2012 February dama chicago

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2012 February dama chicago

  1. 1. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Dimensional Modeling g while Partnering with the Business Community Laura L. Reeves February, 2012 Agenda • C Current d t warehousing climate t data h i li t • Partnering with the business • Focus on the data  The Business Dimensional Model (BDM) • Putting it all together Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 2Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 1
  2. 2. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Critical Challenges • How can you deliver more…. with fewer resources? • How can you increase the value of what you deliver? • What does the changing technology landscape mean to you? l d t ? Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 3 Reflection • How would your business users grade you? Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 4Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 2
  3. 3. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Common DW Climate • DW may fall short of business expectations  Too hard to use  It takes too long to get new reports or add more data • Disconnect between IT and the Business  Business Perspective – IT does not deliver what we need – Build solutions ourselves  IT Perspective – Business can’t tell us what they really want – Build it for them and expect them to use it Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 5 Time to Set A New DirectionCopyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 3
  4. 4. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Getting the Right Tools Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 7 What does not change? People Data Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 8Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 4
  5. 5. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Partner with the Business Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 9 Strengthen Your IT Team • Invest now in your staff • Practice critical skills  Listening  Writing  Communication  Collaboration • Some people will thrive, but not everyone wants to or has aptitude to transition to this new world. Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 10Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 5
  6. 6. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Cultivate Problem Solvers • Provide exposure to new ideas and approaches  If the only tool you have ever used is a hammer, then everything begins to look like a nail. • Encourage curiosity • Reward creativity • Continue to invest in learning new technologies Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 11 Invest in Your IT- IT-Business Partnership • Make conscious choices to build partnership  Start by changing your behavior • IT needs to take time to learn about the business  Speak in business terms  Keep technology out of the discussion • Business needs to actively participate  Learn basics of DW/BI • Solicit ideas/suggestions from each other Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 12Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 6
  7. 7. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Understand True Business Requirements • Gather broad business requirements  Understand business goals, plans and challenges  How is success measured?  What information is needed to help make decisions? • Actively collaborate • Detailed specifications will be needed later to flesh out specific report design, dashboards, ETL business rules Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 13 Business Requirements Drive… • Decisions to jointly scope projects that deliver business value and are achievable  Business should drive purpose and direction  IT evaluates feasibility and effort • Work together to determine how to deliver value today and into the future  Set priorities  Determine return on investment • Ensure everyone understands why you are doing this work Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 14Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 7
  8. 8. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Focus On The Data Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 15 Delivering Data to the Business • Must be easy to understand • Good query performance required • Dimensional models specifically target these goals • Delivered through a variety of technologies  Relational database – Star or snowflake schemas  Multi-dimensional database – Cube  Other proprietary databases – Columnar – DW appliance Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 16Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 8
  9. 9. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 The Modeling Technique • The Business Dimensional ModelTM • Reflect data model visually and Year in business terms • Ensures support for various types Quarter of reporting and analysis Month • Independent of technology p gy • Ideal training tool for use later DAY • Manageable approach to complex environments Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 17 Basics of Dimensions • Dimensions are major business categories or groupings to describe business data • Dimensions contain:  Descriptive elements  Reference data  Attributes, hierarchies, drill paths • Dimensions are used for:  Selection criteria  Report labels  Pick list via interface Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 18Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 9
  10. 10. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Date Dimension Example Multiple Fiscal Year Hierarchies Calendar Year Attributes Fiscal Calendar Quarter Quarter Fiscal Calendar Month Month Fiscal Fi l Future Week Week Attribute Day of Holiday Day Week Grain for this Dimension Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 19 Complete Dimension Documentation ATTRIBUTE NAME BRIEF DESCRIPTION SAMPLE VALUES Day Calendar day information was reported on. 6/31/2003, 9/1/2003 Holiday This is a future attribute to indicate that this date is considered a U.S. business Memorial Day, President’s Day day off. Fiscal Week The week of the fiscal year that the date rolls up to and is used for reporting FY 2003 Week 16 purposes. Fiscal Month The month of the fiscal year that this date rolls up to and is used for reporting FY 2003-10, FY 2003-11 purposes. Fiscal Quarter The quarter of the fiscal year that this date rolls up to and is used for reporting FY 2003-Q1, FY 2003-Q2 purposes. Fiscal Year The year that this date rolls up to based upon the company’s fiscal calendar. FY 2003 Calendar Month The calendar month used for reporting purposes. March 2003, October 2003 Calendar Quarter The calendar quarter used for reporting purposes. CY 2003-Q1, CY 2003-Q2 Calendar Year The calendar year used for reporting purposes. CY 2003 Week The calendar week ending Saturday and is used for reporting purposes. Week Ending 11/21/1998 Day of Week Attribute to indicate the calendar day of week. Wednesday, Saturday Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 20Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 10
  11. 11. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Basics of Facts • Facts are the basic business events that are measured and monitored • Facts are typically:  ‘Amounts’ and ‘Counts’  Defined by more than one dimension  Numeric (frequently, but not always) • Facts are used as:  Body of reports  Part of calculations Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 21 Sales Fact Group Example Dimension Name Facts: Product Outlet Dollars D ll Item Store Units Price Cost Grain for the Fact Group for Sales this Dimension Name of Fact Group Promo Date Promo Day Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 22Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 11
  12. 12. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Complete Fact Group Documentation AGGREGATION FACT NAME FACT DEFINITION RULE Dollars The dollar amount for the Sum Units Sold. Units The number of consumer Sum units sold. Price The actual price charged for Average this sale. Cost The standard price factor for Average this item sold at this store. Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 23 Dimensional Model - The Star Schema Product Dimension Outlet Dimension PRODUCT KEY STORE KEY Product Descr Store Name Size District Fact Table Flavor Region PRODUCT KEY Package Zone STORE KEY PROMO KEY DATE KEY Dollars Promotion Dim. Date Dimension Units PROMO KEY DATE KEY Price Promo Descr Day Cost Deal Weekday Discount Holiday Media Fiscal Period Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 24Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 12
  13. 13. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 A BDM Case Study Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 25 BDM Example: Period Dimension Calendar Fiscal Year Year Fiscal Calendar Quarter Quarter Fiscal Calendar Month Month Fiscal Week Week Day of Holiday Day Week Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 26Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 13
  14. 14. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 BDM Example: Call Center Dimension Division Region Call Center Open Date State Time Call Center Call Center Zone City Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 27 BDM Example: Employee Dimension Manager Supervisor Date of Birth Educ. Educ Level Employee Hire Date Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 28Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 14
  15. 15. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 BDM Example: Client Dimension Corporate Parent P t Client State Account Client Client Executive City Program Program Type Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 29 BDM Example: Call Status Dimension Disposition Group Disposition Type Disposition Assigned By A i dB Call Disposition Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 30Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 15
  16. 16. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 BDM Example: Activities Dimension Task Category Task Group Billable Flag Task Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 31 BDM Example: Calls Fact Group Facts: Period # of Calls Day Call Minutes Call Status Client Call Program Disposition Calls Call Center Call Center Activities Dimension does not apply and is not shown Employee Employee Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions Inc. Slide 32Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 16
  17. 17. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Hours Worked Fact Group Call Status Dimension Facts: Period does not apply and is not shown Regular Hours Day Overtime Hours Client Program Hours Worked Call Activities Center Task Call Center Employee Employee Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions Inc. Slide 33 Using the Model • What are the total number of hours worked to date f d t for people who were hired this year? l h hi d thi ? • What are the total number of hours worked by fiscal year and call center region? • What are the total calling minutes by call disposition grouped by category? • What are the average number of calls for client “Our Biggest Customer” by fiscal week? Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 34Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 17
  18. 18. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Integration: Conformed Dimensions Call Status Client Call Program Disposition Hours Calls Worked Call Activities Center Call Center Task Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 35 Translating the BDM Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 36Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 18
  19. 19. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Implementation of BDM • Exploit the DB and BI tools • Technical design driven by tools  BI Tool is the user’s only perspective of the DW  Database technology helps determine data structure design • Every tool has its own unique requirements, recommendations and/or preferences Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 37 BDM Example: Calling Facts Star Schema Period Table Client Table PERIOD KEY PROGRAM KEY Day Program Descr Day of Week Program Type Holidays Call Center Fact Table Client Fiscal Week PERIOD KEY Client City Fiscal Month PROGRAM KEY Client State Fiscal Quarter CALL DISP. KEY Account Executive Fiscal Year EMPLOYEE KEY Corporate Parent Calendar Month CALL CENTER KEY Calendar Quarter Call Status Table # of Calls Calendar Year CALL DISP. KEY Call Minutes Call Center Table Disposition Descr Employee Table E l T bl CALL CENTER KEY Disposition Type EMPLOYEE KEY Call Center Name Disposition Group Employee Name Call Center City Hire Date Call Center State Date Of Birth Time Zone Educ. Level Open Date Supervisor Region Manager Division Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 38Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 19
  20. 20. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 BDM Example: Hours Worked Star Schema Period Table Client Table PERIOD KEY PROGRAM KEY Day Program Descr Day of Week Program Type Holidays Client Fiscal Week Client City Hours Worked Fact Table Fiscal Month Client State PERIOD KEY Fiscal Quarter Account Executive PROGRAM KEY Fiscal Year Corporate Parent TASK KEY Calendar Month EMPLOYEE KEY Activities Table Calendar Quarter CALL CENTER KEY TASK KEY Calendar Year Regular Hours Call Center Table Task Descr Employee Table Overtime Hours CALL CENTER KEY Billable Flag EMPLOYEE KEY Call Center Name Task Group Employee Name Call Center City Task Category Hire Date Call Center State Date Of Birth Time Zone Educ. Level Open Date Supervisor Region Manager Division Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 39 Too Many or Too Few Dimensions? • Practical Guidelines for a single fact table • Minimum 3 – 4 dimensions  Split dimensions that are too broad  Consider enterprise view, would that split dimensions apart?  Are there more dimensions that could be included for user benefit, but not change the number of rows in the fact table? b f i th f t t bl ? • Maximum 20 Dimensions  Are these dimensions really separate?  Walk through logical drill paths Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 40Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 20
  21. 21. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Characteristics of Today’s Dimensional Models • Comprehensive and enterprise perspective drives expanded scope for models • Models often have  25+ fact tables  15 – 30 dimensions • Keep in mind that not all fact tables use all of the dimensions  In general each fact group has 5-15 dimensions Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 41 Developing and Expanding Dimensional Models • Design broadly  Multiple M lti l user groups for same data f d t  Next potential data sources  Enterprise viewpoint – Plan for conformed dimensions • Implement in several increments  Don t Don’t tackle too much at one time  Break into phases – Each should deliver business value  Review and update the model each time Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 42Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 21
  22. 22. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 More BDM Notation BDM Advanced Notation Groups of Future Attributes • Unclear groups of attributes  Business has not defined these yet  To come from a new operational system not designed yet  Indicates where these pieces are likely to fit into the model in the future Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 44Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 22
  23. 23. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 BDM Advanced Notation Derived Attributes • Derived Attributes  When there is not a business element with an identifier at this level  Used to tie together several hierarchies – Perhaps for junk dimensions Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 45 BDM Advanced Notation Triggers for Type 2 SCD • Used to identify those attributes that MUST result in the creation of a new version for that row in the dimension • Helps us determine which attributes can be type 1 and which trigger type 2 Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 46Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 23
  24. 24. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 BDM Notation Summary Dimension Derived Attribute Grain Attribute Future Anchor Attribute Attribute Fact Group Collection of Slowly Attributes to be Changing Attr Ch i Att Defined in the Future 1- M Relationship M-M Relationship Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 47 Putting It All Together Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 48Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 24
  25. 25. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Keys to Success • Dimensional modeling provides the basic foundation for end user access and analysis • Focus on the business requirements and the business user’s perspective • Designs should reflect clear business dimensions and facts • Resulting table structures will likely be influenced by technology Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 49 Recommended Reading Includes details about Business Dimensional Modeling Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 50Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 25
  26. 26. Dimensional Modeling while Partnering with the Business Community 2/16/2012 Recommended Reading The Data Warehouse Lifecycle Toolkit y Ralph Kimball Margy Ross Warren Thornthwaite Joy Mundy Bob Becker John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Second Edition The Data Warehouse Toolkit Ralph Kimball and Margy Ross John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Second Edition The Microsoft Data Warehouse Toolkit Star Schema: The Complete Reference Joy Mundy and Warren Thornthwaite Chris Adamson John Wiley and Sons, Inc. McGraw Hill The Data Warehouse ETL Toolkit Ralph Kimball and Joe Caserta John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Copyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. Slide 51 115 East Ogden Ave. Suite 117-369 Naperville, IL 60563 Phone: 630.971.3782 FAX: 630.369.4740 laura@starsoftinc.com Data Warehouse & Business Intelligence ServicesCopyright 2012 StarSoft Solutions, Inc. 26

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