institute. (2011). Culture and Globalization. Retrieved September 2, 2012, from Globalization 101:mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quaterly , 21, 173-206. www.globalization101.org/uploads/File/Culture/cultall2011.pdfGandy, O. H. (2001). Racial Identity, Media Use and the Social Construction of Risk among African Americans. Journal of Thompson, J. K., & Stice, E. (2001). Thin-ideal internalization: Mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-imageBlack Studies , 31 (5), 600-618. disturbance and eating pathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science , 10, 181-183.Gordon, M. K. (2008). Media Contributions to African American Girls Focus on Beauty and Appearance: Exploring the Ticktin, H. (1991). The Origins of Racialism and the Rise of Racial Discrimination. In T. Hillel. London Pluto.Consequences of Sexual Objectification. Psychology of Women Quaterly , 32, 245-256. Venkatesh, A., & Meamber, L. (2008). The aesthetics of consumption and the consumer as an aesthetic subject.Hill Collins, P. (1989). Toward A New Vision: Race, Class and Gender as Categories of Analysis and Connection. University Consumption Markets and Culture , 11 (1), 45-70.of Memphis, Center for Research on Women. Univeristy of Cincinnati. White, T. R. (2008). Media as Pedagogy and Socializing Agent: Influences of Feminine Beauty Aesthetics in AmericanHogg, M. A., & Cooper, J. (2003). The Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. Teen-Oriented Films and Magazines on African American Adolescent Female Self Image. Los Angeles, California, Unitedhooks, b. (1994). Outlaw Culture: Resisting Representations. In b. hooks, Back to Black. New York, New York, USA: States of America.hooks, b. (2000). Straightining Our Hair. In J. Harris, Tenderheaded (pp. 109-113). Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (1985). Selective exposure phenomena. Sselective exposure to communicator .Jefferson, D., & Stake, J. E. (2009). Appearence Self-Attitude of African American and European American Women: AComparisons and internalization of Beauty Ideals. Psychology of Women Quarterly , 33, 396-409.Kaba, M. (2000). When Black Hair Tangles with White Power. In J. Harris, Tenderheaded (pp. 102-103).Mercer, K. (1987). Black Hair/Style Politics. new formations , 3.Meyer-Weitz, A. (n.d.). In Vogue-Token Blackness.(2004). Self and Identity. In H. A. Michener, & J. D. DeLamater, Social Psychology (pp. 100-102, 346).
    20. 20. Wannabe’s Understanding the impacts of Black American media on Black South African adolescent girls’constructions of beauty and hair preferencesBy Diamond Rileydnr7b@virginia.edu
    21. 21. Lit Review Globalization technologies have enabled unprecedented amounts of cross-cultural exchange which gives individuals from various cultures the ability to relate and forms identities based on an amalgamation of cultural products; however, effects of globalization seem to be causing cultures to desire imitation into Americanized homogeneity (Naigle, 2005), instead of contributing to a heterogeneous framework of cultural inclusions. The media thus offers a template on how we should look and act (Naigle, 2005) while the process of social comparison is used to assess ourselves in relation to other individuals and groups (Milkie, 1999) portrayed through the media. The media is constantly setting the standard for what is deemed as aesthetically appropriate (Nair, 2007) and thus, becomes a source of information about attractiveness and ideal beauty perceptions. Although adolescence is viewed as a time of identity formation (Families, 2008), it is also a period of increased pressure to conform to societies hegemonic beauty standards (Gordon, 2008). White (2008) suggests that the media is a mirror through which adolescent girls “observe their external existence” (p 3). Racial identity however is an ideological position formed by the everyday experiences that make up the fundamental values, beliefs, and morals of one’s social identity (Davis & Gandy, 1999). Racial group membership takes place when an individual is either assigned to, or identifies with a particular race group. Identification with a particular race stems from shared challenges and routine interactions. Choosing to identify with a particular race group can be seen as a resource if there is a perception of commonalities amongst the way the group members are treated in society (Davis & Gandy, 1999). Gurin and Townsend (1986) define group identity as perceived similarities in physical characteristics, central to self-perception, and an awareness of common fate. It can therefore be argued that Black South African adolescent girls in particular might be inclined to physically imitate Black Americans. In accordance to cultivation theory, this may be attributable to an interpretation of Black American media images being realistic and attainable (Jefferson & Stake, 2009). Black South Africans may find it easier to identity with Black Americans because it is a path of least resistance. This indicates that it is easier to imitate those who you perceive as having an opportunity to share group membership with than those you don’t. Affirmative racial identification may be a larger influence than direct social desirability (Gandy, 2001). It is thus argued that Black South African ethnic identity is seen as malleable when sharing a space with Black American culture. Since African American media is pervasive in South African homes a space of attainability is created in which to imitate the ideal presented (Jefferson & Stake, 2009). The media images generated from Black American pop culture appear to shape Black South Africans perceptions of what is desirable with specific reference of beauty and hair preference.