World religions


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World religions

  1. 1. World Religions Beliefs, Moral Standards, and Conflict
  2. 2. Religion Review Helps ppl answer the basic questions about the meaning of life; supports the values of culture; can shape morals & ethics of a group of ppl. ● Monotheism - belief in 1 god ● Polytheism - belief in more than 1 god ● Nontheism - belief in no god (atheism) ● Animism - belief that everything in nature has a spirit 5 major religions - Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Judaism, & Islam
  3. 3. Hinduism: Origins Mix of Indigenous tribal beliefs from the Indus Valley and the Aryan tribes between 1000 BCE and 600 BCE Beliefs and rituals derived from a series of ancient texts called the Vedas. These books contain poems and hymns to various gods and religious rituals.
  4. 4. Hinduism: Beliefs Polytheistic but believe that all gods are an aspect of a universal spirit called Brahman that created the world and preserves it. 3 major gods = ● Brahma the Creator ● Siva the Destroyer ● Vishnu the Preserver Person’s ultimate goal is to reunite the soul with Brahman
  5. 5. Hinduism: Beliefs Cont To achieve the ultimate goal could take more than just one lifetime, so they believe in Reincarnation. ● Reincarnation = process of birth, death, & rebirth ● Karma = effects that good or bad actions have on a person’s soul Build good karma so that when reincarnated, the soul will move closer to Brahman and ending the cycle
  6. 6. Hinduism: Conflict Most conflict between Hindus and other religions seem to be acts of terrorism. ● India vs Pakistan - the Muslims wanted their own country
  7. 7. Judaism: Origins Begins with Abraham in early Mesopotamia about 1800 BCE God comes to Abraham to make a covenant with him. If he moves to a new land then God would make him a great nation. Abraham is known as the Father of Judaism
  8. 8. Judaism: Beliefs There is no official creed or doctrine that Jews believe in. There are some principles of faith mainly dealing with the belief that God exists, that Moses’ prophecies are true and that one should follow the laws written in the Torah. ● Torah = Old Testament from the Bible Focuses on relationships between God and their people
  9. 9. Judaism: Conflict ● diaspora - Jewish forced to leave and spread out ● slavery in Egypt ● WWII - Holocaust ● War with Egypt ● Constant terrorist attacks with Palestine and other Arab nations
  10. 10. Christianity: Origins Developed out of Judaism Founded on the life, teachings, & death of Jesus of Nazarene (1st century CE)
  11. 11. Christianity: Beliefs Central Belief - Jesus Christ (Jesus of Nazarene) died on the Cross and rose from the dead as the Savior to all people. This made Jesus Christ the Messiah. It is through the belief in Jesus that people can get to heaven. There are many branches of Christianity in the world today that all share the same central belief, but have different rules about how to do things.
  12. 12. Christianity: Conflict ● Crusades - War with Muslims over the Holy Land ● Inquisition - Catholics war on being different ● Border conflicts with Muslims in N. Africa ● Acts of terrorism
  13. 13. Buddhism: Origins Began around 500 BCE with a man named Siddhartha Gautama (Indian Warrior) Unhappy with life & went searching for answers about why people suffer Spent 14 weeks meditating & found answers to why people suffer and reached enlightenment Became known as the Buddha
  14. 14. Buddhism: Beliefs 4 Guiding principles - 4 Noble Truths 1. Suffering & unhappiness are a part of human life. No one can escape sorrow. 2. Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure & material goods. People cause their own misery because they want things they cannot have. 3. People can overcome desire & ignorance & reach nirvana which frees the soul from suffering and need for more reincarnation. 4. People can overcome ignorance & desire by following an eightfold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, & salvation.
  15. 15. Buddhism: Beliefs Cont The Eightfold Path 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Right Thought - belief in 4 Noble Truths Right Intent - act from love and compassion Right Speech - avoid lies & gossip, truthful speech Right Action - don’t hurt people Right Livelihood - reject work that hurts others Right Effort - prevent evil & do good - focus on the path 7. Right Mindfulness - control your feelings & thoughts 8. Right Concentration - practice proper meditation
  16. 16. Buddhism: Conflict Usually Acts of Terrorism ● Monks setting themselves on fire in protest ● terrorism attacks between Muslims and Buddhist
  17. 17. Islam: Origins Formed around 622 CE with the Prophet Muhammad. It is said that the Angel Gabriel came to him and he was called to be God’s (Allah) last prophet. What God said and taught Muhammad is what constitutes the Islamic faith. Their holy book is called the Qur’an There are many different branches
  18. 18. Islam: Beliefs 5 Pillars: 1. Profession of faith - There is no God but God and Muhammad is His prophet 2. Prayer - Pray 5 times a day 3. Charity - Share the wealth 4. Fast - Ramadan 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca
  19. 19. Islam: ● Crusades ● Wars to conquer other land and spread Islam ● Acts of terror or the use of the term ‘holy war’ to cover up acts of violence ○ 9/11 ○ Embassy Bombing ○ most Muslims do not condone the acts of terror that are common in recent history - religion is used as reason to act upon hatred and fear
  20. 20. Maps of War