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Positive Psychology

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  • 7.6 M people used nyc train/bus yesterday1 M children went to/from school in finland yesterdayWhat are the benefits of keeping a keen eye out for things that might gowrong? How might this tendency affect my ability to prepare for, or respond to,problems?What are the costs of a problem focus? What might I be missing while myattention is otherwise trained on potential problems?What attracted you to positive psychology?What scepticism or concerns do you harbour about positive psychology?
  • 1. Is positive psychology an abandoning or rejection of the rest of psychology?In a word, no. Since World War II, psychology has focused its efforts on psychological problems and how to remedy them. These efforts have reaped large dividends. Great strides have been made in understanding and treating psychological disorders. Effective treatments now exist for more than a dozen disorders that were once seen as intractable (Barrett & Ollendick, 2004; Evans et al., 2005; Hibbs & Jensen, 1996; Kazdin & Weisz, 2003; Nathan & Gorman, 1998, 2002; Seligman, 1994).One consequence of this focus on psychological problems, however, is that psychology has little to say about what makes life most worth living. Positive psychology proposes to correct this imbalance by focusing on strengths as well as weaknesses, on building the best things in life as well as repairing the worst. It asserts that human goodness and excellence is just as authentic as distress and disorder, that life entails more than the undoing of problems.Psychology’s concern with remedying human problems is understandable and should certainly not be abandoned. Human suffering demands scientifically informed solutions. Suffering and well being, however, are both part of the human condition, and psychologists should be concerned with both.
  • None of this precludes a mastery of pathology and nosological language
  • 2. Is positive psychology just about making people happy?“Happiness” is commonly defined as a state of well being or pleasurable experience, but this notion of happiness is only a small part of positive psychology. Positive psychology is the scientific study of the strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive. According to Seligman (2002), positive psychology has three central concerns: positive emotions, positive individual traits, and positive institutions. Understanding positive emotion entails the study of contentment with the past, happiness in the present, and hope for the future. Understanding positive individual traits consists of the study of the strengths and virtues, such as the capacity for love and work, courage, compassion, resilience, creativity, curiosity, integrity, self-knowledge, moderation, self-control, and wisdom. Understanding positive institutions entails the study of meaning and purpose as well as the strengths that foster better communities, such as justice, responsibility, civility, parenting, nurturance, work ethic, leadership, teamwork, purpose, and tolerance.Each of these three domains is related to a different meaning of the scientifically unwieldy term “happiness,” and each has its own road to happiness (Seligman, 2002). Positive emotions lead to the pleasant life, which is similar to the hedonic theories of happiness. Using one’s strengths in a challenging task leads to the experience of flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) and the engaged life. Deploying one’s strengths in the service of something larger than oneself can lead to the meaningful life (e.g., belonging to and serving institutions such as education, free press, religion, democracy, and family, to name a few).
  • Seligman 1988 apa. Dtr: if I can..blanket…you can…grouchy
  • Seligman 1988 apa. Dtr: if I can..blanket…you can…grouchy
  • + psych now old Seligman nyt 5/16/11: regrets title of “authentic happiness”“If we just wanted positive emotions, our species would have died out a long time ago,” he says. “ We have children to pursue other elements of well-being. We want meaning in life. We want relationships.”
  • 3. Is positive psychology the same as positive thinking?Positive psychology is different from positive thinking in three significant ways. First, positive psychology is grounded in empirical and replicable scientific study. Second, positive thinking urges positivity on us for all times and places, but positive psychology does not. Positive psychology recognizes that in spite of the advantages of positive thinking, there are times when negative or realistic thinking is appropriate. Studies find that optimism is associated with better health, performance, longevity, and social success (Seligman, 1991; Lyubomirsky, King & Diener, 2005), but there is evidence that in some situations negative thinking leads to more accuracy and being accurate can have important consequences (Alloy, Abramson, & Chiara, 2000). Optimistic thinking can be associated with an underestimation of risks (Peterson & Vaidya, 2003). For example, we do not necessarily want a pilot or air traffic controller to be an optimist when deciding whether to take off during a storm.The third distinction between positive thinking and positive psychology is that many scholars of positive psychology have spent decades working on the “negative” side of things – depression, anxiety, trauma, etc. We do not view positive psychology as a replacement for traditional psychology, but merely as a supplement to the hard-won gains of traditional psychology.
  • Wealth is only weakly related to happiness both within and across nations, particularly when income is above the poverty level (Diener & Diener, 1996).Activities that make people happy in small doses – such as shopping, good food and making money – do not lead to fulfillment in the long term, indicating that these have quickly diminishing returns (Myers, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000).Engaging in an experience that produces ‘flow’ is so gratifying that people are willing to do it for its own sake, rather than for what they will get out of it. The activity is its own reward. Flow is experienced when one’s skills are sufficient for a challenging activity, in the pursuit of a clear goal, with immediate feedback on progress toward the goal. In such an activity, concentration is fully engaged in the moment, self-awareness disappears, and sense of time is distorted (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).People who express gratitude on a regular basis have better physical health, optimism, progress toward goals, well-being, and help others more (Emmons & Crumpler, 2000).Trying to maximize happiness can lead to unhappiness (Schwartz et al., 2002).People who witness others perform good deeds experience an emotion called ‘elevation’ and this motivates them to perform their own good deeds (Haidt, 2000).Optimism can protect people from mental and physical illness (Taylor et al., 2000).People who are optimistic or happy have better performance in work, school and sports, are less depressed, have fewer physical health problems, and have better relationships with other people. Further, optimism can be measured and it can be learned (Seligman, 1991; Lyubomirsky, King & Diener, 2005).People who report more positive emotions in young adulthood live longer and healthier lives (Danner, Snowdon, & Friesen, 2001).Physicians experiencing positive emotion tend to make more accurate diagnoses (Isen, 1993).Healthy human development can take place under conditions of even great adversity due to a process of resilience that is common and completely ordinary (Masten, 2001).There are benefits associated with disclosive writing. Individuals who write about traumatic events are physically healthier than control groups that do not. Individuals who write about the perceived benefits of traumatic events achieve the same physical health benefits as those who write only about the trauma (King & Miner, 2000). Individuals who write about their life goals and their best imagined future achieve similar physical health benefits to those who write only about traumatic events. Further, writing about life goals is significantly less distressing than writing about trauma, and is associated with enhanced well-being (King, 2001).People are unable to predict how long they will be happy or sad following an important event (Gilbert, Pinel, Wilson, Blumberg & Wheatley, 1998; Wilson, Meyers, & Gilbert, 2001). These researchers found that people typically overestimate how long they will be sad following a bad event, such as a romantic breakup, yet fail to learn from repeated experiences that their predictions are wrong.
  • Wealth is only weakly related to happiness both within and across nations, particularly when income is above the poverty level (Diener & Diener, 1996).Activities that make people happy in small doses – such as shopping, good food and making money – do not lead to fulfillment in the long term, indicating that these have quickly diminishing returns (Myers, 2000; Ryan & Deci, 2000).Engaging in an experience that produces ‘flow’ is so gratifying that people are willing to do it for its own sake, rather than for what they will get out of it. The activity is its own reward. Flow is experienced when one’s skills are sufficient for a challenging activity, in the pursuit of a clear goal, with immediate feedback on progress toward the goal. In such an activity, concentration is fully engaged in the moment, self-awareness disappears, and sense of time is distorted (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990).People who express gratitude on a regular basis have better physical health, optimism, progress toward goals, well-being, and help others more (Emmons & Crumpler, 2000).Trying to maximize happiness can lead to unhappiness (Schwartz et al., 2002).People who witness others perform good deeds experience an emotion called ‘elevation’ and this motivates them to perform their own good deeds (Haidt, 2000).Optimism can protect people from mental and physical illness (Taylor et al., 2000).People who are optimistic or happy have better performance in work, school and sports, are less depressed, have fewer physical health problems, and have better relationships with other people. Further, optimism can be measured and it can be learned (Seligman, 1991; Lyubomirsky, King & Diener, 2005).People who report more positive emotions in young adulthood live longer and healthier lives (Danner, Snowdon, & Friesen, 2001).Physicians experiencing positive emotion tend to make more accurate diagnoses (Isen, 1993).Healthy human development can take place under conditions of even great adversity due to a process of resilience that is common and completely ordinary (Masten, 2001).There are benefits associated with disclosive writing. Individuals who write about traumatic events are physically healthier than control groups that do not. Individuals who write about the perceived benefits of traumatic events achieve the same physical health benefits as those who write only about the trauma (King & Miner, 2000). Individuals who write about their life goals and their best imagined future achieve similar physical health benefits to those who write only about traumatic events. Further, writing about life goals is significantly less distressing than writing about trauma, and is associated with enhanced well-being (King, 2001).People are unable to predict how long they will be happy or sad following an important event (Gilbert, Pinel, Wilson, Blumberg & Wheatley, 1998; Wilson, Meyers, & Gilbert, 2001). These researchers found that people typically overestimate how long they will be sad following a bad event, such as a romantic breakup, yet fail to learn from repeated experiences that their predictions are wrong.
  • 5. Is the science of positive psychology descriptive or prescriptive? In other words, are we trying to tell people how they should live?Positive psychology is descriptive, not prescriptive, at least in Seligman’s view, although others disagree. We are not telling people which choices they should make; we are merely informing them about what is known about the consequences of their choices. The good life for one person is not necessarily the good life for another. Objective, empirical research on the conditions that lead to different outcomes, however, can help people make more informed choices, but we take no theoretical stand on the desirability of the different choices.
  • 6. As long as there is suffering in the world, how can we justify devoting time and resources to positive psychology? Isn’t human suffering more important than well being?Research has shown that one way to help suffering people is to focus on the building of strengths. Major strides in prevention have come largely by building strengths. Prevention researchers have discovered that there are strengths that act as buffers against mental illness: courage, future mindedness, optimism, faith, work ethic, hope, honesty, perseverance, and the capacity for flow and insight, to name several. Prevention can be far more effective than cure - witness how immunizations have largely eliminated polio and other diseases. Further, people care about more than just the relief of their suffering. These people also care about living a fulfilling and meaningful life.Positive psychology interventions can both increase happiness and alleviate symptoms of depression (Seligman, Steen, Park & Peterson, 2005). Fredrickson (2001) found that positive emotion can “undo” negative emotion and be the building blocks of resilience that combat physical illness. Lyubomirsky’s (2001) research on the conditions that enhance happiness has relevance for the practice of clinical psychology and the relief of mental disorders. Strengths function as a buffer against adversity and against psychological disorders, and they may be the key to resilience (Masten, 2001). The responsibility of a psychologist is not merely to heal damage and treat disorder, but also to guide people toward a life that can be fulfilling and meaningful.
  • 8. Is positive psychology a new field?No, it is not. Positive psychology has many distinguished ancestors. Since at least the time of Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle, the “good life” has been the subject of philosophical and religious inquiry. Psychologists have been working in positive psychology for decades. It just hasn’t been called positive psychology. To name just a few: Rogers (1951) and Maslow (1970) who are founders of the field of humanistic psychology, prevention programs based on wellness by Albee (1982) and Cowen (1994), work by Bandura (1989) and others on self-efficacy, research on gifted individuals (e.g., Winner, 2000), broader conceptions of intelligence (e.g., Gardner, 1983; Sternberg, 1985), among many others. Marie Jahoda (1958) made the case for understanding well being in its own right, not simply as the absence of disorder or distress.Positive psychology acknowledges a debt to humanistic psychology, which was popular in the 1960s and 1970s and has many followers to this day. Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers (among others) proposed that people strive to make the most of their potential in a process called self-actualization, which can be thwarted or enabled by a variety of conditions. Humanistic psychology emphasizes the goals for which people strive, their awareness of this striving, and the importance of rational choice in this process.Today’s positive psychologists have not invented the study of happiness, well being, or strengths. The contribution of contemporary positive psychology has been to make the explicit argument that what makes life most worth living deserves its own empirically based field of study, to provide an umbrella term that brings together isolated lines of theory and research, to promote the cross-fertilization of ideas in related fields through conferences, summer institutes and research grants, to develop a comprehensive conceptual view of broad notions of happiness, to bring this field to the attention of various foundations and funding agencies, to help raise money for research, and to firmly ground assertions on the scientific method.
  • Eb’s doing the best he can, q behav serves a fx
  • Eb’s doing the best he can, q behav serves a fx
  • Eb’s doing the best he can, q behav serves a fx
  • Eb’s doing the best he can, q behav serves a fx
  • At this point, selling you guys on +psych is like trying to convince you of the benefits of the internet
  • At this point, selling you guys on +psych is like trying to convince you of the benefits of the internet
  • At this point, selling you guys on +psych is like trying to convince you of the benefits of the internet
  • At this point, selling you guys on +psych is like trying to convince you of the benefits of the internet
  • At this point, selling you guys on +psych is like trying to convince you of the benefits of the internet
  • Resiliency. Benefit-findingMeaning makingPost-traumatic growth
  • Ptsd / eat d/o / panic / depression / axis ii / choicesResiliency. Benefit-finding (journaling research)Meaning making: you’re safe now…but many ppl..how about u? (1/4 x I hear meaning/benefits comments)Post-traumatic growth
  • I don’t teach mnemonics or executive strategies, I seek to uncover the client’sLikewise, can we wait on teaching coping and try to uncover the client’s? (e.g. 85 yo pt in rehab)
  • The neuropsychology of self-efficacy / accentuating hope and optimismNor is this “acceptance” – ambidexterous (in one hand…./ and in the other..)
  • What srvcs or resources matter most to pts w significant medical hx and disability? (visual / mobility / Cognitive (hope and benefit-finding)Behavioral (exercise / acts of kindness)Volitional (striving towards goals / generative / time towards worthy causes)
  • Positive developmental outcomes despite adverse experiencesAssets / risksProtective processes / vulnerabilitiesCompetence / adversityCompetence – adaptvie use of resources both w/in and outside the person to negotiate dvlpmntl challengesAdversity - -experriences w/ potential to disrupt adavtivefx’ing or dvlpmnt. Acute/chronic and envir./ person(tumor)Assets/risksProt.processes and vulner. Moderate the impact of adversitiesProt.proc (eg parental monitoring moderates impact of dangerous neighborhood)Vulnerabilities – assoc w/ negative outcomes (eg frightening and intrusive caregiving)Policy – prevent.healthcare, nutrition, safe housing, prevention of persecution, environ.protectionsCommunity – lo community violence, absence of drug traficking, connection to prosocial orgs (boys clubs), mentorsEducation-attentive tchrs, p-school programs, recreation resourcesFamily – stable and organized home, supportive kinship networks, socioeconomic advantage, faithIndividual – coping hx, secure attachment in infancy, effective emo and behav. Regulation strategies, +view of self, features valued by society (personality, looks, talents), iq/prob solvingLynWorsley – Sydney psychologist7 factors resilient people have in common
  • LynWorsley – Sydney psychologist7 factors resilient people have in common
  • LynWorsley – Sydney psychologist7 factors resilient people have in common
  • the mental state that results from a difficult challenge for which the subject has insufficient coping skills.[39]One place you wouldn’t want to have this problem?
  • Harm reductionStages of change / Motivational interviewing
  • Remember that emo. Mountaineering class you took in HS?
  • XopherjohnstoneS –Strategies: What did we do to overcome the difficulty? Activities might include problem solving, challenging your own static thinking, seeking help from others, or exercising.S – Strengths: What character strengths helped us overcome the difficulty? These might include courage, determination, creativity, patience, sensitivity, and so on.R – Resources: What other resources did we draw on? These might include family and friends, helping agencies, restorative environments, supportive communities or self-help books.I – Insights: What did we learn from this experience and from our response to it? This could be something like “Resilience is learnable,” that accepting support from others can be helpful, or that depression is caused by a complex combination of different risk factors rather than the fault of one person or one event.
  • Protective factors: rowboat in rocky waters – risk is greater if water (resources) is low
  • Protective factors: rowboat in rocky waters – risk is greater if water (resources) is low
  • A. Dialectical behavior therapyB. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapyC. Acceptance and commitment therapyD. Mindfulness-based eating awareness trainingAndersen, A. (2007). Stories I tell my patients: Where are you when you are eating? Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 15(3), 279-280.Bryant, F. & Veroff, J. (2007) Savoring: A new model of positive experience.. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Forman, E., Butryn, M., Hoffman, K., Herbert, J. (2009). An open trial of an acceptance-based behavioral intervention for weight loss. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. Special Series: Ethical Challenges in Cognitive Behavioral Research, Training, and Practice, 16(2), 223-235.Recent studies have included mindful eating training as part of weight loss interventions. Forman and colleagues studied the promotion of mindful eating habits in a 12-week trial. Participants lost an average of 6.6% of their body weight and 9.6% at the 6-month follow-up.Proulx, K. (2008). Experiences of women with bulimia nervosa in a mindfulness-based eating disorder treatment group. Eating Disorders: The Journal of Treatment & Prevention, 16(1), 52-72.Steck, E. L., Abrams, L. M., & Phelps, L. (2004). Positive psychology in the prevention of eating disorders.Psychology in the Schools, 41, 111-118. Quotation from page 112.
  • altruism is associated with good health, wellbeing and longevity.
  • Martin nowak- cooperation and competition are forever entwined in a tight embrace.” In pursuing our self-interested goals, we often have an incentive to repay kindness with kindness, so others will do us favors when we’re in need. We have an incentive to establish a reputation for niceness, so people will want to work with us. We have an incentive to work in teams, even against our short-term self-interest because cohesive groups thrive. Cooperation is as central to evolution as mutation and selection, Nowak arguesMichaeltomasello– 12 mo. Old infants point (coperate), s.t. adults chimps never do. Humans deviated from other primates at this point – born w/ a readiness to cooperate and build cultures that magnify that capacity.Dacherkeltner– smile, nervous cough, touch. When friends laugh together, their laughs start out as separate vocalizations, but they merge and become intertwined sounds. It now seems as though laughter evolved millions of years ago, long before vowels and consonants, as a mechanism to build cooperation. Relative absence of embarassment may predict antisocial behavior. Ss who smile more – even for staged fotos – may be happier in later life.
  • Martin nowak- cooperation and competition are forever entwined in a tight embrace.” In pursuing our self-interested goals, we often have an incentive to repay kindness with kindness, so others will do us favors when we’re in need. We have an incentive to establish a reputation for niceness, so people will want to work with us. We have an incentive to work in teams, even against our short-term self-interest because cohesive groups thrive. Cooperation is as central to evolution as mutation and selection, Nowak arguesMichaeltomasello– 12 mo. Old infants point (coperate), s.t. adults chimps never do. Humans deviated from other primates at this point – born w/ a readiness to cooperate and build cultures that magnify that capacity.Dacherkeltner– smile, nervous cough, touch. When friends laugh together, their laughs start out as separate vocalizations, but they merge and become intertwined sounds. It now seems as though laughter evolved millions of years ago, long before vowels and consonants, as a mechanism to build cooperation. Relative absence of embarassment may predict antisocial behavior. Ss who smile more – even for staged fotos – may be happier in later life.
  • Dacherkeltner– smile, nervous cough, touch. When friends laugh together, their laughs start out as separate vocalizations, but they merge and become intertwined sounds. It now seems as though laughter evolved millions of years ago, long before vowels and consonants, as a mechanism to build cooperation. Relative absence of embarassment may predict antisocial behavior. Ss who smile more – even for staged fotos – may be happier in later life.
  • Giraffes of altruism
  • Emory University neuroscientists James Rilling and Gregory Berns. They found that the act of helping another person triggers activity in the caudate nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex regions of the brain, the parts involved in pleasure and reward.Ss instructed to plan 5 acts of kindness during week. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111-131.
  • Three sources of moral motivationEmpathyIdentification w/ moral modelsCommitment to personal principles of rt and wrongOr…We are moved by suffering…moved by goodness of moral models…moved by ideas of what is good
  • What behav are we encouraging?
  • golemanPerceiving emotions — the ability to detect and decipher emotions in faces, pictures, voices, and cultural artifacts- including the ability to identify one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic aspect of emotional intelligence, as it makes all other processing of emotional information possible. Using emotions — the ability to harness emotions to facilitate various cognitive activities, such as thinking and problem solving. The emotionally intelligent person can capitalize fully upon his or her changing moods in order to best fit the task at hand.
  • That’s my bipolar!
  • Daniel goleman collaborative for social and emo. LearningMgt of emo expressionPeer aggressionNavigating social nuanceModulation of emo arousalFearfulness and worry – inhibition / avoidanceMgt of aversive emotions – viewed as less desirable playmatesSelf-regulation – cutting, psa
  • 1948 – 3rd generation now -- AbstractObjectives To evaluate whether happiness can spread from person to person and whether niches of happiness form within social networks. Design Longitudinal social network analysis. Setting Framingham Heart Study social network. Participants 4739 individuals followed from 1983 to 2003. Main outcome measures Happiness measured with validated four item scale; broad array of attributes of social networks and diverse social ties. Results Clusters of happy and unhappy people are visible in the network, and the relationship between people’s happiness extends up to three degrees of separation (for example, to the friends of one’s friends’ friends). People who are surrounded by many happy people and those who are central in the network are more likely to become happy in the future. Longitudinal statistical models suggest that clusters of happiness result from the spread of happiness and not just a tendency for people to associate with similar individuals. A friend who lives within a mile (about 1.6 km) and who becomes happy increases the probability that a person is happy by 25% (95% confidence interval 1% to 57%). Similar effects are seen in coresident spouses (8%, 0.2% to 16%), siblings who live within a mile (14%, 1% to 28%), and next door neighbours (34%, 7% to 70%). Effects are not seen between coworkers. The effect decays with time and with geographical separation. Conclusions People’s happiness depends on the happiness of others with whom they are connected. This provides further justification for seeing happiness, like health, as a collective phenomenon.
  • …you’re probably wrongPpl don’t get better atestimatimh how long…
  • Genetics – twin and sib studies
  • richest americans only slightly happier;
  • richest americans only slightly happier; 25% of married, and 21% of single, say “very happy.”
  • richest americans only slightly happier;
  • INTENTIONAL ACTIVITIESAppendix C p.24GratitudeSavoringHope/optimismForgivenesskindness
  • INTENTIONAL ACTIVITIESAppendix C p.24GratitudeSavoringHope/optimismForgivenesskindness
  • Seligman36”
  • Journaling about traumatic events reduced distress in survivors of traumaJournaling about perceived growth and benefits provided just as much benefit
  • Pair up: elicit behavioral / sensory info
  • Experience sampling method: did u enjoy? Were u concentrating? Interesting? Ratings for how challenging and how skilled.ESM: h.s. students >concentrated in classroom but when instruction was perceived as challeging and relevant, and when perceived themselves to be active, in cntrl, and competentSmall grp activities assoc w/ hi concentration and hi enjoyment
  • Dan’lgilbert and matthewkillingsworth
  • Trackyourhappiness.org
  • Cognitive focus – beliefs about future, self, impact of actions/choicesBenefits: >able to cope w/ school stressors, eg transition to 2ary ed. And to collegeLess hostile towards schoolaccidents and mva’s>safe sex px’s<depri
  • APPENDIX L p.a13: LAST TXGIVING HOLIDAY: ON SCALE FROM 1-10 HOW GOOD WAS IT FOR U AND YR FAMILY? HOW COULD IT BE A (+1)?MAIN RELATIONSHIP…MOST IMP RELATIONSHIP: WHAT WOULD MAKE IT 10% BETTER? WHAT COULD I DO THIS WK’END TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN?
  • APPENDIX L p.a13: LAST TXGIVING HOLIDAY: ON SCALE FROM 1-10 HOW GOOD WAS IT FOR U AND YR FAMILY? HOW COULD IT BE A (+1)?MAIN RELATIONSHIP…MOST IMP RELATIONSHIP: WHAT WOULD MAKE IT 10% BETTER? WHAT COULD I DO THIS WK’END TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN?
  • APPENDIX L p.a13: LAST TXGIVING HOLIDAY: ON SCALE FROM 1-10 HOW GOOD WAS IT FOR U AND YR FAMILY? HOW COULD IT BE A (+1)?MAIN RELATIONSHIP…MOST IMP RELATIONSHIP: WHAT WOULD MAKE IT 10% BETTER? WHAT COULD I DO THIS WK’END TO MAKE THAT HAPPEN?
  • Cognitive focus – beliefs about future, self, impact of actions/choicesBenefits: >able to cope w/ school stressors, eg transition to 2ary ed. And to collegeLess hostile towards schoolaccidents and mva’s>safe sex px’s<depri
  • Cognitive focus – beliefs about future, self, impact of actions/choicesBenefits: >able to cope w/ school stressors, eg transition to 2ary ed. And to collegeLess hostile towards schoolaccidents and mva’s>safe sex px’s<depri
  • Academics – persistence, f/u, staying on-task. >hope scores predict >gpa in college. 6 yr project at U.Wyoming (^hope in at risk students)Athletics - Hope assoc. w/ motivation. Div I track athletes w/hivs lo hope demonstrated > perf. Independent of skill.Physical health – primary and secondary preventionPts w/ hi hope make better use of medical info>adherence to tx planGiltay, E. et al., (2006). - dutch study: most optimistic men had half the rate of MI as least optimistic men
  • Physical health – primary and secondary preventionPts w/ hi hope make better use of medical info>adherence to tx planGiltay, E. et al., (2006). - dutch study: most optimistic men had half the rate of MI as least optimistic menPeled, Ronit. (2008) breast CA – high optimism 25% less likely to develop CA. 2 or more traumatic events increased CA risk by >60%Social connection - pleasure in meeting new ppl, enjoying soc contacts, and interest in the goal pursuits of othersSocial connection – specifically, hi hope Ss may present selves > +ly.Hi hope assoc with hi soc. DesirabilityHi hope assoc with higher perceived soc support, < loneliness – frh pt w/ numerous visitors
  • Break LT goal into stepsConcentrate on 1stsubgoalMentally rehearse scripts; how will u handle roadblock?Who do u know, who can u get to know, to give u advice?What new skills will u need to learn to reach yr goal?
  • Recognize that YOU have chosen the goalPx self-talkRecall yr successes – develop a Hope NarrativeExpect roadblocks and obstaclesAsk yrself “how am I doing”? Check in.Be clear on the “why” of your goals.
  • s.e. assoc with initiation, amt of effort expended, persistence trotz obstacles, resilience, helpful cognitions.Domain-specific
  • s.e. assoc with initiation, amt of effort expended, persistence trotz obstacles, resilience, helpful cognitions.Domain-specific
  • Ct ed re: hope (emphasizing concrete, behav., specific, cognitive)Structure hope for ct: review areas of life, note level of satisfactionCreate + and specific goalsVisualize and verbalize – r+ agency and id pathways (bk down goals)Check-in, review, recycle
  • Windfall moneySs instructed to plan 5 acts of kindness during week. Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K. M., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing happiness: The architecture of sustainable change. Review of General Psychology, 9, 111-131.
  • Any character strength can be a flaw….kindness / burnout / exploitation
  • Perceive others > +’lyFosters heightened sense of interdependenceMay relieve guilt/distress, >self-perception
  • Perceive others > +’lyFosters heightened sense of interdependenceMay relieve guilt/distress, >self-perception
  • Fredrickson and Losada reviewed high functioning individuals, families, and work teams. When we observe the positive to negative communications, a common fact emerges:Languishing: >1:1Flourishing: < 2.9:1Ideal: 4 or 5:1Fredrickson, B.L.& Losada, M.F. (2005) Positive Affect and the Complex Dynamics of Human Flourishing. American Psychologist. 60(7), 678-686
  • How will you know when your relationship has improved significantly?Who will be the first person to notice that you’re happier, … what exactly will they notice?What ko place is this?
  • TBI ct: independence and power
  • Reduced after trauma. dose-dependent
  • Bio impact of behav changes
  • Neuroanatomy NeurotransmittersPhenomenology of dopamine and serotonin
  • Neuroanatomy NeurotransmittersPhenomenology of dopamine and serotonin
  • Certain aspects of memory / learning
  • Certain aspects of memory / learning
  • Neuroanatomy NeurotransmittersPhenomenology of dopamine and serotonin
  • So which behavior to support? Depends on where the breakdown is.
  • St’s going to happen today at 5:00
  • You have to believe that the adult will f/uDv and hope123” (1130)
  • The full existential horror of being an adult
  • If only I could be as org. as I am the day before vacation
  • EXPLAIN WKSHOP’S PURPOSE, INCREASE SALIENCE, RELATE TO PRIOR K’LEDGE
  • Make task shorter, build in breaks, use salient r+ for afterwards, make steps more explicit, make task more appealing (beat the clock, write steps down on slips of paper, in jar)
  • STUDY BOX
  • What are some your most challenging motivational issues? Unmotivated or resistant clients? What do they neeeed to do? What’s the behavior they most need to change?Small group: What are the adaptive purposes of resistance?Resistance could be a sign that the client does not want to be there— that the client came to counseling to satisfy demands of someone else. Resistance could be an adjustment reaction to the novel situation of counseling, of actually talking to someone about problems, of being in the office of a "shrink." Resistance could be a reaction to the openness of the therapist. Such openness may be experienced by the client as very strange behavior. Resistance can be an indication that the client does not know how to be a client. For example, they may not be skilled at "going inside" and assessing and experiencing their own feelings (Moursund & Kenny, 2002). Thus, when feelings are suggested and stated by the therapist, the client may be perplexed and bewildered. Resistance could be an indication that the client has been hurt in previous close relationships. Thus, in order to prevent additional pain, they stop moving forward to guard against the perceived pain that may arise in the client-therapist relationship (Moursund & Kenny, 2002). Resistance could be a sign of an underlying fear of failure. This fear of failure may be toward making changes in one's life. Alternatively, this fear may be from the client not knowing how to be a client and, at the same time, having a high need for success or perfectionism. Thus, resistance may be a result of the fear of failure at being a client. Resistance may be a result of feelings of shame that exist because the client has not been able to resolve issues (Teyber, 2000) or because of the social implications surrounding the issues. Resistance could be a result of the fear of taking risks. It might be that counseling is seen by the client as highly risky behavior whereas the client is actually very conservative in his/her approach to life. Resistance may be an indication that the client feels as if he/she is "…having familiar things taken away or tinkered with in ways that do not yet feel safe" (Murphy & Dillon, 1998, p. 126). Resistance could be a sign of social fear that emerges as a result of poor social skills. Resistance could be a desire from the client to flex his/her individuality. Resistance may be a sign that the client enjoys manipulating others and, by not "moving" or responding therapeutically, he/she realizes that he/she can manipulate the therapist. Opposing the therapist may be one of the only empowering elements of the client's life. Resistance can be passive-aggressive behavior. The client may be angry with the counselor or some other adult or authority figure that the counselor represents (i.e., transference). This anger is expressed as resistance. Resistance could be a result of life experiences. Perhaps the client has learned that parental or authority figures are not to be trusted. It may be that he/she has learned that to survive you should not trust authority figures. Thus, what appears to be resistance may be a survival mechanism in reaction to authority figures in general (Kaplan, 2001). Resistance can be an indication that the client is psychologically drained and does not have the energy to take on the tasks that will lead to change. Here, the therapist needs to back off and allow for replenishing of energy. Take a therapeutic break. Resistance can be a personality style. Some people enjoy the battle of resisting. In such people, the stimulation that results from arguing and controversy may reinforce resistant behavior. Such people often switch positions if they find others agreeing with them in order to keep the stimulation going (Kottler, 1994). Resistance may be a reaction to the loss of personal freedom inherent in the counseling relationship (Anderson & Steward, 1983). "Entering any form of psychotherapy constitutes the formation of a dependent relationship and therefore a loss of personal freedom" (p. 30). From an Adlerian perspective resistance is the client's way of avoiding personal responsibility and of gaining respect and sympathy from others (King, 1992). Adler viewed all behavior as purposeful and concluded that these two justifications explained the underlying purposes behind what is deemed resistance and the related symptoms. Resistance can be an act of jealousy or sabotage in order to maintain the counseling relationship. "If I get better, then I will not be able to come to these sessions and get all of this attention and maintain my relationship with my counselor." In this instance, an unhealthy dependence has developed between the client and therapist. Resistance may be a healthy response to bad counseling (Hammond, Hepworth, & Smith, 1977). Therapists who lack empathy, dominate discussions, lecture to clients, move too quickly, offer advice from a know- it-all stance, etc. will likely arouse resistance in healthy clients seeking someone with better counseling skills.Without resistance all social systems would dissolve into chaos and confusion, changing with every new idea presented. Without resistance families would not have the stability necessary to provide the structure required to raise healthy children. Resistance is what prevents us from being victims of charlatans and sociopathic con artists. Resistance is what prevents us from buying every product presented to us in commercials and infomercials. Without a certain amount of resistance we would have no stability, predictability, security, and comfort. Without resistance there would be no sense of self. Feminists regard resistance as an indicator that the client is fighting against unjust systems and as a sign of power in the face of oppression (Brown, 1994, as cited in Corey, 2001). Resistance provides us with a sense of being right. Can there be right and wrong without resistance? Resistance can be a sign of good mental health and judgment. Without resistance there would be no mental health.
  • What is desired outcome?
  • What is desired outcome?
  • Resistance feels personalSocial interaction theory – resistance is information about how the ct proceeds w/ change, and about the txrela. And the willingness of the ct to accept influence from the TS.e.b. is ambiv. Re changeResistance may mean the TS wants more for a ct than he wants for himself…or TS is going too fast, or doesn’t know what to do, or is resisting the ct’s position
  • Resistance feels personalSocial interaction theory – resistance is information about how the ct proceeds w/ change, and about the txrela. And the willingness of the ct to accept influence from the TS.e.b. is ambiv. Re changeResistance may mean the TS wants more for a ct than he wants for himself…or TS is going too fast, or doesn’t know what to do, or is resisting the ct’s position
  • To avoid – consequencesTo approach + consequencesThe environ. Has changedThe brain has changedThe physiology has changed
  • To avoid – consequencesTo approach + consequencesThe environ. Has changedThe brain has changedThe physiology has changed
  • To avoid – consequencesTo approach + consequencesThe environ. Has changedThe brain has changedThe physiology has changed
  • To avoid – consequencesTo approach + consequencesThe environ. Has changedThe brain has changedThe physiology has changed
  • 3 CHAIRSDon’t ask ?s if the answer is apparent from body language and NVs.Don’t ask ?s the answer to which could only be “because I’m a big dummy.”Don’t ask more than 2 consecutive ?s w/o accurate empathy stmtWhat will you do w/ the answer? (ll picking your nose)Emphasize your curiosity statt demanding R to ?sTalk just a bit, put your cards on the table (the reason I’m asking is that there are at least 2-3 reasons people tell me they’re uncomfortable in the spmkt)What does “I don’t know” mean?•"I don’t know" may mean that the client truly does not know. The client genuinely does not have certain knowledge or possibilities in his/her mind. In this case, the client is truly stuck and perplexed when the current situation is considered. Therapists frustrated with clients or who feel pressed to rush the therapeutic process, may discount the literal interpretation of the response. As will be explained however, this is the most viable interpretation on which to base responses.           •One step removed from the above interpretation of "I don't know" is that the client has no clear formulation of the answer. More specifically, no words or sentences can readily be stated that sound correct as an answer for the client. There may be a vague intuitive understanding or feeling of the answer, yet the client is truly at a loss when it comes to putting this answer in clear, explicit terms. •It could indicate that the client does know the answer; yet, does not want to say it because it is threatening in some way. To speak the answer may be the same as admitting a personal flaw or having made a mistake or not being capable or not wanting to face certain consequences. It may also be threatening in that the answer would result in the client having to face a reality he/she has been avoiding. Here "I don't know" is a deflection to avoid painful realizations. •It could be an indication that there is a known answer; however, to provide it would only elicit controversy. In this instance, "I don't know" is used as a means to keep the peace in relationships. •It could mean that the client has an answer but does not want to voice that answer because he/she is afraid that it is not the answer that you desire. You may have directly or indirectly conveyed a bias toward certain ideas that inadvertently encouraged an "I don’t know" response. •It could be an indication that the client is oppositional and, regardless of what he/she knows, he/she is not about to provide a response and be cooperative. 
  • What does “I don’t know” mean?•"I don’t know" may mean that the client truly does not know. The client genuinely does not have certain knowledge or possibilities in his/her mind. In this case, the client is truly stuck and perplexed when the current situation is considered. Therapists frustrated with clients or who feel pressed to rush the therapeutic process, may discount the literal interpretation of the response. As will be explained however, this is the most viable interpretation on which to base responses.           •One step removed from the above interpretation of "I don't know" is that the client has no clear formulation of the answer. More specifically, no words or sentences can readily be stated that sound correct as an answer for the client. There may be a vague intuitive understanding or feeling of the answer, yet the client is truly at a loss when it comes to putting this answer in clear, explicit terms. •It could indicate that the client does know the answer; yet, does not want to say it because it is threatening in some way. To speak the answer may be the same as admitting a personal flaw or having made a mistake or not being capable or not wanting to face certain consequences. It may also be threatening in that the answer would result in the client having to face a reality he/she has been avoiding. Here "I don't know" is a deflection to avoid painful realizations. •It could be an indication that there is a known answer; however, to provide it would only elicit controversy. In this instance, "I don't know" is used as a means to keep the peace in relationships. •It could mean that the client has an answer but does not want to voice that answer because he/she is afraid that it is not the answer that you desire. You may have directly or indirectly conveyed a bias toward certain ideas that inadvertently encouraged an "I don’t know" response. •It could be an indication that the client is oppositional and, regardless of what he/she knows, he/she is not about to provide a response and be cooperative. 
  • 3 CHAIRSDon’t ask ?s if the answer is apparent from body language and NVs.Don’t ask ?s the answer to which could only be “because I’m a big dummy.”Don’t ask more than 2 consecutive ?s w/o accurate empathy stmtWhat will you do w/ the answer? (ll picking your nose)Emphasize your curiosity statt demanding R to ?sTalk just a bit, put your cards on the table (the reason I’m asking is that there are at least 2-3 reasons people tell me they’re uncomfortable in the spmkt)What does “I don’t know” mean?•"I don’t know" may mean that the client truly does not know. The client genuinely does not have certain knowledge or possibilities in his/her mind. In this case, the client is truly stuck and perplexed when the current situation is considered. Therapists frustrated with clients or who feel pressed to rush the therapeutic process, may discount the literal interpretation of the response. As will be explained however, this is the most viable interpretation on which to base responses.           •One step removed from the above interpretation of "I don't know" is that the client has no clear formulation of the answer. More specifically, no words or sentences can readily be stated that sound correct as an answer for the client. There may be a vague intuitive understanding or feeling of the answer, yet the client is truly at a loss when it comes to putting this answer in clear, explicit terms. •It could indicate that the client does know the answer; yet, does not want to say it because it is threatening in some way. To speak the answer may be the same as admitting a personal flaw or having made a mistake or not being capable or not wanting to face certain consequences. It may also be threatening in that the answer would result in the client having to face a reality he/she has been avoiding. Here "I don't know" is a deflection to avoid painful realizations. •It could be an indication that there is a known answer; however, to provide it would only elicit controversy. In this instance, "I don't know" is used as a means to keep the peace in relationships. •It could mean that the client has an answer but does not want to voice that answer because he/she is afraid that it is not the answer that you desire. You may have directly or indirectly conveyed a bias toward certain ideas that inadvertently encouraged an "I don’t know" response. •It could be an indication that the client is oppositional and, regardless of what he/she knows, he/she is not about to provide a response and be cooperative. 
  • 3 CHAIRSDon’t ask ?s if the answer is apparent from body language and NVs.Don’t ask ?s the answer to which could only be “because I’m a big dummy.”Don’t ask more than 2 consecutive ?s w/o accurate empathy stmtWhat will you do w/ the answer? (ll picking your nose)Emphasize your curiosity statt demanding R to ?sTalk just a bit, put your cards on the table (the reason I’m asking is that there are at least 2-3 reasons people tell me they’re uncomfortable in the spmkt)What does “I don’t know” mean?•"I don’t know" may mean that the client truly does not know. The client genuinely does not have certain knowledge or possibilities in his/her mind. In this case, the client is truly stuck and perplexed when the current situation is considered. Therapists frustrated with clients or who feel pressed to rush the therapeutic process, may discount the literal interpretation of the response. As will be explained however, this is the most viable interpretation on which to base responses.           •One step removed from the above interpretation of "I don't know" is that the client has no clear formulation of the answer. More specifically, no words or sentences can readily be stated that sound correct as an answer for the client. There may be a vague intuitive understanding or feeling of the answer, yet the client is truly at a loss when it comes to putting this answer in clear, explicit terms. •It could indicate that the client does know the answer; yet, does not want to say it because it is threatening in some way. To speak the answer may be the same as admitting a personal flaw or having made a mistake or not being capable or not wanting to face certain consequences. It may also be threatening in that the answer would result in the client having to face a reality he/she has been avoiding. Here "I don't know" is a deflection to avoid painful realizations. •It could be an indication that there is a known answer; however, to provide it would only elicit controversy. In this instance, "I don't know" is used as a means to keep the peace in relationships. •It could mean that the client has an answer but does not want to voice that answer because he/she is afraid that it is not the answer that you desire. You may have directly or indirectly conveyed a bias toward certain ideas that inadvertently encouraged an "I don’t know" response. •It could be an indication that the client is oppositional and, regardless of what he/she knows, he/she is not about to provide a response and be cooperative. 
  • 3 CHAIRSDon’t ask ?s if the answer is apparent from body language and NVs.Don’t ask ?s the answer to which could only be “because I’m a big dummy.”Don’t ask more than 2 consecutive ?s w/o accurate empathy stmtWhat will you do w/ the answer? (ll picking your nose)Emphasize your curiosity statt demanding R to ?sTalk just a bit, put your cards on the table (the reason I’m asking is that there are at least 2-3 reasons people tell me they’re uncomfortable in the spmkt)What does “I don’t know” mean?•"I don’t know" may mean that the client truly does not know. The client genuinely does not have certain knowledge or possibilities in his/her mind. In this case, the client is truly stuck and perplexed when the current situation is considered. Therapists frustrated with clients or who feel pressed to rush the therapeutic process, may discount the literal interpretation of the response. As will be explained however, this is the most viable interpretation on which to base responses.           •One step removed from the above interpretation of "I don't know" is that the client has no clear formulation of the answer. More specifically, no words or sentences can readily be stated that sound correct as an answer for the client. There may be a vague intuitive understanding or feeling of the answer, yet the client is truly at a loss when it comes to putting this answer in clear, explicit terms. •It could indicate that the client does know the answer; yet, does not want to say it because it is threatening in some way. To speak the answer may be the same as admitting a personal flaw or having made a mistake or not being capable or not wanting to face certain consequences. It may also be threatening in that the answer would result in the client having to face a reality he/she has been avoiding. Here "I don't know" is a deflection to avoid painful realizations. •It could be an indication that there is a known answer; however, to provide it would only elicit controversy. In this instance, "I don't know" is used as a means to keep the peace in relationships. •It could mean that the client has an answer but does not want to voice that answer because he/she is afraid that it is not the answer that you desire. You may have directly or indirectly conveyed a bias toward certain ideas that inadvertently encouraged an "I don’t know" response. •It could be an indication that the client is oppositional and, regardless of what he/she knows, he/she is not about to provide a response and be cooperative. 
  • Each stage a “culture” – what are our biases about other “cultures”
  •  Precontemplation: no to all          Contemplation: yes to #4 and no to all others          Preparation: yes to #3 and #4, but no to the others          Action: yes to #2 and no to #1          Maintenance: yes to #1 Each stage a “culture” – what are our biases about other “cultures”
  • Each stage a “culture” – what are our biases about other “cultures”Ct resistance = TX approaching als ob ct in different stage of change? Exceptions to that?Role play TS w/ precontemplative. How specifically does ct define problem?Once we engage a client in talking honestly about their lives, problem talk emerges. There are patterns.
  • One ct/student w/ whomyou’ve been engaging als ob he was at a diff. stage of change?
  • Express empathyCreate discrepancyRoll with resistance – any misgiving the client has i can meet you and raise you tenfoldSupport self-efficacy
  • Express empathyCreate discrepancyRoll with resistance – any misgiving the client has i can meet you and raise you tenfoldSupport self-efficacy
  • Dx approach
  • 109”
  • FIGHTING NUN IN MYSTERY BOX: WHY IS THIS FUNNY? WE HAVE EXPECTATIONS BASED ON AGE, STATUS, ETC.Preschool Run simple errands (e.g., “Get your shoes from thebedroom”). Tidy bedroom or playroom with assistance. Perform simple chores and self-help tasks withreminders (e.g., clear dishes from table, brush teeth,get dressed). Inhibit behaviors: don’t touch a hot stove; don’t runinto the street; don’t grab a toy from another child;don’t hit, bite, push, etc.
  • FIGHTING NUN IN MYSTERY BOX: WHY IS THIS FUNNY? WE HAVE EXPECTATIONS BASED ON AGE, STATUS, ETC.Preschool Run simple errands (e.g., “Get your shoes from thebedroom”). Tidy bedroom or playroom with assistance. Perform simple chores and self-help tasks withreminders (e.g., clear dishes from table, brush teeth,get dressed). Inhibit behaviors: don’t touch a hot stove; don’t runinto the street; don’t grab a toy from another child;don’t hit, bite, push, etc.
  • FIGHTING NUN IN MYSTERY BOX: WHY IS THIS FUNNY? WE HAVE EXPECTATIONS BASED ON AGE, STATUS, ETC.Preschool Run simple errands (e.g., “Get your shoes from thebedroom”). Tidy bedroom or playroom with assistance. Perform simple chores and self-help tasks withreminders (e.g., clear dishes from table, brush teeth,get dressed). Inhibit behaviors: don’t touch a hot stove; don’t runinto the street; don’t grab a toy from another child;don’t hit, bite, push, etc.
  • Taking behaviorism at its word
  • Person a) 800 dinar/month to do nothing. 500/month to do a job that’s hard and non directly connected to personal goals/values. Person b) 1100 dinar/month to get person a back to work. Who’s more motivated?
  • Marie jahoda – born in austria, worked in uk. 1958: Current Concepts of Positive Mental Health1982 book Employment and Unemployment. A Social-Psychological Analysis. In it, she stressed social contact and shared purpose as vital for well-being. So, Jahoda foreshadowed my own summary of positive psychology that "other people matter.“Employment is not the same thing as work. Employment is what people do in order to earn money. Work, in contrast, is what people do in order to live a fulfilling life. People without paid jobs can and do have fulfilling lives, so long as they have work. Conversely, people with well-paying jobs can be miserable, if they do not have work.
  • 1. It imposes a time structure on the day and thereby on our experience. Much as we celebrate leisure, Jahoda made the interesting point that leisure time is valued only when it is scarce, a complement to work as opposed to a substitute.2. It enlarges the scope of relationships beyond those of the immediate family or neighborhood where one lives.3. It provides meaning through the shared purposes and activities of a social group.4. It assigns social status and clarifies personal identity. Work (or employment) need not be "high status" to meet this need.5. It requires regular activity."Work not in order to earn a living is for some, for some length of time, an appropriate alternative to employment if they can manage to live within their financial support from public funds or belong to the lucky few who have private means" (p. 94).
  • social contact and shared purpose
  • Work-life balance55”
  • 1 – STOP talking about work! It doesn’t really surprise clients that you think they should get a job, do work they enjoy, etc. Check your job title, this isn’t news! Clients are pleasantly surprised when we don’t talk about work, but instead begin with what’s important to them and what they want in life. This allows us to discover what’s in it for them to work.2 – STOP acting as if work is a glorious goal in and of itself!For most of us, work is a means to things that are important to us, a way to get and do things we value, such as making a difference, providing for our families, living out a calling, being creative, independent, influential, etc. This is what we want in life and work helps us do it! So it should be for our clients.3 – STOP filtering everything through your personal values, and even imposing them on clients! People are unique. Their values and motivations are as different from yours as their facial features and life experience. Your values can hinder the process, diminish the partnership and keep you from seeing what matters to them. Listen, listen, listen without prejudice.
  • - we do not take the invitation to take the client’s pain, to fix it, to do the hard work. 1. You feel like you are fighting and arguing with your clients. Many times you may have felt like you were trying to convince your clients of something and not making headway. 2. Your clients are "Yes, butting…" you to death. 3. You are worrying more and carrying more tension about clients' problems than clients are. The therapeutic tension should stay with the client, not the therapist. 4. You dread the session before it begins. 
  • Clients should want to change.Clients should be easy to work with.It is good for me to remove my clients distress.My job is make my clients feel better.Clients will move towards change when I present more convincing arguments.
  • the first step is to clearly determine how the problem is a problem from the client's perspective.
  • Embedded suggestions:"I can tell you're deeply hurt by the loss of your boyfriend, and it's at times like these that it's so hard to…imagine all of the other men available to date." "You’ve wanted to divorce for a long time, but it’s hard to…comprehend reestablishing yourself with another partner." "You’re so angry with your ____ that you could really give him/her a piece of your mind. It’s at times like these that you just can’t…imagine sitting down and having a mature conversation about this situation." "At this time it appears that you get very nervous before a test, it’s hard for you to…see yourself sitting there calmly taking a test." "As you sit there and assess your situation, it is hard to…imagine yourself doing something different." "Right now, you are struggling to…consider if a conversation could possibly impact the situation." "As you are sitting there now, it is hard to…see yourself having a face to face conversation with…about…" 
  • "You do not have to want to stop your current behavior in order to change; you simply have to want something else more." Aldo Pucci Create discrepanciesSpend more time on developing the DESIRE side of change, less on the technology or how-to of the changeSell meX = letter from the future
  • And TS’s cannot not manipulate. Language is hypnotic and influential.
  • BIG 5 QUESTIONNAIRESuccess isn't a result of spontaneous combustion.  You must set yourself on fire.  ~Arnold H. Glasow
  • BIG 5 QUESTIONNAIRESuccess isn't a result of spontaneous combustion.  You must set yourself on fire.  ~Arnold H. Glasow
  • Sánchez-Villega, A. et al. (2009). Association of the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern With the Incidence of Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 6, 10. CommuteNature of work – 140 fewer calores than 1960Excessive sitting
  • BIG 5 QUESTIONNAIRESuccess isn't a result of spontaneous combustion.  You must set yourself on fire.  ~Arnold H. Glasow
  • BIG 5 QUESTIONNAIRESuccess isn't a result of spontaneous combustion.  You must set yourself on fire.  ~Arnold H. Glasow
  • BIG 5 QUESTIONNAIRESuccess isn't a result of spontaneous combustion.  You must set yourself on fire.  ~Arnold H. Glasow
  • Small group exercise
  • Prof ethics – discussions re: sexual rela w/ ctsResearch ethics – how to fill out IRB formsEthics workshops become forums about handling subpoenas and court ordersTraining and CE workshops – rules about documentation to avoid lawsuitsComprehensive focus -Integration of codes w/ personal ethics and other ethical traditionsAspirational -Statt enforceable rulesIdentify positive virtues – statt prohibited activitiesEmphasize personal and professional benefit of ethical reasoning and behaviorHelping clinicians take care of themselves, promote positive behaviors
  • Prof ethics – discussions re: sexual rela w/ ctsResearch ethics – how to fill out IRB formsEthics workshops become forums about handling subpoenas and court ordersTraining and CE workshops – rules about documentation to avoid lawsuitsComprehensive focus -Integration of codes w/ personal ethics and other ethical traditionsAspirational -Statt enforceable rulesIdentify positive virtues – statt prohibited activitiesEmphasize personal and professional benefit of ethical reasoning and behaviorHelping clinicians take care of themselves, promote positive behaviors
  • Prof ethics – discussions re: sexual rela w/ ctsResearch ethics – how to fill out IRB formsEthics workshops become forums about handling subpoenas and court ordersTraining and CE workshops – rules about documentation to avoid lawsuitsComprehensive focus -Integration of codes w/ personal ethics and other ethical traditionsAspirational -Statt enforceable rulesIdentify positive virtues – statt prohibited activitiesEmphasize personal and professional benefit of ethical reasoning and behaviorHelping clinicians take care of themselves, promote positive behaviors

Positive Psychology Positive Psychology Presentation Transcript

  • the power ofPOSITIVEPSYCHOLOGYDavid D. Nowell, Ph.D.
  • orientation x
  • Is there anegative psychology?
  • • Anger: 5,584 • Joy: 415• Anxiety: 41,416 • Happiness: 1,710• Depression: • Life satisfaction: 54,040 2,582
  • Happiness
  • HappinessAppendix A
  • “PERMA” Positive emotions Engagement / flow Relationships Meaning Accomplishment
  • Key findings
  • History ofPositivePsychologyx
  • Assumptions of PositivePsychology
  • A B C ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 18 reserved.
  • A B C ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 19 reserved.
  • A B c ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 20 reserved.
  • A B C ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 21 reserved.
  • THE INTERNETS ARE GREAT!
  • Are you alreadya positive psychology clinician?
  • Appendix F
  • …a challenge
  • …a memory test
  • COMMON CLINICAL CONCERNSTHROUGH THE LENS OF POSITIVEPSYCHOLOGY
  • trauma
  • Re-connecting withcoping strengths
  • Positive growth afterdisability
  • resilience• Assets / risks• Protective processes / vulnerabilities•Competence / adversity
  • resilience Appendix F
  • anxiety
  • addictionsx
  • depression
  • SSRI • Strategies • Strengths • Resources • Insights
  • The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors
  • The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors
  • The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors • Protective factors
  • The P’s of Depression • Predisposing factors • Precipitating factors • Perpetuating factors • Protective factors Appendix F
  • Eating disorders Where are you when you are eating?
  • Oppositional-defiantdisorder as alearning disorder
  • Social andPROSOCIALBEHAVIOR
  • the Righteous Mind
  • forgiveness x
  • Do you want to be right? Or do you want to be in relationship?
  • Do you want to be right? Or do you want to be in relationship?Appendix D
  • Compassion • Empathy • Moral models • Personal principles
  • 2/2/2012 59
  • A B C ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 60 reserved.
  • Emotional Intelligence • Perceiving emotion • Using emotions to facilitate thought • Understanding emotions • Managing emotions
  • Self-soothing
  • Emotional Regulation
  • “if you knew this about me…”
  • Framingham Heart Study“…happiness, like health, is a collectivephenomenon.”
  • THE HAPPINESS SETPOINTI would really be happy if…..
  • Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  • Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  • Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  • Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  • Lyubomirsky, S. (2007)
  • Intentionalactivity
  • strengths
  • www.viacharacter.org
  • KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM JUSTICE & FAIRNESS1. Creativity 13. Citizenship2. Curiosity 14. Fairness3. Love of learning 15. Leadership4. Wisdom / perspective5. Open-mindedness TEMPERANCECOURAGE & FIRMNESS 16. Forgiveness / mercy6. Bravery 17. Modesty / humility7. Persistence 18. Prudence8. Integrity 19. Self-regulation9. VitalityHUMANITY & LOVE TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL10. Give & receive love 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty11. Kindness 21. Gratitude12. Social intelligence 22. Hope 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  • journaling
  • journaling gratitude x
  • journaling gratitude activity scheduling
  • journaling gratitude activity scheduling Appendix E
  • savoring
  • x
  • flow
  • Flow Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
  • Flow
  • Flow
  • Flow
  • Flow
  • “Challenging assignments that (slightly)stretch ones skills lead to flow…”
  • Flow
  • physical exercise
  • physical exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  • physical exercise • Neurotrophic factor • Hippocampal growth • Counteract stress-related hormones • Addictions • Attention / focus • Age-related cognitive decline • Anti-depressant qualities
  • optimism • Hope • Self-efficacy • Goal-setting
  • what IS vs. what COULD BEAppendix G © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 106 reserved.
  • what IS… © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 107 reserved.
  • …what COULD BE © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 108 reserved.
  • optimism • Hope –Pathways thoughts – what causes what –Agency thoughts – who causes what
  • optimism• HopeAppendices B & C
  • optimism • Hope – Academics – Athletics – Physical health – Social connection
  • optimism • Hope – Academics – Athletics – Physical health • Peled, R. (2008) – Social connection
  • optimism • Accentuating Hope – Pathways cognitions • “roadblocks”
  • optimism • Accentuating Hope – Pathways cognitions – Agency cognitions
  • Hank: “ I have things I need to do to improve my marriage, my health, and my financial situation, but I honestly believe that I have zero chance of actually making any of those three things get better.”
  • (self-esteem)
  • kindness
  • KNOWLEDGE & WISDOM JUSTICE & FAIRNESS1. Creativity 13. Citizenship2. Curiosity 14. Fairness3. Love of learning 15. Leadership4. Wisdom / perspective5. Open-mindedness TEMPERANCECOURAGE & FIRMNESS 16. Forgiveness / mercy6. Bravery 17. Modesty / humility7. Persistence 18. Prudence8. Integrity 19. Self-regulation9. VitalityHUMANITY & LOVE TRANSCENDENCE / SPIRITUAL10. Give & receive love 20. Appreciate excellence / beauty 21. Gratitude11.Kindness 22. Hope12. Social intelligence 23. Humor 24 Spirituality
  • kindness "universal egoism"
  • kindness Appendix F
  • The Magic Ratio 3:1
  • Coaching
  • laser questions • How will you know when your most important relationship has improved significantly? • Who will be the first person to notice that you’re happier, … what exactly will they notice? • How much better do you think your grades can get? And how can you reach that goal while having some fun at the same time? • What’s really great about this that I have not really noticed before?
  • laser questions • What changes will you need to make in order to get the most out of our work together? • How much stress will the copay for these sessions cause you? • What’s the most empowering thing that I can do during our sessions? • What would have happened if you’d not decided to do this work? • What is one regret you don’t want to have in this lifetime?
  • What our clients want most • make and keep more money • Get more done in less time • Communicate more effectively • Feel better physically and emotionally • Feel closer with others • Manage hassles and stressors • Find and stay on a path
  • Change your client’s brain…with their consent
  • “NeuroMalleability” © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 133 reserved.
  • • Physical Exercise• Nutrition• Stress Management• Novel Learning Experience• Sleep
  • The reward and planning systems © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 135 reserved.
  • What Does Dopamine Feel like? © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 136 reserved.
  • The reward and planning systems © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 138 reserved.
  • The Executive Functions 1. Inhibition 2. Shift 3. Regulation 4. Initiation 5. Working memory 6. Planning / organizing 7. Self-monitoring © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 139 reserved.
  • The Executive Functions • Cognitive Control / “gain” (Miller & Cohen, 1991) • “the actor whose hand controls the flashlight” (Goldberg, 2009) © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 141 reserved.
  • The reward and planning systems © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 142 reserved.
  • The brain’s reward and planningsystem • Anticipate goal • Identify tasks • Sequence / problem-solve • Block out distractions • Get the reward
  • A B C ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 144 reserved.
  • "Were All ADHD Now” What the Rest of Us Can Learn from People Who Really Strugglewith Focus, Distractibility, and Time Management
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 146 reserved.
  • The best defense againstthe manipulation of ourattention is to determine forourselves – in advance -how we want to invest it. - E. Goldberg
  • (85 – X) x 365 © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 148 reserved.
  • How to Entirely Remove "Bad,""Lazy," and "Procrastinating" from Our Vocabulary
  • I’m gonna eat all the gum and candy I want! © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 152 reserved.
  • Asking two questions… 1. “Am I having fun now?” © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 153 reserved.
  • Asking two questions… 2. “And is this what I set out to do?” © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 154 reserved.
  • Am I having fun now?Is this what I set out to do? Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No No © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 155 reserved.
  • Am I having fun now?Is this what I set out to do? I’m having fun. Yes No Yes Yes I’m on task. Yes No No No © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 156 reserved.
  • Am I having fun now? Is this what I set out to do? Yes No Yes YesI’m having fun. Yes NoI’m not on task. No No © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 157 reserved.
  • Am I having fun now?Is this what I set out to do? Yes No I’m not having fun. Yes Yes I’m on task. Yes No No No © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 158 reserved.
  • Am I having fun now?Is this what I set out to do? Yes No Yes Yes Yes No I’m not having fun. No No I’m not on task. © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 159 reserved.
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 160 reserved.
  • Increase salience
  • easy hard
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 164 reserved.
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 165 reserved.
  • Appendix F © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 166 reserved.
  • xWorking withMOTIVATIONAL ISSUES
  • Motivation for what?
  • “…they realized what thesolution was and were terrified”
  • The Five Reasons That People DoAnything That They Do
  • The Two Reasons That People DoAnything That They Do
  • The Two Reasons That People DoAnything That They Do R P REWARD PUNISHMENT
  • The One Reason That People DoAnything That They Do R REWARD P “W HAT ’ S THEIR PAIN ?”
  • Which Techniques Should AbsolutelyBe Avoided with Under-motivatedClients x
  • Which Techniques ShouldAbsolutely Be Avoided with Under-motivated Clients • Finessing our Questions x
  • Dangers of Failing to RecognizeOur Clients Stage of Change
  • Yes or No ?#1. I solved my biggest problem more than six months ago.#2. I have taken action on my problem within the past six months.#3. I am intending to take action in the next month. #4. I am intending to take action in the next six months.
  • Stages of ChangePrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenance
  • Stages of ChangePrecontemplationContemplationPreparationActionMaintenance Appendix F
  • What Key Motivational InterviewingTechniques Can Be Applied to AnyClinical Situation?
  • What Key Motivational InterviewingTechniques Can Be Applied to AnyClinical Situation? • Express empathy • Create discrepancy • Roll with resistance • Support self-efficacy
  • Is relapse inevitable?
  • A completeRETHINKING OF BEHAVIORALPROBLEMS Strategic Behavioral Inquiry
  • What’s the kid’s deal?
  • The Magic IfWhat "Method Actors "Have ToTeach Clinicians
  • Inna: student struggling with difficult assignments, feeling demoralized and anxious.
  • Inna: “I just get blank. I usually start sitting more slouched, hold my head with my left hand…you freeze and instead of being able to think of alternatives, you start thinking to yourself that you cannot find a logical answer and you are tempted to avoid it as if it poses a threat somehow to you.”
  • STRATEGIC BEHAVIORALINQUIRYHëdÿdt?
  • Strategic Behavioral Inquiry A. Respectful approach to client’s interior experience B. Introduces client to the “culture” of self-management C. Specific applicable self-knowledge (meta-cognition) © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 197 reserved.
  • Strategic Behavioral Inquiry Hëdÿdt – How Exactly Did You Do That? © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 198 reserved.
  • Strategic Behavioral Inquiry Obstacles to good inquiry © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 2/2/2012 199 reserved.
  • A B C ANTECEDENT BEHAVIOR CONSEQUENCES ….the ad absurdum © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 202 reserved.
  • The reward-and-planning system • Anticipate goal • Identify tasks • Sequence / problem-solve • Block out distractions • Get the reward
  • Alicia R. Ruelaz, M.D.: “the biggest issue for me, and others Ive seen, has been maintaining motivation between the excitement of setting a goal and not losing interest before it is completed.”
  • Juzer : “my biggest problem is that I want to do everything all at once!”
  • Preferred states inventory • Archeology of a Memory, Appendix H
  • RTW
  • Connecting with Return to WorkClients around the Key HumanNeeds Served by Employment Marie Jahoda
  • • 1. It imposes a time structure on the day.• 2. It enlarges the scope of relationships.• 3. It provides shared purposes and activities of a social group.• 4. It assigns social status and clarifies personal identity.• 5. It requires regular activity.RTW
  • • The Rule of ThirdsRTW
  • The Three Donts of EmploymentAssistance • Don’t talk about work • Don’t present work as a goal in itself • Don’t impose our values on clients
  • Four Signs That You Are WorkingHarder Than Your Clients • Fighting with client • Client is “yes butting” you • You worry more than they do • You dread the session
  • Four Signs That You Are WorkingHarder Than Your Clients And what you might be thinking….
  • How to Get Clients to Start Talkingabout Change • Slow down (tolerate silence) • Respect resistance • Be agnostic • Encourage agnosia • Why, specifrically, is this a problem? • Identify exceptions to the problem • Frame goals in the positive • Help clients talk like behaviorists
  • How to Get Clients to Start Talkingabout Change • Slow down • Respect resistance • Be agnostic • Encourage agnosia • Why, specifrically, is this a problem? • Identify exceptions to the problem • Frame goals in the positive • Help clients talk like behaviorists – More of what and less of what?
  • How to Get Clients to Start Talkingabout ChangeAccurate empathy + “more of what”Connecting the dots…
  • Connecting the Dots: Linking upTreatment Goals to What OurClient Already Loves • “Sell me on why this absolutely positively must change…” • Letter from the future x
  • You cannot not change
  • How to make somebody love youforever
  • …yeah butIt Won’t Work with this ClientOBJECTIONS
  • 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection2/2/2012 reserved. The “Big Five” © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights 223
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 224 reserved.
  • …the most important 10 minutes of the day…. © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 225 reserved.
  • Appendix I © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 226 reserved.
  • 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 227 reserved.
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 228 reserved.
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 229 reserved.
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 230 reserved.
  • 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement2/2/2012 5. Connection © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights reserved. 231
  • 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 232 reserved.
  • © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 233 reserved.
  • 1. Daily focus time 2. Values/motivational clarity 3. Nutrition 4. Movement 5. Connection © 2011 David D. Nowell, Ph.D. All rights2/2/2012 234 reserved.
  • Cultural Competence  What culture?
  • Cultural CompetenceCultural Competence  What competencies?
  • Positive Ethics • “professional ethics” • “research ethics” • “ethics training”
  • Positive Ethics • Comprehensive • Aspirational • Positive virtues • Support clinicians in taking care of themselves
  • Positive Ethics • “He shook my hand”
  • …a challenge
  • the power ofPOSITIVEPSYCHOLOGYDavid D. Nowell, Ph.D.