Session 5
David Mullich
Survey of the Videogame Industry
The Los Angeles Film School
1947: Cathode Ray Tube
Amusement Device
 Earliest known interactive
electronic game
 Missile simulator using
analog circ...
1951: Baer’s Idea for Interactive
Television
 Inventor Ralph Baer realizes
that by giving audience the
ability to control...
1966: First Video Game
Displayed on Television
 Baer and Bill Harrison, a
co-worker at electronics
contractor Sanders
Ass...
1968: The First Video Game
Console
 Work is completed on a
prototype, which Baer called
“The Brown Box”, that could
play ...
Rise of the Video Game: Ralph Baer (2:56)
Ralph Baer
Arcade Games
G4 Icons Episode #26: Arcade (22:45)
1966: Sega’s Periscope
Worldwide Success
 Sega introduces electro-
mechanical game called
Periscope, a submarine
simulato...
1969: Duck Hunt
 Sega produces gun games
similar to first-person
shooters
 Electro-mechanical game
using rear image proj...
1969: Missile
 Sega releases Missile, a
shooter and vehicle
combat simulation
featuring electronic
sound and a moving fil...
1971: First Coin-Op Arcade
Video Game
 Students at Stanford
University set up the
Galaxy Game, a coin-
operated version o...
1971: First Commercially Sold
Arcade Game
 Computer Space was
created by Nolan Bushnell
and Ted Dabney, and
released by N...
1972: Nolan Bushnell Forms
Atari and Creates Pong
 Nolan Bushnell and Ted
Dabney form Atari, although
Nolan buys Dabney o...
1972: Magnavox Odyssey
 US television manufacturer
Magnavox signs deal to sell
Ralph Baer’s “Brown Box”
console system un...
1975: Atari/Sears Tele-Games
Home Pong
 Atari engineer teams up
with Pong inventor Alcorn
to create a home version
of the...
1976: Coleco Telestar
 Series of 14 consoles
produced from 1976 to
1978
 Console had two paddle
controllers and the firs...
1977: Nintendo Color TV Game
 Nintendo’s first entry into
the videogame industry
was securing rights to
distribute the Ma...
Video Game Crash of 1977
 Pong “clones” had flooded
the market and
manufacturers sold older,
obsolete clones at a loss
 ...
1978: Space Invaders
(Taito/Midway)
 Designed by Tomohiro
Nishikado
 Manufactured by Taito in Japan
and later licensed t...
1979: Asteroids (Atari)
 One of the most
popular and influential
games of the Golden
Age
 70,000 arcade
cabinets sold,
b...
1980: Pac-Man (Namco/Midway)
 Sold by Namco in Japan
and sold by Midway in the
US
 Established the maze chase
genre, whi...
1981: Donkey Kong (Nintendo)
 Nintendo’s first big hit!
 Designed by first-time game
designer Shigeru Miyamoto
 Laid fo...
1982: Tron (Bally Midway)
 Based on the Walt
Disney film “Tron”
released that same year
 Consisted of four mini-
games b...
1983: Dragon’s Lair
(Cinematronics)
 Laserdisc video game
featuring animation
created by ex-Disney
animator Don Bluth
 O...
1976: Fairchild Channel F
 First programmable ROM
cartridge–based video game
console, and the first
console to use a
micr...
1977: Atari 2600
 Popularized use of
microprocessor-based
hardware and ROM cartridges
containing game code by being
super...
1979: Activision Founded
 Formed by disgruntled Atari
game designers who failed to
convince Atari to pay them
royalties a...
1980: Mattel Intellivision
 Introduced by Mattel
toy company in 1989
 Featured unique
processor allowing
superior graphi...
1982: ColecoVision
 A powerful machine with
near-arcade-quality
graphics
 Catalog of about 145
game titles
 Licensed Ni...
Video Game Crash of 1983
 Massive recession of the
videogame industry lasting from
1983 to 1985
 Revenues that had peake...
Video Game Crash of 1983
G4 Icons Episode #32: The Video Game
Crash (22:45)
1983: Nintendo Entertainment
System (NES)
 Released in Japan as the
Famicom (Family Computer)
 First console of the 8-bi...
1985: Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo)
 Designer Shigeru
Miyamoto’s first home
console game
 The standard to which all 2D
pl...
1985: Sega Master System
 Released as a direct
competitor to the NES,
starting the Console Wars
 Could play both cartrid...
1986: Atari 7800
 Originally announced in
1984 but release was
shelved due to sale of the
company
 When released in 1986...
1986: The Legend of Zelda
(Nintendo)
 Created by game
designers Shigeru
Miyamoto and Takashi
Tezuka
 Gameplay consists o...
1987: Final Fantasy (Square)
 Conceived by designer
Hironobu Sakaguchi as his
“final” effort in the video
game industry
...
1987: Metal Gear (Konami / Ultra
Games)
 Originally created for
the MSX2 in Japan by
first-time video game
designer Hideo...
1989: Nintendo GameBoy
 8-bit handheld video game
device released in Japan and
North America in 1989
 The popular puzzle...
1987: TurboGrafx-16
Entertainment SuperSystem
 Released in Japan as the PC
Engine in 1987 and in North
America two years ...
1988: Sega Genesis
 Released in Japan in 1988
as the Sega Mega Drive,
and in North America in
1989 under the name
Genesis...
1990: Neo-Geo
 SNK’s NEO-GEO was
capable of 2D graphics
at a quality level years
ahead of other consoles
because it had t...
1990: Super NES
 Released in Japan in
1990 as Super Famicom,
and in North America in
1990
 Introduced advanced
graphics ...
1993: Atari Jaguar
 Marketed as the first 64-
bit gaming system
 Proved to be a
commercial failure due to
its small libr...
1993: 3DO Interactive
Multiplayer
 Conceived by Electronic
Arts founder Trip Hawkins
 The 3DO Company
licensed the techn...
1994: Sega Saturn
 Released by Sega in
1994 in Japan and
1995 in North America
 Sold 9.4 million units
worldwide
 Insta...
1994: Sony PlayStation
 Released by Sony in 1994
in Japan and 1995 in North
America
 First “computer
entertainment platf...
1996: Nintendo 64
 Released by Nintendo in
1996 in both Japan and
North America
 Suggested retail price
was $199.99 at l...
1997: GoldenEye (Nintendo)
 Nintendo 64 title principally
made by a team who had
never coded a video game
before
 Direct...
1998: Sega Dreamcast
 Launched by Sega in Japan in 1998
and other territories in 1999
 Intended as a comeback after
prev...
2000: PlayStation 2
 Released by Sony in all
territories in 2000
 Featured DVD-base game
disks with the ability to play
...
2001: Nintendo GameCube
 Released by Nintendo in all
territories in 2001
 Nintendo’s first optical disc-
based console u...
2001: Xbox
 Released by Microsoft
in North America in
2001 and in other
territories in 2002
 Microsoft’s first entry in
...
2005: Xbox 360
 Microsoft unveiled the
Xbox 360 on MTV in
2005
 Major features include
integrated Xbox Live
service that...
2006: PlayStation 3
 First released by Sony
in 2006 in Japan and in
other territories shortly
thereafter
 First console ...
2006: Wii
 First released by Nintendo
in 2006
 Wii Remote can be used
as a handheld pointing
device and detects
movement...
Nintendo’s Vision
 Make games for an expanded
audience
 Devotion to entertainment
business
 Willingness to take risks
S...
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games
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LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games

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Lecture for Session 5 of The Los Angeles Film School's Survey of the Videogame Industry course.

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  • The earliest known interactive electronic game was by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann on a cathode ray tube. The patent was filed on January 25, 1947 and issued on December 14, 1948. The game was a missile simulator inspired by radar displays from World War II. It used analog circuitry, not digital, to control the CRT beam and position a dot on the screen. Screen overlays were used for targets since graphics could not be drawn at the time.
  • Ralph H. Baer (born March 8, 1922) is a German-born American video game pioneer, inventor, engineer, known as "The Father of Video Games”

    In 1951, while developing television technologies for New York based electronics company Loral, inventor Ralph Baer came up with the idea of using the lights and patterns he used in his work as more than just calibration equipment. He realized that by giving an audience the ability to manipulate what was projected on their television sets, their role changed from passive observing to interactive manipulation. When he took this idea to his supervisor, it was quickly squashed because the company was already behind schedule.
  • In 1966, Ralph Baer engaged co-worker Bill Harrison in the project, where they both worked at military electronics contractor Sanders Associates in Nashua, New Hampshire. They created a simple video game named Chase, the first to display on a standard television set. With the assistance of Baer, Bill Harrison created the light gun. Baer and Harrison were joined by Bill Rusch in 1967, an MIT graduate (MSEE) who was subsequently awarded several patents for the TV gaming apparatus.
  • I1968 a prototype was completed that could run several different games such as table tennis and target shooting. After months of secretive labouring between official projects, the team was able to bring an example with true promise to Sanders' R & D department. By 1969, Sanders was showing off the world’s first home video game console to manufacturers, which Baer called “The Brown Box.” This would later become the Magnavox Odyssey,
  • In 1966, Sega introduced an electro-mechanical game called Periscope. It was an early submarine simulator and light gun shooter, which used lights and plastic waves to simulate sinking ships from a submarine. It became a worldwide success in Japan, Europe, and North America, where it was the first arcade game to cost a quarter per play, which would remain the standard price for arcade games for many years to come.
  • The company Sega later produced gun games which resemble first-person shooter video games, but were in fact electro-mechanical games that used rear image projection in a manner similar to the ancient zoetrope to produce moving animations on a screen. The first of these was the light gun game Duck Hunt, which Sega released in 1969; it featured animated moving targets on a screen, printed out the player's score on a ticket, and had sound effects that were volume controllable.
  • Another Sega release that year was Missile, a shooter and vehicle combat simulation that featured electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent the targets on a projection screen. It was also the earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button, which was used as part of an early dual-control scheme, where two directional buttons are used to move the player's tank and a two-way joystick is used to shoot and steer the missile onto oncoming planes displayed on the screen; when a plane is hit, an explosion is animated on screen along with an explosion sound.
  • In 1971, students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin-operated version of the Spacewar video game. This is the earliest known instance of a coin-operated video game.

    The console incorporated a DEC PDP-11/20 with vector displays. The hardware cost around USD$20,000 ($113,000 today). A game cost 10 cents or three games for 25 cents.

    Only one unit was built initially, although in June 1972 the hardware was improved to allow the processor to power four to eight consoles.

    It remained popular on campus, with wait times for players as long as an hour, until it was removed in May 1979 due to the display processor becoming unreliable
  • Computer Space is a video arcade game released in November 1971 by Nutting Associates. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, who would both later found Atari, Inc., it is generally accepted that it was the world's first commercially sold coin-operated video game — and indeed, the first commercially sold video game of any kind, predating the Magnavox Odyssey's release by six months. Though not commercially sold, the coin operated minicomputer-driven Galaxy Game preceded it by two months, located solely at Stanford University.

    The player controls a rocket ship using a thruster and a pair of rotational buttons. During game play, the player must evade enemy fire from a pair of flying saucers moving in tandem. The player fires back to destroy the flying saucers by firing missiles at them from the rocket ship. Today, the game would be considered a multi-directional shooter.

    Computer Space uses no microprocessor, RAM or ROM. The entire computer system is a state machine made of 74-series TTL chips. Graphic elements are held in diode arrays. Display is rendered on a General Electric 15" black-and-white portable television vacuum tube set specially modified for Computer Space.

    Computer Space performed modestly in the arcade, due to its learning curve.
  • Computer Space is a video arcade game released in November 1971 by Nutting Associates. Created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, who would both later found Atari, Inc., it is generally accepted that it was the world's first commercially sold coin-operated video game — and indeed, the first commercially sold video game of any kind, predating the Magnavox Odyssey's release by six months. Though not commercially sold, the coin operated minicomputer-driven Galaxy Game preceded it by two months, located solely at Stanford University.

    The player controls a rocket ship using a thruster and a pair of rotational buttons. During game play, the player must evade enemy fire from a pair of flying saucers moving in tandem. The player fires back to destroy the flying saucers by firing missiles at them from the rocket ship. Today, the game would be considered a multi-directional shooter.

    Computer Space uses no microprocessor, RAM or ROM. The entire computer system is a state machine made of 74-series TTL chips. Graphic elements are held in diode arrays. Display is rendered on a General Electric 15" black-and-white portable television vacuum tube set specially modified for Computer Space.

    Computer Space performed modestly in the arcade, due to its learning curve.
  • Ralph Baer approached various U.S. television manufacturers with his "Brown Box" prototype and an agreement was eventually signed with Magnavox in late 1969. Magnavox's main alterations to the Brown Box were to use plug-in circuits to change the games, and to remove the color graphics capabilities in favor of color overlays in order to reduce manufacturing costs.

    It was released in May 1972 as the Magnavox Odyssey. There were 27 games released in 12 different cartridges for this console, including some famous ones like Simon Says, Table Tennis, Volleyball and Shooting Gallery.

    Due to restrictive marketing (some people thought it could only be used on Magnavox television sets), only 330,000 units were sold.
  • The success of Pong on Atari's arcade machines resulted in Bushnell pushing his employees to create new products. In 1974, Atari engineer Harold Lee proposed a home version of Pong that would connect to a television: Home Pong. The system began development under the codename Darlene, named after an employee at Atari. Pong inventor Alcorn worked with Lee to develop the designs and prototype, and based them on the same digital technology used in their arcade games. The two worked in shifts to save time and money; Lee worked on the design's logic during the day, while Alcorn debugged the designs in the evenings.

    Home Pong was an instant success following its limited 1975 release through Sears; around 150,000 units were sold that holiday season. The game became Sears' most successful product at the time,

    However, Magnavox sued Atari, claiming that it had infringed on Ralph Baer's patents and his concept of electronic ping-pong. Bushnell decided to settle with Magnavox out of court, with Atari becoming a Magnavox licensee.
  • The Telstar is a series of video game consoles produced by Coleco from 1976 to 1978.

    The Telstar had 2 paddle controllers and was a dedicated console. It was the very first to have use General Instrument's AY-3-8500 chip, a processor that had 6 games: Tennis, Soccer, Squash, Practice, and Rifle Game (1 and 2 player versions)

    There were 14 consoles released in the Telstar branded series. One million Telstar units were sold.
  • Nintendo's first venture into the video gaming industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey video game console in Japan in 1974. Nintendo began to produce its own hardware in 1977, with the Color TV Game home video game consoles. Four versions of these consoles were produced, with sales adding up to a total of three million Color TV-Game units sold.
  • In 1977, manufacturers of older, obsolete consoles and Pong clones sold their systems at a loss to clear stock, creating a glut in the market and causing several manufacturers to abandon their game consoles. Only Atari and Magnavox remained in the home console market, despite suffering losses in 1977 and 1978. The crash eventually came to an end with the success of Taito's Space Invaders, released in 1978, sparking a renaissance for the video game industry and paving the way for the golden age of arcade video games.
  • The arcade game industry entered its golden age in with the release of Space Invaders in 1978. Designed by Tomohiro Nishikado, the game was originally manufactured by Taito in Japan, and later licensed for production in the United States by the Midway division of Bally.

    By mid-1981, more than $1 billion had been grossed from Space Invaders machines making it the best-selling video game and highest-grossing entertainment product of its time, eclipsing even the revenue of Star Wars.

    The game's success inspired many console manufacturers to enter the market. The game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts, restaurants and convenience stores during the golden age. The game also became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a rapidly growing mainstream hobby.
  • Asteroids is a video arcade game released in November 1979 by Atarii It was one of the most popular and influential games of the Golden Age of Arcade Games, selling 70,000 arcade cabinets and became Atari's best-selling game of all time.

    Asteroids uses a vector display and a two-dimensional view that wraps around in both screen axes. The player controls a spaceship in an asteroid field which is periodically traversed by flying saucers. The object of the game is to shoot and destroy asteroids and saucers while not colliding with either, or being hit by the saucers' counter-fire.
  • Pac-Man was developed by Namco and first released in Japan on May 22, 1980. It was licensed for distribution in the United States by Midway and released in October 1980.

    When Pac-Man was released, the most popular arcade video games were space shooters, in particular Space Invaders and Asteroids. Pac-Man succeeded by creating a new genre, the maze chase, game, which appealed to both men and women. It had the first gaming mascot and introduced power-ups and cut-scenes.

    Upon its release, the game—and, subsequently, Pac-Man derivatives—became a social phenomenon that sold a large amount of merchandise and also inspired, among other things, an animated television series and a top-ten hit single. It is also one of the highest-grossing video games of all time, having generated more than $2.5 billion in quarters by the 1990s.

    Pac-Man is often credited with being a landmark in video game history, and is among the most famous arcade games of all time. Immensely popular from its original release to the present day, Pac-Man is considered one of the classics of the medium, virtually synonymous with video games, and an icon of 1980s popular culture.
  • Donkey Kong s an arcade game released by Nintendo in 1981. It is an early example of the platform game genre, as the gameplay focuses on maneuvering the main character across a series of platforms while dodging and jumping over obstacles. In the game, Jumpman (since renamed Mario) must rescue a damsel in distress, Lady (now named Pauline), from a giant ape named Donkey Kong. Mario and Donkey Kong later became two of Nintendo's most popular characters.

    The game was assigned to a first-time game designer named Shigeru Miyamoto. Drawing from a wide range of inspirations, including Popeye, Beauty and the Beast and King Kong, Miyamoto developed the scenario and designed the game alongside Nintendo's chief engineer, Gunpei Yokoi. The two men broke new ground by using graphics as a means of characterization, including cut scenes to advance the game's plot, and integrating multiple stages into the gameplay.

    Donkey Kong proved a success in North America and Japan. Nintendo licensed the game to Coleco, who developed home console versions for numerous platforms. Miyamoto's characters appeared on cereal boxes, television cartoons, and dozens of other places. A lawsuit brought on by Universal City Studios, alleging Donkey Kong violated their trademark of King Kong, ultimately failed.
  • Tron is a coin-operated arcade video game manufactured and distributed by Bally Midway in 1982. It is based on the Walt Disney Productions motion picture Tron released in the same year. The game consists of four subgames inspired by the events of the science fiction film. It features some characters and equipment seen in the film, e.g. the Light Cycles, battle tanks, the Input/Output Tower. The game earned more than the film's initial release.
  • Dragon's Lair is a laserdisc video game published by Cinematronics in 1983. It featured animation created by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth.

    Most other games of the era represented the character as a sprite, which consisted of a series of pixels displayed in succession. Due to hardware limitations of the era, artists were greatly restricted in the detail they could achieve using that technique; the resolution, framerate and number of frames were severely constrained. Dragon's Lair overcame those limitations by tapping into the vast storage potential of the laserdisc, but imposed other limitations on the actual gameplay.

    It is currently one of only three video games (along with Pong and Pac-Man) in storage at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.
  • The Fairchild Channel F is a game console released by Fairchild Semiconductor in August 1976 at the retail price of $169.95. It has the distinction of being the first programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, and the first console to use a microprocessor. It was launched as the Video Entertainment System, or VES, but when Atari released their VCS the next year, Fairchild renamed its machine.

    The console contained two built-in games, Tennis and Hockey, which were both advanced Pong clones. However, twenty-seven additional cartridges, termed 'Videocarts', were officially released to consumers. The Videocarts were yellow and approximately the size and overall texture of an 8 track cartridge. They usually featured colorful label artwork created by nationally known artist Tom Kamifuji.

    The biggest effect of the Channel F in the market was to spur Atari into releasing and improving their next-generation console which was then in development. Then codenamed "Stella," the machine was also set to utilize cartridges; after seeing the Channel F, Atari realized they needed to release it before the market was flooded with cartridge-based machines. With cash flow dwindling as sales of their existing Pong-based systems dried up, they were forced to sell to Warner Communications to gain the capital they needed. When the Atari VCS gaming system (whose name was coined as a takeoff of the VES) was released a year later, it had considerably better graphics and sound.

    By 1977, the Fairchild Channel F had sold 250,000 units and was second-place behind the VCS
  • The Fairchild Channel F is a game console released by Fairchild Semiconductor in August 1976 at the retail price of $169.95. It has the distinction of being the first programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, and the first console to use a microprocessor. It was launched as the Video Entertainment System, or VES, but when Atari released their VCS the next year, Fairchild renamed its machine.

    The console contained two built-in games, Tennis and Hockey, which were both advanced Pong clones. However, twenty-seven additional cartridges, termed 'Videocarts', were officially released to consumers. The Videocarts were yellow and approximately the size and overall texture of an 8 track cartridge. They usually featured colorful label artwork created by nationally known artist Tom Kamifuji.

    The biggest effect of the Channel F in the market was to spur Atari into releasing and improving their next-generation console which was then in development. Then codenamed "Stella," the machine was also set to utilize cartridges; after seeing the Channel F, Atari realized they needed to release it before the market was flooded with cartridge-based machines. With cash flow dwindling as sales of their existing Pong-based systems dried up, they were forced to sell to Warner Communications to gain the capital they needed. When the Atari VCS gaming system (whose name was coined as a takeoff of the VES) was released a year later, it had considerably better graphics and sound.

    By 1977, the Fairchild Channel F had sold 250,000 units and was second-place behind the VCS
  • Before the formation of Activision, software for video game consoles were published exclusively by makers of the systems for which the games were designed. For example, Atari was the only publisher of games for the Atari 2600. This was particularly galling to the developers of the games, as they received no financial rewards for games that sold well, and did not receive credit for their games.

    Atari programmers David Crane, Larry Kaplan, Alan Miller, and Bob Whitehead met with Atari CEO Ray Kassar in May 1979 to demand that the company treat developers as record labels treated musicians, with royalties and their names on game boxes. When Kassar called the four men "towel designers" and that "anyone can do a cartridge." they left Atari and founded Activision in October 1979[10] with former music industry executive Jim Levy and venture capitalist Richard Muchmore.

    Activision It was the first third-party developer of video games. Unlike Atari, the company credited and promoted game creators along with the games themselves. The steps taken for this included devoting a page to the developer in their instruction manuals and challenging players to send in a high score (usually as a photograph, but sometimes as a letter) in order to receive an embroidered patch.

    In 1982, Activision released Pitfall!, a best selling title on the Atari 2600. Pitfall! was a huge success for the company and the developers.
  • The Intellivision, introduced by Mattel in 1980. Though chronologically part of what is called the "8-bit era", the Intellivision had a unique processor with instructions that were 10 bits wide (allowing more instruction variety and potential speed), and registers 16 bits wide. The system, which featured graphics superior to the older Atari 2600, rocketed to popularity. Over 3 million Intellivision units were sold and a total of 125 games were released for the console.
  • The ColecoVision, an even more powerful machine, appeared in 1982. The ColecoVision offered near-arcade-quality graphics and gaming style along with the means to expand the system's basic hardware.

    Released with a catalog of 12 launch titles, with an additional 10 games announced for 1982, approximately 145 titles in total were published as ROM cartridges for the system between 1982 and 1984.

    Coleco licensed Nintendo's Donkey Kong as the official pack-in cartridge for all ColecoVision consoles, and this version of the game was well received as a near-perfect arcade port.
  • The video game crash of 1983, also known as Atari shock in Japan, was a massive recession of the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985. Revenues that had peaked at around $3.2 billion in 1983, fell to around $100 million by 1985 (a drop of almost 97 percent). The crash was a serious event that brought an abrupt end to what is considered the second generation of console video gaming in North America.

    The crash almost destroyed the then-fledgling industry and led to the bankruptcy of several companies producing home computers and video game consoles in the region, including the fastest-growing U.S. company in history at that point, Atari It lasted about two years, and many business analysts of the time expressed doubts about the long-term viability of video game consoles.

    There were several reasons for the crash, but the main cause was supersaturation of the market with hundreds of mostly low-quality games which resulted in the loss of consumer confidence. The full effects of the industry crash would not be felt until 1985.
  • The video game crash of 1983, also known as Atari shock in Japan, was a massive recession of the video game industry that occurred from 1983 to 1985. Revenues that had peaked at around $3.2 billion in 1983, fell to around $100 million by 1985 (a drop of almost 97 percent). The crash was a serious event that brought an abrupt end to what is considered the second generation of console video gaming in North America.

    The crash almost destroyed the then-fledgling industry and led to the bankruptcy of several companies producing home computers and video game consoles in the region, including the fastest-growing U.S. company in history at that point, Atari It lasted about two years, and many business analysts of the time expressed doubts about the long-term viability of video game consoles.

    There were several reasons for the crash, but the main cause was supersaturation of the market with hundreds of mostly low-quality games which resulted in the loss of consumer confidence. The full effects of the industry crash would not be felt until 1985.
  • The third generation (sometimes referred to as the 8-bit era) began on July 15, 1983, with the Japanese release of both the Nintendo Family Computer (later known as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, in the rest of the world) and Sega SG-1000.

    The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983 and set the standard for subsequent consoles of its generation. It marked a shift in the dominance of home video games from the United States to Japan, and the transition from block-based graphics to tile and sprite based graphics, which was a pivotal leap in game design. In the third-generation consoles, the gamepad or joypad, took over for joysticks, paddles, and keypads as the default game controller included with the system. The gamepad design of an 8 direction Directional-pad (or D-pad for short) with 2 or more action buttons became the standard.

    With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.

    The NES/Famicom's production run is the longest lasting of any video game console, spanning 20 years from July 1983 to September 2003, before being discontinued in Japan. IGN named the NES the single greatest video game console in history.
  • Donkey Kong s an arcade game released by Nintendo in 1981. It is an early example of the platform game genre, as the gameplay focuses on maneuvering the main character across a series of platforms while dodging and jumping over obstacles. In the game, Jumpman (since renamed Mario) must rescue a damsel in distress, Lady (now named Pauline), from a giant ape named Donkey Kong. Mario and Donkey Kong later became two of Nintendo's most popular characters.

    The game was assigned to a first-time game designer named Shigeru Miyamoto. Drawing from a wide range of inspirations, including Popeye, Beauty and the Beast and King Kong, Miyamoto developed the scenario and designed the game alongside Nintendo's chief engineer, Gunpei Yokoi. The two men broke new ground by using graphics as a means of characterization, including cut scenes to advance the game's plot, and integrating multiple stages into the gameplay.

    Donkey Kong proved a success in North America and Japan. Nintendo licensed the game to Coleco, who developed home console versions for numerous platforms. Miyamoto's characters appeared on cereal boxes, television cartoons, and dozens of other places. A lawsuit brought on by Universal City Studios, alleging Donkey Kong violated their trademark of King Kong, ultimately failed.
  • The third generation (sometimes referred to as the 8-bit era) began on July 15, 1983, with the Japanese release of both the Nintendo Family Computer (later known as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, in the rest of the world) and Sega SG-1000.

    The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983 and set the standard for subsequent consoles of its generation. It marked a shift in the dominance of home video games from the United States to Japan, and the transition from block-based graphics to tile and sprite based graphics, which was a pivotal leap in game design.

    With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.

    The NES/Famicom's production run is the longest lasting of any video game console, spanning 20 years from July 1983 to September 2003, before being discontinued in Japan. IGN named the NES the single greatest video game console in history.
  • The Atari 7800 ProSystem, or simply the Atari 7800, is a video game console officially released by Atari Corporation in January 1986. The 1986 launch is sometimes referred to as a "re-release" or "relaunch" because the Atari 7800 had originally been announced in May of 1984, to replace Atari Inc.'s Atari 5200, but a general release was shelved due to the sale of the company.

    In January 1986, the 7800 was relaunched and would compete that year with the Nintendo Entertainment System and the Sega Master System. It had simple digital joysticks and was almost fully backward-compatible with the Atari 2600, the first console to have backward compatibility without the use of additional modules. It was considered affordable at a price of US$140.
    With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.

    The NES/Famicom's production run is the longest lasting of any video game console, spanning 20 years from July 1983 to September 2003, before being discontinued in Japan. IGN named the NES the single greatest video game console in history.
  • The Legend of Zeldai s an action-adventure video game series created by Japanese game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka. Considered one of Nintendo's most important franchises, its gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, and puzzle solving.

    The series centers primarily on Link, the playable character. Link is often given the task of rescuing Princess Zelda in the most common setting of the series, Hyrule, from Ganon (also known as Ganondorf), a Gerudo chief who is the primary antagonist of the series. H. The story commonly involves a relic known as the Triforce, which is a set of three omnipotent golden triangles. The protagonist in each game is usually not the same incarnation of Link, but a few exceptions do exist.

    The Legend of Zelda franchise has sold 67.93 million copies since the release of the first game, with the original The Legend of Zelda being the fourth best selling NES game of all time. The series consists of 16 official games on all of Nintendo's major consoles, as well as several spin-offs.
  • The Legend of Zeldai s an action-adventure video game series created by Japanese game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka. Considered one of Nintendo's most important franchises, its gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, and puzzle solving.

    The series centers primarily on Link, the playable character. Link is often given the task of rescuing Princess Zelda in the most common setting of the series, Hyrule, from Ganon (also known as Ganondorf), a Gerudo chief who is the primary antagonist of the series. H. The story commonly involves a relic known as the Triforce, which is a set of three omnipotent golden triangles. The protagonist in each game is usually not the same incarnation of Link, but a few exceptions do exist.

    The Legend of Zelda franchise has sold 67.93 million copies since the release of the first game, with the original The Legend of Zelda being the fourth best selling NES game of all time. The series consists of 16 official games on all of Nintendo's major consoles, as well as several spin-offs.
  • The Legend of Zeldai s an action-adventure video game series created by Japanese game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka. Considered one of Nintendo's most important franchises, its gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, and puzzle solving.

    The series centers primarily on Link, the playable character. Link is often given the task of rescuing Princess Zelda in the most common setting of the series, Hyrule, from Ganon (also known as Ganondorf), a Gerudo chief who is the primary antagonist of the series. H. The story commonly involves a relic known as the Triforce, which is a set of three omnipotent golden triangles. The protagonist in each game is usually not the same incarnation of Link, but a few exceptions do exist.

    The Legend of Zelda franchise has sold 67.93 million copies since the release of the first game, with the original The Legend of Zelda being the fourth best selling NES game of all time. The series consists of 16 official games on all of Nintendo's major consoles, as well as several spin-offs.
  • The Nintendo Game Boy is an 8-bit handheld video game device developed and manufactured by Nintendo. It was released in Japan and North America in 1990.

    It is the first handheld console in the Game Boy line, and was created by Gunpei Yokoi and Nintendo Research & Development.

    The Game Boy was a tremendous success. Included with the system was Tetris, a popular puzzle game with incarnations on the NES, Super NES and arcade consoles. Nintendo determined that 46% of Game Boy players were female.

    The Game Boy and its successor, the Game Boy Color, have both combined sold 118.69 million units worldwide. Upon its release in the United States, it sold its entire shipment of one million units within weeks.
  • The third generation (sometimes referred to as the 8-bit era) began on July 15, 1983, with the Japanese release of both the Nintendo Family Computer (later known as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, in the rest of the world) and Sega SG-1000.

    The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983 and set the standard for subsequent consoles of its generation. It marked a shift in the dominance of home video games from the United States to Japan, and the transition from block-based graphics to tile and sprite based graphics, which was a pivotal leap in game design. In the third-generation consoles, the gamepad or joypad, took over for joysticks, paddles, and keypads as the default game controller included with the system. The gamepad design of an 8 direction Directional-pad (or D-pad for short) with 2 or more action buttons became the standard.

    With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.

    The NES/Famicom's production run is the longest lasting of any video game console, spanning 20 years from July 1983 to September 2003, before being discontinued in Japan. IGN named the NES the single greatest video game console in history.
  • The third generation (sometimes referred to as the 8-bit era) began on July 15, 1983, with the Japanese release of both the Nintendo Family Computer (later known as the Nintendo Entertainment System, or NES, in the rest of the world) and Sega SG-1000.

    The best-selling gaming console of its time, the NES helped revitalize the US video game industry following the video game crash of 1983 and set the standard for subsequent consoles of its generation. It marked a shift in the dominance of home video games from the United States to Japan, and the transition from block-based graphics to tile and sprite based graphics, which was a pivotal leap in game design. In the third-generation consoles, the gamepad or joypad, took over for joysticks, paddles, and keypads as the default game controller included with the system. The gamepad design of an 8 direction Directional-pad (or D-pad for short) with 2 or more action buttons became the standard.

    With the NES, Nintendo introduced a now-standard business model of licensing third-party developers, authorizing them to produce and distribute titles for Nintendo's platform.

    The NES/Famicom's production run is the longest lasting of any video game console, spanning 20 years from July 1983 to September 2003, before being discontinued in Japan. IGN named the NES the single greatest video game console in history.
  • SNK's Neo-Geo was the most expensive console by a wide margin when it was released in 1990, and would remain so for years. It was also capable of 2D graphics in a quality level years ahead of other consoles. The reason for this was that it contained the same hardware that was found in SNK's arcade games. This was the first time since the home Pong machines that a true-to-the-arcade experience could be had at home.
  • The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (also known as the Super NES, SNES, or Super Nintendo) is a 16-bit video game console that was released in 1990 by Nintendo in Japan (as the Super Famicom, 1991 in North America, 1992 in Europe & Australasia (Oceania), and South America in 1993.

    The console introduced advanced graphics and sound capabilities compared with other consoles at the time. Additionally, development of a variety of enhancement chips (which were integrated on game circuit boards) helped to keep it competitive in the marketplace. Via the Super FX chip, the SNES was able to run some of the first three-dimensional video games on consoles, beginning with Star Fox.

    The SNES was a global success, becoming the best-selling console of the 16-bit era despite its relatively late start and the fierce competition it faced in North America and Europe from Sega's Genesis/Mega Drive console.
  • The Atari Jaguar is a video game console that was released by Atari Corporation in 1993.

    Although it was marketed as the first 64-bit gaming system, the Jaguar proved to be a commercial failure due to its small library of games and prompted Atari to leave the home video game console market.

    It was the last console from an American company until the 2001 introduction of Microsoft's Xbox.
  • The 3DO Interactive Multiplayer (often called the Panasonic 3DO or simply the 3DO) is a video game console developed by The 3DO Company. The 3DO was released in North America on October 4, 1993

    . The system was conceived by entrepreneur and Electronic Arts founder Trip Hawkins. Instead of The 3DO Company producing the console themselves, they licensed other manufacturers to produce them.

    Panasonic produced the first models in 1993, and further renditions of the hardware were released in 1994 by Sanyo and GoldStar (now LG). The consoles were manufactured according to specifications created by The 3DO Company.

    Despite a highly promoted launch (including being named Time magazine's "1994 Product of the Year") and a host of cutting-edge technologies, the 3DO's high price (US$699 at launch), limited third-party developer support, and an over-saturated console market prevented the system from achieving success comparable to competitors Sega and Nintendo.
  • The Sega Saturn is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console that was first released by Sega on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe.

    The Saturn sold 9.4 million units worldwide, and its installed base in Japan was over 6 million units though it was only 2 million in the United States. While it was popular in Japan, the Saturn failed to gain a similar market share in North America and Europe against its main competitors.
  • The Sega Saturn is a 32-bit fifth-generation video game console that was first released by Sega on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe.

    The Saturn sold 9.4 million units worldwide, and its installed base in Japan was over 6 million units though it was only 2 million in the United States. While it was popular in Japan, the Saturn failed to gain a similar market share in North America and Europe against its main competitors.
  • The Nintendo 64 is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan and September 1996 in North America,

    The N64's suggested retail price was US $199.99 at its launch and it was later marketed with the slogan "Get N, or get Out!".

    The N64 sold 32.93 million units worldwide. Time Magazine named it 1996 Machine of the Year award, despite having a limited texture cache and still relying upon ROM cartridges.
  • The Nintendo 64 is Nintendo's third home video game console for the international market. Named for its 64-bit central processing unit, it was released in June 1996 in Japan and September 1996 in North America,

    The N64's suggested retail price was US $199.99 at its launch and it was later marketed with the slogan "Get N, or get Out!".

    The N64 sold 32.93 million units worldwide. Time Magazine named it 1996 Machine of the Year award, despite having a limited texture cache and still relying upon ROM cartridges.
  • The sixth generation opened with the launch of the Dreamcast in 1998 in Japan and later in 1999 in other territories.

    Sega intended to launch the console as part of a comeback after its previous efforts with the Sega Saturn failed. With a strong marketing campaign and reformed studios to develop new creative content, the Dreamcast was initially well received with a very successful launch and strong sales.

    However when Sony announced the eagerly awaited PlayStation 2, sales of the Dreamcast plummeted and it lost its momentum. he company discontinued the Dreamcast in North America early in March 2001

    Despite its short lifespan, the Dreamcast was widely hailed as ahead of its time. It was the first console to include a built-in modem and Internet support for online play. The Dreamcast is still highly regarded and remembered, and its influence can be greatly seen in Microsoft's Xbox, as Sega worked with the company before the Xbox's release. The Dreamcast was chosen as the best console ever by PC Magazine.

    It was the first console to have a built-in modem for Internet support and online play. While it was initially successful, sales and popularity would soon begin to decline with contributing factors being Sega's damaged reputation from the relative failures of the 32X and Saturn, software pirating, and the overwhelming anticipation for the upcoming PlayStation 2.

    Production for the console would discontinue in most markets by 2002 and would be Sega's final console before it reorganized its business as a third party game provider only, partnering primarily with its old rival Nintendo.
  • The second release of the generation was Sony's PlayStation 2. It was released on March 4, 2000, in Japan followed by North America and Europe later the same year.

    The console featured DVD-based game discs with 4.7GB capacity, increased processor and graphics capability over its predecessor including progressive-scan component video connections, built-in 4-player connection capability, available Ethernet adapter (which became built-in with the winter 2004 release of the "slimline" PS2 chassis), and the ability to play DVD movies and audio CDs, eliminating the need for a separate DVD player and making the PS2 a complete home entertainment console.

    The PlayStation 2 went on to become the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 150 million units. More than 3,800 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, and more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony later manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as "slimline" models, and in 2006 introduced the successor, the PlayStation 3.

    On January 4, 2013, Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs of all time for a video game console.
  • The second release of the generation was Sony's PlayStation 2. It was released on March 4, 2000, in Japan followed by North America and Europe later the same year.

    The console featured DVD-based game discs with 4.7GB capacity, increased processor and graphics capability over its predecessor including progressive-scan component video connections, built-in 4-player connection capability, available Ethernet adapter (which became built-in with the winter 2004 release of the "slimline" PS2 chassis), and the ability to play DVD movies and audio CDs, eliminating the need for a separate DVD player and making the PS2 a complete home entertainment console.

    The PlayStation 2 went on to become the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 150 million units. More than 3,800 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, and more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony later manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as "slimline" models, and in 2006 introduced the successor, the PlayStation 3.

    On January 4, 2013, Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs of all time for a video game console.
  • The second release of the generation was Sony's PlayStation 2. It was released on March 4, 2000, in Japan followed by North America and Europe later the same year.

    The console featured DVD-based game discs with 4.7GB capacity, increased processor and graphics capability over its predecessor including progressive-scan component video connections, built-in 4-player connection capability, available Ethernet adapter (which became built-in with the winter 2004 release of the "slimline" PS2 chassis), and the ability to play DVD movies and audio CDs, eliminating the need for a separate DVD player and making the PS2 a complete home entertainment console.

    The PlayStation 2 went on to become the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 150 million units. More than 3,800 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch, and more than 1.5 billion copies have been sold. Sony later manufactured several smaller, lighter revisions of the console known as "slimline" models, and in 2006 introduced the successor, the PlayStation 3.

    On January 4, 2013, Sony announced that the PlayStation 2 had been discontinued after 12 years of production – one of the longest runs of all time for a video game console.
  • The Xbox 360 is the second video game console developed by and produced for Microsoft and the successor to the Xbox. The Xbox 360 was officially unveiled on MTV on May 12, 2005. The console sold out completely upon release in all regions except in Japan.

    Several major features of the Xbox 360 are its integrated Xbox Live service that allows players to compete online; download arcade games, game demos, trailers, TV shows, music and movies; and its Windows Media Center multimedia capabilities, including the ability to offer games rendered natively at HD resolutions
  • The PlayStation 3 was first released on November 11, 2006, in Japan, with international markets following shortly thereafter. The console was first officially announced at E3 2005. Originally set for a spring 2006 release date, it was delayed several times until finally hitting stores at the end of the year.

    It was the first console to use Blu-ray Disc as its primary storage medium. Major features of the console include its unified online gaming service, the PlayStation Network, and its connectivity with the PlayStation Portable and PlayStation Vita.
  • The Wii is a home video game console released by Nintendo on November 19, 2006. Nintendo states that its console targets a broader demographic than that of the two others.

    The Wii has many advanced features compared to previous Nintendo consoles. For example, the primary wireless controller (the Wii Remote) can be used as a handheld pointing device and detects movement in three dimensions. Another notable feature of the console is WiiConnect24, which enables it to receive messages and updates over the Internet while in standby mode. Furthermore, it is the first console to offer the Virtual Console service, with which select emulated games from past systems can be downloaded.
  • LAFS SVI Session 5 - The History of Console and Arcade Games

    1. 1. Session 5 David Mullich Survey of the Videogame Industry The Los Angeles Film School
    2. 2. 1947: Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device  Earliest known interactive electronic game  Missile simulator using analog circuitry to control the CRT beam and position a dot on the screen  Patent filed by Thomas T. Goldsmith and Estle Ray Mann in 1947 and filed in 1948 Circuitry schematic of Cathode Ray Tube Amusement Device
    3. 3. 1951: Baer’s Idea for Interactive Television  Inventor Ralph Baer realizes that by giving audience the ability to control what was projected on their television set, their role changes from passive observing to interactive manipulation  Bear’s boss at electronics company Loral dismisses the idea because they’re behind schedule  Baer later becomes known as “The Father of Video Games” Ralph Baer (left) receives the National Medal of Technology from former president George W. Bush (right)
    4. 4. 1966: First Video Game Displayed on Television  Baer and Bill Harrison, a co-worker at electronics contractor Sanders Associates create a game called Chase, the first to display on a standard television set  Harrison, with Baer’s help, creates a light gun, the first video game peripheralBill Harrison, co-creator of the first video game for television
    5. 5. 1968: The First Video Game Console  Work is completed on a prototype, which Baer called “The Brown Box”, that could play several different games such as table tennis and target shooting  By 1969, Sanders shows off the world’s first home video game console to manufacturers  This console would eventually become the Magnavox Odyssey Brown Box prototype now on display at the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of American History
    6. 6. Rise of the Video Game: Ralph Baer (2:56) Ralph Baer
    7. 7. Arcade Games G4 Icons Episode #26: Arcade (22:45)
    8. 8. 1966: Sega’s Periscope Worldwide Success  Sega introduces electro- mechanical game called Periscope, a submarine simulator and light gun shooter  Huge success in Japan, Europe and North America  First arcade machine to cost a quarter to play
    9. 9. 1969: Duck Hunt  Sega produces gun games similar to first-person shooters  Electro-mechanical game using rear image projection to produce moving images on screen  First of these was Duck Hunt featuring animated moving targets, score printed on ticket, and volume-controlled sound effects
    10. 10. 1969: Missile  Sega releases Missile, a shooter and vehicle combat simulation featuring electronic sound and a moving film strip to represent targets on a projection screen  Earliest known arcade game to feature a joystick with a fire button
    11. 11. 1971: First Coin-Op Arcade Video Game  Students at Stanford University set up the Galaxy Game, a coin- operated version of SpaceWar!  Earliest known instance of a coin- operated video game  Console incorporated a DEC PDP-11/20 with vector displays
    12. 12. 1971: First Commercially Sold Arcade Game  Computer Space was created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, and released by Nutting Associates in November 1971  World’s first commercially sold coin-operated video arcade game  Display is rendered on a specially modified General Electric 15" black-and-white portable television vacuum tube set
    13. 13. 1972: Nolan Bushnell Forms Atari and Creates Pong  Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney form Atari, although Nolan buys Dabney out soon afterwards  Atari hires engineer Allan Alcorn as its first employee, who creates coin-op version of the Magnavox tennis game  Pong is so successful in bringing video games to the masses that Atari is credited with creating the coin-op video arcade industryAtari founder Nolan Bushnell and Pong
    14. 14. 1972: Magnavox Odyssey  US television manufacturer Magnavox signs deal to sell Ralph Baer’s “Brown Box” console system under the name Magnavox Odyssey  Alternations include using plug-in circuits to change games and using color overlays for game backgrounds  Released with 27 games including Simon Says, Table Tennis, Volleyball and Shooting Gallery  330,000 units sold Magnavox Odyssey
    15. 15. 1975: Atari/Sears Tele-Games Home Pong  Atari engineer teams up with Pong inventor Alcorn to create a home version of the coin-op game  Home Pong becomes Sears most successful product at the time, selling 150,000 units during the holiday season  Magnavox sues Atari, but settles out of court with Atari becoming a Magnavox licensee Atari/Sears Tele-Games Home Pong
    16. 16. 1976: Coleco Telestar  Series of 14 consoles produced from 1976 to 1978  Console had two paddle controllers and the first to use General Instrument's AY-3-8500 chip, a processor that had 6 games: Tennis, Soccer, Squash, Practice, and Rifle Game (1 and 2 player versions)  One million Telestar units sold Coleco Telestar
    17. 17. 1977: Nintendo Color TV Game  Nintendo’s first entry into the videogame industry was securing rights to distribute the Magnavox Odyssey in 1974  Beginning in 1977, Nintendo produced a series of four dedicated home consoles for the Japanese market  Three million Color TV Game units sold Nintendo Color TV Game
    18. 18. Video Game Crash of 1977  Pong “clones” had flooded the market and manufacturers sold older, obsolete clones at a loss  Many manufacturers abandoned their console game business, leaving only Atari and Magnavox  Crash came to an end with the success of Taito’s Space Invaders in 1978
    19. 19. 1978: Space Invaders (Taito/Midway)  Designed by Tomohiro Nishikado  Manufactured by Taito in Japan and later licensed to Midway in the US  By 1981, the game grossed over $1 Billion, making it the best-selling entertainment product of its time  Inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls  Considered to have started The Golden Age of Arcade Games
    20. 20. 1979: Asteroids (Atari)  One of the most popular and influential games of the Golden Age  70,000 arcade cabinets sold, becoming Atari’s best- selling game of all time
    21. 21. 1980: Pac-Man (Namco/Midway)  Sold by Namco in Japan and sold by Midway in the US  Established the maze chase genre, which appealed to both men and women  Introduced the first gaming mascot, power-ups and cut- scenes  Considered a video game classic and an icon of 1980s pop culture
    22. 22. 1981: Donkey Kong (Nintendo)  Nintendo’s first big hit!  Designed by first-time game designer Shigeru Miyamoto  Laid foundations for platform game genre as well as for visual storytelling in video games  Introduced Mario (originally called “Jumpman”, the character who would become Nintendo’s mascot  Enormously successful in Japan and North America
    23. 23. 1982: Tron (Bally Midway)  Based on the Walt Disney film “Tron” released that same year  Consisted of four mini- games based on scenes from the film  The game earned more money than the film’s initial release
    24. 24. 1983: Dragon’s Lair (Cinematronics)  Laserdisc video game featuring animation created by ex-Disney animator Don Bluth  One of only three video games (along with Pong and Pac-Man) on display in the Smithsonian Institution Dirk the Daring, hero of Dragon’s Lair
    25. 25. 1976: Fairchild Channel F  First programmable ROM cartridge–based video game console, and the first console to use a microprocessor  Contained two built-in games, Hockey and Tennis, with 27 additional Videocarts  Spurred Atari into improving and releasing their Atari VCS gaming system, which was still in development  250,000 units sold Fairchild Channel F Promotional Poster
    26. 26. 1977: Atari 2600  Popularized use of microprocessor-based hardware and ROM cartridges containing game code by being superior to the Fairchild  Originally named the Atari VCS  Typically bundled with two joystick controllers, pair of game paddles, and the game Combat (later Pac-Man)  30 million units sold, and considered one of the greatest game consoles of all time  This is the system that brought video games into the home. Atari 2600
    27. 27. 1979: Activision Founded  Formed by disgruntled Atari game designers who failed to convince Atari to pay them royalties and give them credit on game boxes  Became the first third-party developer of video games  Promoted game creators along with the games themselves  In 1982, released Pitfall!, a best-selling title on the Atari 2600 In 1982, Activision releases Pitfall for the Atari 2600
    28. 28. 1980: Mattel Intellivision  Introduced by Mattel toy company in 1989  Featured unique processor allowing superior graphics to the older Atari 2600  More than 125 games released  Sold 3 million units Mattel Intellivision
    29. 29. 1982: ColecoVision  A powerful machine with near-arcade-quality graphics  Catalog of about 145 game titles  Licensed Nintendo’s Donkey Kong as the official pack-in cartridge, which was received as a near-perfect arcade port ColecoVision “The arcade quality video game system”
    30. 30. Video Game Crash of 1983  Massive recession of the videogame industry lasting from 1983 to 1985  Revenues that had peaked at $3.2 billion in 1983 fell to $100 million by 1985, almost destroying the industry  Crash blamed on a glut of low- quality video games, flooded console market, and competition from home computers High-profile failures like the ET-The Extraterrestrial vidoe game contributed to the crash
    31. 31. Video Game Crash of 1983 G4 Icons Episode #32: The Video Game Crash (22:45)
    32. 32. 1983: Nintendo Entertainment System (NES)  Released in Japan as the Famicom (Family Computer)  First console of the 8-bit era, with tile and sprite-based graphics  Introduced the gamepad  Nintendo introduced now- standard business model of licensing third-party developers  Longest production run of any console (1983-2003) and credited with ending the Video Game Crash of 1983  Considered the greatest video game console in history NES gamepad controller
    33. 33. 1985: Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo)  Designer Shigeru Miyamoto’s first home console game  The standard to which all 2D platformers would be judged!  “Jumpman” renamed Mario  Sold 40.24 million copies, making it the best-selling video game in the Mario series and the fifth best- selling game ever  Ensured Nintendo’s dominance over the console market with the NESDesign Club - Super Mario Bros: Level 1-1
    34. 34. 1985: Sega Master System  Released as a direct competitor to the NES, starting the Console Wars  Could play both cartridges and credit card-sized “Sega cards”  Although technically superior to the NES, it failed to overturn Nintendo’s market share in Japan and North America  Small game library, coupled with the highly uneven quality of the few games released Sega Master System with Light Gun
    35. 35. 1986: Atari 7800  Originally announced in 1984 but release was shelved due to sale of the company  When released in 1986, it had simple dual joysticks and was almost fully backward compatible with the Atari 2600  Considered affordable at $140Atari 7800 ProSystem
    36. 36. 1986: The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo)  Created by game designers Shigeru Miyamoto and Takashi Tezuka  Gameplay consists of a mixture of action, adventure, and puzzle solving  Original game is the fourth best-selling NES game of all time  Series consists of 16 games, with a total of 67.9 million copies The Legend of Zelda for NES
    37. 37. 1987: Final Fantasy (Square)  Conceived by designer Hironobu Sakaguchi as his “final” effort in the video game industry  RPG that introduced a side- view perspective of combat, evolving class-change system, and different modes of transportation  Regarded as one of the most influential early RPG’s and launched a series that has sold over 100 million unitsFinal Fantasy for NES
    38. 38. 1987: Metal Gear (Konami / Ultra Games)  Originally created for the MSX2 in Japan by first-time video game designer Hideo Kojima  Considered to be the progenitor of the stealth game genre  Ported to the NES and sold in US by Konami’s Ultra GamesMetal Gear for NES
    39. 39. 1989: Nintendo GameBoy  8-bit handheld video game device released in Japan and North America in 1989  The popular puzzle game Tetris was included with the system  It was a tremendous success. The Game Boy and its successor, the Game Boy Color, sold a combined 118 million units worldwide  Made play portable and helped gamers to stick with Nintendo rather than Sega Nintendo GameBoy with Tetris
    40. 40. 1987: TurboGrafx-16 Entertainment SuperSystem  Released in Japan as the PC Engine in 1987 and in North America two years later  First console of the 16-bit era, although it had a 8-bit processor with dual 16-bit GPU capable of producing 482 colors simultaneously  CD-ROMS were introduced in this generation as add-ons  Suffered from a lack of third- party support and the absence of a second controller port TurboGrafx-16
    41. 41. 1988: Sega Genesis  Released in Japan in 1988 as the Sega Mega Drive, and in North America in 1989 under the name Genesis  Sega’s most successful game console  Controversy over violent games like Mortal Combat forced Sega to create the first video game rating system, allowing it to ship games with little censorship and giving it a competitive edge over Nintendo Sega Genesis
    42. 42. 1990: Neo-Geo  SNK’s NEO-GEO was capable of 2D graphics at a quality level years ahead of other consoles because it had the same hardware as SNK’s arcade games  However, it was also the most expensive console at the time by a wide margin Neo-Geo
    43. 43. 1990: Super NES  Released in Japan in 1990 as Super Famicom, and in North America in 1990  Introduced advanced graphics and sounds and was able to run some of the first three- dimensional video games on consoles  Became the best-selling console of the 16-bit era despite its late start and fierce competition Super NES
    44. 44. 1993: Atari Jaguar  Marketed as the first 64- bit gaming system  Proved to be a commercial failure due to its small library of games and prompted Atari to leave the home video game console market  Last console from an American company until the 2001 introduction of the X-BoxAtari Jaguar
    45. 45. 1993: 3DO Interactive Multiplayer  Conceived by Electronic Arts founder Trip Hawkins  The 3DO Company licensed the technology for other manufactures, such as Panasonic, to produced  Despite a highly promoted launch (including being named Time magazine’s “1994 Product of the Year”) its high price of $699 was one of the factors that prevented it from achieving success 3DO Interactive Multiplayer
    46. 46. 1994: Sega Saturn  Released by Sega in 1994 in Japan and 1995 in North America  Sold 9.4 million units worldwide  Installed base was 6 million units in Japan but only 2 million in the US, losing market share to its competitorsSega Saturn
    47. 47. 1994: Sony PlayStation  Released by Sony in 1994 in Japan and 1995 in North America  First “computer entertainment platform” to ship 100 million units  The best selling console of all time from 1998 until 2006, when it was surpassed by the PlayStation 2  Its competitor Nintendo was considered stuck in the past with its use of cartridges and cap on mature-themed games Sony PlayStation
    48. 48. 1996: Nintendo 64  Released by Nintendo in 1996 in both Japan and North America  Suggested retail price was $199.99 at launch and sold 32.93 million units worldwide  Time Magazine named it “1996 Machine of the Year” despite having a limited texture cache and still relying on ROM cartridges Nintendo 64
    49. 49. 1997: GoldenEye (Nintendo)  Nintendo 64 title principally made by a team who had never coded a video game before  Directed by Martin Hollis of Rare and published by Nintendo  Multiplayer deathmatch mode considered one of the most enjoyable multiplayer experiences ever  Sold 8 million units worldwide, making it the third best selling Nintendo 64 game
    50. 50. 1998: Sega Dreamcast  Launched by Sega in Japan in 1998 and other territories in 1999  Intended as a comeback after previous efforts with the Sega Saturn failed  First console with a built-in modem and internet support for online play  Despite it being initially well received, sales plummeted when the PlayStation 2 was announced and the system was discontinued in 2001 Sega Dreamcast
    51. 51. 2000: PlayStation 2  Released by Sony in all territories in 2000  Featured DVD-base game disks with the ability to play DVD movies and audio CD’s  More than 3,800 game titles have been released for the PS2 since launch  It is the best-selling video game console of all time, selling over 150 million units, winning the Console Wars Sony PlayStation 2
    52. 52. 2001: Nintendo GameCube  Released by Nintendo in all territories in 2001  Nintendo’s first optical disc- based console using 80mm “mini-DVD”’s (but couldn’t play standard DVD’s or audio CD’s)  First Nintendo to support online gaming  Criticized for its color scheme and lack of features  Sold 22 million units worldwide before being discontinued in 2007 Nintendo GameCube
    53. 53. 2001: Xbox  Released by Microsoft in North America in 2001 and in other territories in 2002  Microsoft’s first entry in the console market, and first American console since the Atari Jaguar  In 2002, Microsoft launched Xbox live, a fee-based online gaming system Microsoft Xbox
    54. 54. 2005: Xbox 360  Microsoft unveiled the Xbox 360 on MTV in 2005  Major features include integrated Xbox Live service that allows players to compete online  Windows Media Center multimedia capabilities  Games rendered natively at HD resolutions Xbox 360
    55. 55. 2006: PlayStation 3  First released by Sony in 2006 in Japan and in other territories shortly thereafter  First console to use Blu- ray Disc as its major storage medium  Major features include its unified gaming services, the PlayStation Network PlayStation 3
    56. 56. 2006: Wii  First released by Nintendo in 2006  Wii Remote can be used as a handheld pointing device and detects movement in three dimensions  First console to offer Virtual Console service, with which select emulated games from past systems can be downloadedWii Remote in action
    57. 57. Nintendo’s Vision  Make games for an expanded audience  Devotion to entertainment business  Willingness to take risks Shigeru Miyamoto
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