Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness

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Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness

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Positive Psychology and the Science of Sustained Happiness

  1. 1. David D Nowell PhD www.DrNowell.com
  2. 2. www.DrNowell.com DavidNowell DavidNowellSeminars
  3. 3. Overview • What is Positive Psychology? • Why happiness? • 11 happiness activities • Supporting resilience • Maximizing your brain’s built-in hard-wired reward-and-planning system • Preferred States Inventory: Identifying your unique motivational blueprint
  4. 4. Appendix J
  5. 5. WHAT IS POSITIVE PSYCHOLOGY?
  6. 6. Is there a “negative psychology”?
  7. 7. • Anger: 5,584 • Anxiety: 41,416 • Depression: 54,040 • Joy: 415 • Happiness: 1,710 • Life satisfaction: 2,582
  8. 8. Happiness Appendix A /B
  9. 9. Happiness • Pleasure, happiness, contentment? – Evans, 2008 • Love of life – Abdel-Khalek, 2007
  10. 10. Happiness • Hedonia and eudamonia
  11. 11. Happiness • Hedonia and eudamonia – the better course of action is not always the one that satisfies the current desire or even an abiding desire.
  12. 12. Key findings
  13. 13. Kraft & Pressman, 2012
  14. 14. WHY HAPPINESS?
  15. 15. Happier people… • Are half as likely to die • Half as likely to be disabled • Live longer than average • Have better health habits • Have lower blood pressure • Have more robust immune systems • Are more productive on the job • Have higher incomes • Are able to tolerate more pain
  16. 16. “I feel uneasy about the company I’m with…religionists, philosophers, yearners, utopia ns, Pollyannas, rather than the tough-minded scientists I admire so much more.”
  17. 17. Feeling good Functioning well
  18. 18. Feeling good Functioning well
  19. 19. Feeling good Functioning well
  20. 20. Feeling good Functioning well
  21. 21. “PERMA” Positive emotions Engagement / flow Relationships
  22. 22. “bad is stronger than good” (Baumeister et al, 2001)
  23. 23. Framingham Heart Study “…happiness, like health, is a collective phenomenon.”
  24. 24. Gilbert et al, 2009 • interview someone who has attained your goal
  25. 25. Is there a happiness “set point”?
  26. 26. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  27. 27. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  28. 28. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  29. 29. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  30. 30. Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  31. 31. • Fujita & Diener, 2005 – 24% of sample changed significantly over time
  32. 32. 11 HAPPINESS ACTIVITIES
  33. 33. Building on Strengths www.viacharacter.org
  34. 34. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  35. 35. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  36. 36. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  37. 37. Applying strengths in counseling • Seligman et al, 2005
  38. 38. “Strengths” and “talents”
  39. 39. • Energizes you • Feels like the “real you” • Leads to peak performance
  40. 40. • Most common across cultures – kindness, fairness, authenticity, gratitude, and open-mindedness • Most associated with well-being in US and Swiss sample – love, hope, curiosity, zest, and gratitude Peterson & Park, 2009
  41. 41. Journaling • Trauma • Physical rehabilitation • Romantic breakup
  42. 42. Journaling Mankad et al, 2009
  43. 43. Journaling Lewandowski, G. (2009).
  44. 44. gratitude x Gratitude
  45. 45. The Gratitude Exercise At the end of each day, after dinner and before going to sleep, write down three things that went well during the day. Do this every night for a week. The three things you list can be relatively small or large in importance. After each positive event on your list, answer in your own words the question: “Why did this good thing happen?” Seligman et al (2005)
  46. 46. Koo & Algoe (2008)
  47. 47. Byrd-Craven, J., Geary, D. C., Rose, A. J., & Ponzi, D. (2008). “Co-ruminating increase stress hormone levels in women”
  48. 48. gratitude x Savouring • relishing • cherishing • treasuring • reveling • basking • luxuriating • marveling • delighting • revering
  49. 49. gratitude x How to savour • slow down • pay attention • use all your senses • stretch out the experience • reflect on your enjoyment
  50. 50. Flow Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  51. 51. Flow
  52. 52. Flow
  53. 53. Flow
  54. 54. Flow
  55. 55. Flow
  56. 56. • Cultural context – Moneta, 2004 Japanese subjects
  57. 57. • Cultural context – Moneta, 2004 Chinese subjects
  58. 58. Applications of Flow
  59. 59. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  60. 60. Trackyourhappiness.org
  61. 61. “not exercising is like taking depressants” – Tal Ben-Shahar
  62. 62. Physical Exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  63. 63. Physical Exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  64. 64. Physical Exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  65. 65. • Effective antidepressant benefits among older adults – Blumenthal et al, 1999 – Alfermann & Stoll, 2000 – McAuley, 2010 • And among children – Biddle & Asare, 2011
  66. 66. • Higher “dose”? – Courneya et al, 2014 • Add-on strategy for treating depression? – Mura et al, 2014
  67. 67. • Resistance to colds – Montagne, 2010 • Improved sleep – Reid et al, 2010 • Improved heart rate variability (HRV) – Segerstrom et al, 2011
  68. 68. Optimism • Hope • Self-efficacy • Goal-setting
  69. 69. what IS vs. what COULD BE 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 128 Appendix G
  70. 70. what IS… 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 129
  71. 71. …what COULD BE 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 130
  72. 72. • Hope –Pathways thoughts – what causes what –Agency thoughts – who causes what Appendix C / D
  73. 73. • Hope –Academics –Athletics –Physical health –Social connection
  74. 74. • Accentuating Hope –Pathways thoughts • Break big goal into steps • Concentrate on 1st subgoal • Mentally rehearse; how will you handle roadblock? • Who do you know, who can you get to know, to give you advice? • What new skills will you need to learn to reach your goal?
  75. 75. • Accentuating Hope –Pathways thoughts –Agency thoughts • Recognize that YOU have chosen the goal • Practice self-talk • Recall your successes • Ask yourself “how am I doing”? Check in. • Be clear on the “why” of your goals.
  76. 76. Self-efficacy
  77. 77. • Hank: “I have things I need to do to improve my marriage, my health and my financial situation, but I honestly believe that I have zero chance of actually making any of those three things actually get better. ”
  78. 78. The Self-esteem Abacus
  79. 79. Goal-setting Appendix H
  80. 80. • High school students and leisure – Erickson & Compton, 1982 – Glancy, Willits, and Farrell, 1986 • Vacation satisfaction – Nawijn, Marchand, Veenhoven, & Vingerhoets, 2010 • Older adults and life satisfaction – Heo, Lee, McCormick, & Pedersen, 2010
  81. 81. How many hours do the British work? In 1870: 2970 hours per year
  82. 82. How many hours do the British work? In 1870: 2970 hours per year In 2012: 1654
  83. 83. How many hours do the British work? In 1870: 2970 hours per year In 2012: 1654 (1728 for Australians)
  84. 84. Ilona Bonniwell
  85. 85. www.TheTimeParadox.com click “surveys”
  86. 86. Relationships "By far the greatest predictor of happiness in the literature is intimate relationships" – Sonja Lyubomirsky
  87. 87. Rilling et al, 2012
  88. 88. Appendix J
  89. 89. Gable & Reis, 2010
  90. 90. the challenge of a “but-free day”
  91. 91. Fiese et al, 2002
  92. 92. Lyubomirsky, S., et al, 2005
  93. 93. KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM 1. Creativity 2. Curiosity 3. Love of learning 4. Wisdom / perspective 5. Open-mindedness COURAGE & FIRMNESS 6. Bravery 7. Persistence 8. Integrity 9. Vitality HUMANITY & LOVE 10. Give & receive love 11. Kindness 12. Social intelligence JUSTICE & FAIRNESS 13. Citizenship 14. Fairness 15. Leadership TEMPERANCE 16. Forgiveness / mercy 17. Modesty / humility 18. Prudence 19. Self-regulation TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  94. 94. Kindness Appendix J
  95. 95. Forgiveness • Decisional forgiveness • Emotional forgiveness • Expressing forgiveness • Restoration – Worthington, 2003
  96. 96. Do you want to be right? Or do you want to be in relationship? Appendix E
  97. 97. Religion, Meaning and Depth
  98. 98. Alain de Botton
  99. 99. Abdel-Khalek, 2007
  100. 100. Abdel-Khalek, 2007
  101. 101. Abdel-Khalek, 2007
  102. 102. 10% 100 % $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 High self-esteem Feeling happy Others’ approval Getting along well with others 21 “life bucks”
  103. 103. 10% 100 % $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 $1 $2 $3 $4 $5 $6 $7 $8 $9 $10 High self-esteem Feeling happy Others’ approval Getting along well with others 21 “life bucks”
  104. 104. 11 Happiness activities • Use your strengths • Journaling • Gratitude • Savouring • Flow • Physical exercise • Optimism and hope • Relationships • Kindness • Forgiveness • Meaning
  105. 105. “replicability of results”
  106. 106. SUPPORTING RESILIENCE
  107. 107. “Positive developmental outcomes despite adverse experiences” • Assets / risks • Protective processes / vulnerabilities •Competence / adversity
  108. 108. Three Keys to Family Resilience • Family belief systems • Organizational patterns • Communication processes Walsh (2006)
  109. 109. Family Belief Systems • Making meaning of adversity • Positive outlook • Transcendence and spirituality
  110. 110. Organizational Patterns • Flexibility • Connectedness/Cohesion • Social and economic resources
  111. 111. Communication Processes • Clarity • Open emotional expression • Collaborative problem solving
  112. 112. Resilience and Culture
  113. 113. Resilience “Resilience is often the most commonly observed outcome trajectory following exposure to a potentially traumatic event.” (Bonanno 2005)
  114. 114. Positive outcome after spinal cord injury • living a normal life, just doing things differently • overcoming challenges: determination to succeed • using the resources available to me
  115. 115. Post-traumatic Growth
  116. 116. Post-traumatic Growth Inventory I established a new path for my life. I know better that I can handle difficulties. I changed my priorities about what is important in life. New opportunities are available which wouldn't have been otherwise. I have more compassion for others. I discovered that I'm stronger than I thought I was. I have a greater sense of closeness with others. Tedeschi & Calhoun (1996)
  117. 117. • Strategies • Strengths • Resources • Insights
  118. 118. Neuroplasticity
  119. 119. “NeuroMalleability” 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 216
  120. 120. • Physical Exercise • Novel Learning Experience • Sleep • Nutrition • Stress Management / Meditation
  121. 121. UNDERSTANDING YOUR BRAIN’S REWARD-AND-PLANNING SYSTEM
  122. 122. What’s your “one thing”? Appendix F
  123. 123. Image: wikimedia commons
  124. 124. Cortico-striatal loop
  125. 125. Cortico-striatal loop
  126. 126. The reward-and-planning system
  127. 127. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions
  128. 128. Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Dante: “My biggest problem is that I want to do everything all at once!”
  129. 129. Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Inna: “I just get blank. I usually start sitting more slouched, hold my head with my left hand, ….you freeze and instead of being able to think of alternatives, you start thinking to yourself that you cannot find a logical answer and you are tempted to avoid it as if it poses a threat somehow to you.”
  130. 130. Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Hank: “I have things I need to do to improve my marriage, my health and my financial situation, but I honestly believe that I have zero chance of actually making any of those three things actually get better. ”
  131. 131. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions
  132. 132. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State
  133. 133. We don’t do anything we’re not motivated to do
  134. 134. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State OBSTACLES • Insight • Disconnect from values • Diminished options • Overly influenced by externals • Too busy with current activity
  135. 135. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State STRATEGIES • Identify the goal-behind-the- goal (what do you want to feel?) • Letter from the future
  136. 136. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks
  137. 137. The reward-and-planning system Identify Tasks OBSTACLES • Working memory • Understanding cause- effect • Self-efficacy • Role models
  138. 138. The reward-and-planning system Identify Tasks STRATEGIES • Coaching • Interview someone who’s already done it • Vocational counseling
  139. 139. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve
  140. 140. Ways the reward-and-planning system can go wrong • Dante: “My biggest problem is that I want to do everything all at once!”
  141. 141. The reward-and-planning system Sequence/ Problem solve OBSTACLES • Working memory • Self-efficacy • Learned helplessness
  142. 142. The reward-and-planning system Sequence/ Problem solve STRATEGIES • Coaching • Mind-mapping software / apps • Review your successes and strengths: What evidence do you have that you CAN do this? • Psychotherapy
  143. 143. easy hard 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 248
  144. 144. The reward-and-planning system Sequence/ Problem solve STRATEGIES • Coaching • Mind-mapping software / apps • Review your successes and strengths: What evidence do you have that you CAN do this? • Psychotherapy
  145. 145. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions
  146. 146. The reward-and-planning system Block Distractions OBSTACLES • Field dependent (sensitive to novelty) • Difficulty determining saliency • Working memory • Easily discouraged
  147. 147. The reward-and-planning system Block Distractions STRATEGIES • The Body Double • Pomodoro Technique • StayOnTask app • Increase salience (what’s in it for me?)
  148. 148. Increase salience
  149. 149. StayOnTask app
  150. 150. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions
  151. 151. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State
  152. 152. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State OBSTACLES • Picked wrong task • Picked wrong goal (“state”)
  153. 153. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State STRATEGIES • Maintain boundaries • Ask “what about this do I want?” • Get clear about your unique motivational blueprint.
  154. 154. Oppositional-defiant disorder as a learning disorder
  155. 155. The reward-and-planning system Goal / State Identify Tasks Sequence/ Problem solve Block Distractions
  156. 156. PREFERRED STATES INVENTORY Identifying Your Motivational Blueprint
  157. 157. Dopamine is the neurotransmitter of: • Reward • Motivation • Woo hoo! • Yay! • Happy • Success • Pride • Orgullo • Stoltz
  158. 158. What does dopamine feeeel like?
  159. 159. Quick: Name one thing your child is crazy about
  160. 160. 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 272
  161. 161. Quick: Name one thing you are crazy about
  162. 162. 3/16/2014 278
  163. 163. 3/16/2014 Nummenma et al 2014 279
  164. 164. 3/16/2014 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 280
  165. 165. Peak experiences
  166. 166. • Looking at old pictures. • My mother FINALLY getting on the Internet! • Being somebody important in someone else’s life. • Realizing you have done the right thing no matter how badly it hurts. • Finishing an article or writing project. • Paddling out at the crack of dawn with no one around. • Going to your girlfriends play and turning to your friend to say, "That's my girl." • The comfortable silence between the closest of friends. • Rising before sunrise to ride horses.
  167. 167. • Soft pajamas. • Kissing your boyfriend for the first time. • The sound of natural running water. • Watching your kids sleep (finally) after a long day. • Smelling rain. • Checking something off your to-do list. • Thinking of an ex- and smiling without being sad. • Learning how to change a tire all by yourself. • Finding a $5 bill in an old jacket pocket. • Having the car packed to perfection, just waiting for you to get behind the wheel and go!
  168. 168. Preferred States Inventory Appendix G 1. Call to mind a “peak” moment – When was this? – Who was there? – Where were you? 2. Clarify sensory detail – What exactly did you see? – What were you hearing? – Was there texture? Temperature? – Were there smells?
  169. 169. Preferred States Inventory 3. Identify the highlight moment – What was the very best part of all that? If you had to choose just one moment? 4. Say hello to your body – What were you feeling, in your body, right in the middle of all that? – Where exactly – in your body – did you feel that? – What words would describe that feeling?
  170. 170. Preferred States Inventory Appendix G 1. Call to mind another “peak” moment – When was this? – Who was there? – Where were you? 2. Clarify sensory detail – What exactly did you see? – What were you hearing? – Was there texture? Temperature? – Were there smells?
  171. 171. Preferred States Inventory 3. Identify the highlight moment – What was the very best part of all that? If you had to choose just one moment? 4. Say hello to your body – What were you feeling, in your body, right in the middle of all that? – Where exactly – in your body – did you feel that? – What words would describe that feeling?
  172. 172. Preferred States Inventory • Walk through the 4 steps again, with other peak moments (mix it up - find big moments as well as smaller moments, and find experiences from last week as well as from 10 years ago) • After you’ve walked through 10 or 15 of your best moments, notice what patterns and themes show up for you • What do you like to feeeeel? In your body? What are your preferred states?
  173. 173. Overview • What is Positive Psychology? • Why happiness? • 11 happiness activities • Supporting resilience • Maximizing your brain’s built-in hard-wired reward-and-planning system • Preferred States Inventory: Identifying your unique motivational blueprint
  174. 174. UIGSNBLKADNQ “Until I got still, nobody but little kids and dogs noticed the beautiful quiet.” • Unique • Intention • Gratitude • Savoring • Nagging/open question • Best thing I hadn’t noticed yet Appendix I
  175. 175. UIGSNBLKADNQ “Until I got still, nobody but little kids and dogs noticed the beautiful quiet.” • Lighten the load (forgiveness) • Kindness • Audacious goal • Doubts? • New-self exercise • Quiet
  176. 176. www.slideshare.net/dnowell
  177. 177. Enough happiness to keep you sweet; Enough trials to keep you strong; Enough sorrow to keep you human; Enough hope to keep you happy; Enough failure to keep you humble; Enough success to keep you eager; Enough friends to give you comfort; Enough wealth to meet your needs; Enough faith to banish depression; Enough determination to make each day better than yesterday.
  178. 178. Let’s stay in touch! Join my e-newsletter list:  Fill out a card today and drop it in the box.  Sign up on my web site or Facebook page Visit on the web: www.DrNowell.com @davidnowell David Nowell Seminars David D Nowell PhD
  179. 179. addictions x
  180. 180. Eating disorders Where are you when you are eating?
  181. 181. Hope comes from believing your efforts can make a difference Carol Dweck and colleagues gave children a fairly simple puzzle and told half the kids a comment that told them they were smart and the other half that they must have worked hard to solve the puzzles. Then they offered them a choice of simple or challenging puzzles. 90% of the kids who were praised for effort chose the difficult puzzles; a majority of the kids who were praised for intelligence chose the easier ones. Then all the kids were given some difficult puzzles. Then some that were about as easy as the initial ones. The “work hard” kids did 30% better than they had in the initial scores, while the “intelligence” kids scores declined by 20%. A. Cimpian et. al (2007). “Subtle Linguistic Clues Affect Children’s motivations,” Psychological Science, 18:314-316.

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